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  • Translator: Ivana Korom Reviewer: Krystian Aparta

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: 易帆 余

  • There was a time when simple infections were deadly,

    曾經有段時間, 單純的感染也會致命,

  • but now, thanks to the wide availability of antibiotics,

    如今,因為抗生素的廣泛應用

  • this is merely a relic of the past.

    這已經成為歷史。

  • But actually, I should say "was,"

    但其實,我應該把「已經」 換成「曾經」,

  • because nowadays, we're using antibiotics so much

    因為,現今,抗生素用得太多了,

  • that the bacteria that cause these infections

    造成這些感染的細菌

  • are becoming resistant.

    變成有抗藥性。

  • And that should really scare the hell out of all of us.

    這應該令我們所有人感到恐懼才對。

  • If we do not change our behavior and wean ourselves off antibiotics,

    如果我們不改變我們的 行為並戒掉抗生素,

  • the UN predicts that by 2050,

    聯合國預測,到 2050 年,

  • antimicrobial resistance will become our single biggest killer.

    微生物抗藥性將會 變成最大的殺手。

  • So we must start to act.

    我們必須要開始採取行動。

  • But "where to begin" is an interesting question,

    但「從何著手」是個有趣的問題,

  • because we humans are not the only ones using antibiotics.

    因為並非只有人類在用抗生素。

  • Worldwide, 50 to 80 percent of all antibiotics are used by animals.

    全世界,所有的抗生素中 有 50%~80% 是用在動物身上。

  • Not all of these are critical for human health,

    這些並非都對人類 健康有重大影響,

  • but if we do not get it under control right now,

    但如果我們現在不做好控制,

  • we're looking at a very scary future for humans and animals alike.

    將會造成一個對人類 及動物而言都非常可怕的未來。

  • To begin, let's talk about how we ended up here.

    一開始,咱們先來談談 我們是怎麼走到這一步的。

  • The first large-scale use of antibiotics was in the early '50s of the last century.

    人類初期大規模使用抗生素 是在上世紀的五○年代初。

  • In the Western world, prosperity was increasing

    西方世界開始逐漸繁榮,

  • and people wanted to eat more animal protein.

    大家想要吃更多動物蛋白質。

  • When animals were sick, you could now treat them with antibiotics

    當動物生病時,可以用 抗生素來治療牠們,

  • so they did not die and kept growing.

    牠們就不會死亡且會持續生長。

  • But soon, it was discovered

    但,很快就發現,

  • that adding small and regular amounts of antibiotics to the feed

    在飼料中固定加入少量的抗生素

  • kept the animals healthy,

    能讓動物保持健康,成長更快速,

  • made them grow faster

    且讓牠們的飼料需求量變少。

  • and caused them to need less feed.

    這些抗生素很有用——

  • So these antibiotics worked well --

    真的太有用了。

  • really well, actually.

    隨著動物的產量增加,

  • And with increasing animal production,

    全世界的抗生素用量也暴增。

  • also antibiotic use skyrocketed worldwide.

    不幸的是,抗藥性也大大提升。

  • Unfortunately, so did antibiotic resistance.

    你的醫生會要你把整瓶 抗生素都吃完的原因,

  • The reason your doctor tells you to finish the entire bottle of antibiotics

    就是因為如果劑量不足, 無法殺死所有的細菌。

  • is if you shorten your dose, you will not kill all of the bugs.

    沒被殺死的那些就會發展出抗藥性。

  • And the ones that stick around build up the antibiotic resistance.

    這就像長期給動物使用少劑量抗生素 也會造成同樣的問題:

  • It's the same problem with giving animals small and regular doses of antibiotics:

    有些不好的細菌會被 殺死,但並非全部。

  • some bad bugs die but not all of them.

    當這樣的現象遍及整個產業,

  • Spread that across an entire industry,

    就可以理解我們在無意間創造出

  • and you can understand that we accidentally build up

    大量具抗生素抗藥性的細菌。

  • a large reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    但我實在不想告訴各位——

  • But I hate to break it to you --

    問題並不只是這樣。

  • the problem doesn't stop there.

    你們知道抗生素還會用在哪裡嗎?

  • You know who else takes antibiotics?

    你的貓小毛,你的狗小黃。

  • Fluffy, your cat, and Rover, your dog.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    寵物甚至是名列前茅的重度使用者,

  • Pets rank even amongst the heaviest users of all,

    且牠們所使用的抗生素 比人類健康所需的更厲害。

  • and they use antibiotics

    這個狀況再加上我們的生活 和毛小孩有多親密,

  • that are much more critical for human health.

    就可以理解

  • Combine this with how close we live with our companion animals

    從寵物身上感染到 具抗藥性的細菌風險有多大。

  • and you understand the risk

    但,來自農場動物的抗生素 抗藥性細菌會如何影響你?

  • of you picking up antibiotic-resistant bacteria from your own pet.

    讓我舉個有資料佐證的例子。

  • But how do these antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    這張圖是在歐洲 豬隻身上的沙門氏菌

  • in farm animals affect you?

    對不同類類抗生素的 耐藥性關係圖,

  • Let me give you an example we have, actually, data on.

    範圍從不到 1% 到 60% 那麼高都有。

  • The levels of antibiotic-resistant salmonella in pigs in Europe

    這就表示,在大部分的情況下,

  • against different types of antibiotics

    這種抗生素將不再對沙門氏菌有效。

  • range from less than a percent to as high [as] 60 percent.

    且在豬隻身上的抗藥性沙門氏菌量

  • Which means that in most cases,

    和在最終產品上的量有高度相關。

  • this antibiotic will not work anymore to kill this salmonella.

    不論是豬排、肋排, 或碎豬肉都一樣。

  • And there was a high correlation

    還好基本上所有的生肉、魚,

  • between antibiotic-resistant salmonella in the pig

    或蛋當中,通常只有不到 1%

  • and in the final product.

    含有沙門氏菌。

  • Whether that is pork chop,

    若沒有好好處理,就會帶來風險。

  • spare ribs or minced meat.

    在歐洲仍然有超過十萬件 人類染上沙門氏菌的案例,

  • Now, luckily, typically less than one percent

    在美國有超過一百萬件。

  • of all raw meat, fish or eggs

    在美國,造成每年兩萬三千人住院,

  • will contain salmonella.

    四百五十人死亡。

  • And this only poses a risk when not treated well.

    隨著具抗生素抗藥性的沙門氏菌 興起,死亡人數很可能會增加。

  • Still, there are over 100,000 human salmonella cases in the EU

    但這不僅和你自己怎麼吃有關。

  • and more than a million cases in the US.

    今年,有超過一百人感染到

  • In the US, leading to 23,000 hospitalizations

    具多種抗藥性的沙門氏菌,

  • and 450 people dead each year.

    原因是把豬耳朵當作給狗吃的零食。

  • With antibiotic-resistant salmonella on the rise,

    所以我們真的得要降低 在動物生產上的抗生素用量。

  • this death toll is likely to increase.

    好消息是這種節制已經開始了,

  • But it's not only about consuming yourself.

    歐盟是首個禁止在飼料中

  • This year, more than 100 people got infected

    添加小劑量抗生素的地區。

  • with a multidrug-resistant salmonella

    從 1999 年起,階段實施,

  • after feeding pig ears, as a treat, to their dog.

    各類核准的抗生素用量逐步減少,

  • So we really must cut back on antibiotic use in animal production.

    在 2006 年,達到全面禁止。

  • And luckily, this is starting to happen.

    唯一允許使用抗生素的情況,

  • The EU was the first region to ban

    是獸醫判定動物生病的情況。

  • putting antibiotics in low doses in the feed.

    聽起來很棒,對吧?問題解決。

  • From '99 on, in several steps,

    不,等等,沒這麼快。

  • the amount of different types of antibiotics allowed was reduced,

    減量計畫才剛開始,

  • and in 2006, a complete ban went into place.

    很快就發現,

  • Antibiotics were only allowed

    抗生素過去完美掩蓋了

  • when a veterinarian determined the animal was sick.

    農場很多不良的運作方式。

  • Sounds great, right?

    越來越多動物生病,

  • Problem solved.

    需要治療,且需要用……抗生素。

  • No, wait, not so fast.

    所以,總量並沒有下降,

  • As soon as the reduction program started,

    反而增加了。

  • it was very quickly discovered

    當然,這樣不行。

  • that antibiotics had been the perfect blanket

    但,很幸運,故事還沒結束。

  • to cover up a lot of bad farm practices.

    整個歐洲農業部門 展開了一項旅程,

  • More and more animals became sick

    我認為,人人都可以 向這段旅程學習。

  • and needed to be cured with ... antibiotics.

    也正是在這個時候, 我進入了這個領域。

  • So instead of the total amount going down,

    我加入了一間大型的 歐洲飼料混合商。

  • it actually increased.

    這家飼料混合商為農夫提供 餵養動物的完整飼料,

  • Surely, that was not the way to go.

    通常也會提供建議,

  • But luckily, that was not the end of the story.

    告訴他們如何飼養動物最好。

  • The whole European agricultural sector started on a journey,

    我非常有幹勁,和我一起 努力的人包括我的同事、

  • and I think it's a journey anybody can learn from.

    獸醫,當然,還有農夫,

  • This is also the time I personally entered the scene.

    我們一起想辦法不要用抗生素 但仍然能維持動物健康。

  • I joined a large European feed compounder.

    若要生產無抗生素的產品, 可以採取三項重要措施。

  • A feed compounder makes a total diet for a farmer to feed to his animals

    讓我帶大家一項一項看。

  • and often also provides the advice

    開端——這聽起來 非常顯而易見——

  • on how to raise the animals in the best way.

    我們要從衛生開始著手。

  • I was really motivated to work together with my colleagues,

    把馬棚和飲用水清理得更乾淨,

  • veterinarians and, of course, the farmers

    讓疾病難以入侵馬棚、 在馬棚中散佈。

  • to figure out how to keep the animals healthy and antibiotic-free.

    這點非常重要,

  • Now there are three major things that need to happen

    但我個人最感興趣的部分

  • for antibiotic-free production.

    是給動物更好的飼料,

  • Let me walk you through the playbook.

    更好的營養。

  • To start -- and it sounds very obvious --

    餵食營養均衡的餐食是很重要的。

  • that our hygiene is the place to start.

    可以這樣想:當你自己 沒有吃足夠的纖維,

  • Better cleaning of the stable and the drinking-water lines

    就會不舒服。

  • making it harder for the disease to come in and spread across the stable.

    你吃進去的食物,有一部分 並不會由你自己消化,

  • That's all very important,

    而是在你的大腸中的 細菌幫助發酵。

  • but the part I was personally most interested in

    所以你是在用你的飲食 餵養那些微生物。

  • was better feeding for the animals,

    一開始,大部分的年幼動物 吃的食物都是低纖維、

  • better nutrition.

    高澱粉和蛋白質,

  • Feeding a well-balanced diet is important.

    磨得很細,非常容易消化。

  • Think about it this way:

    就好像你自己在吃漢堡的麵包、

  • when you yourself do not eat enough fiber, you do not feel well.

    稻米、鬆餅,和蛋白質條。

  • Part of the food you consume is not digested by yourself

    我們把這種食物換成低蛋白質、

  • but fermented in your large intestine by bacteria.

    高纖維、更粗糙的飲食。

  • So you're feeding those microbes with part of your diet.

    就好像我們吃全穀、沙拉, 搭配肉類或豆類。

  • Initially, most young animals were fed low-fiber,

    這麼做便改變了動物 腸道中的菌種,

  • high-starch and protein,

    變成更有益的菌種,

  • very finely ground and highly digestible diets.

    減少病原體大量產生的機會。

  • Like being yourself on a diet of hamburger buns,

    你可能會驚奇地發現, 除了飲食的成分,

  • rice, waffles and protein bars.

    飲食結構也能發揮積極的影響。

  • We changed this to a lower-protein,

    僅僅是較粗糙的飲食,

  • higher-fiber, coarser type of diet.

    都會讓消化道更發達,

  • Like being on a diet of whole grains, salad with meat or beans.

    因而讓動物更健康。

  • This shifted the bacterial flora in the animals' guts

    但,最棒的部分是, 農夫也開始購買這樣的飼料。

  • to the more beneficial ones

    不像世界上的其它地區,

  • and reduced the chance that pathogens would flourish.

    西歐的農夫在採購上 仍然自己獨立判斷:

  • You might be surprised

    要向誰購買飼料 以及要把動物賣給誰。

  • but not only diet composition, also diet structure plays a role.

    所以,最終的出售,

  • Simply the fact that the same diet is coarser

    會反映出當地農夫的實際需求。

  • will lead to a better-developed digestive tract,

    比如,小豬飼料中的蛋白質含量,

  • and thus, a healthier animal.

    在對抗生素使用 保持高度警戒的國家,

  • But the best part was that farmers started to buy this actually, too.

    如德國和荷蘭的用量,

  • Unlike some other parts of the world,

    比慢跟上的國家(如英國)

  • Western European farmers mainly still make their independent buying decisions:

    要低 10%~15%。

  • who to buy the feed from and sell their animals to.

    但,就像改善衛生一樣, 改善營養也有幫助,

  • So what you're actually selling in the end

    可是無法讓你完全預防生病。

  • reflects the actual local need of these farmers.

    所以,還需要更多。

  • For example,

    這是我們求助微生物群的原因。

  • the protein content in piglet diets

    讓搭配飼料的水有更高的酸性,

  • in countries that are much more vigilant in reducing antibiotics,

    創造出的環境

  • like, for example, Germany and the Netherlands,

    會更有助於益生菌,

  • were already 10 to 15 percent lower

    且能抑制病原體。

  • than in a country like the UK, which was slower to pick this up.

    就像發酵的食物,不論是優格、

  • But, like with better hygiene, better nutrition helps

    泡菜,或薩拉米香腸,

  • but will not totally prevent you from becoming sick.

    它們腐壞的速度會比較慢。

  • So more is needed.

    有現代的技術,

  • And that's why we turned to the microbiome.

    比如以 DNA 檢測為基礎的技術,

  • Making the water with the feed more acidic

    我們可以發現,有更多 不同的微生物出現。

  • helps to create an environment

    這個生態系統叫做微生物群系,

  • that benefits the more beneficial bacteria

    它更複雜許多。

  • and inhibits the pathogens.

    事實證明,人體腸道中的微生物數量

  • Like fermented food,

    是體內組織細胞數量的八倍。

  • whether it's yogurt, sauerkraut or salami,

    對動物而言,其影響也旗鼓相當。

  • they'll all spoil less quickly, too.

    所以,如果我們希望 在動物生產中不要用到抗生素,

  • Now, with modern techniques,

    我們就得要讓動物更強健。

  • like the ones based on DNA testing,

    所以當疾病來襲時,

  • we can see that there are many more different microorganisms present.

    動物就具有更強的抵抗力。

  • And this ecosystem, which we call the microbiome,

    這種三管齊下,

  • is much more complex.

    涉及飼養環境、營養 以及微生物群的營養療法

  • Turns out there are about eight times more microorganisms in your gut

    才是正確的做法。

  • as tissue cells in your body.

    現在用含抗生素飼料 飼養動物的做法,

  • And for animals, the impact is no less.

    或激發使用抗生素的飼養方式, 對農夫而言是比較便宜的。

  • So if we want to work without antibiotics in animal production,

    但最終,對消費者而言, 差別只是幾個百分點。

  • we have to make the animals much more robust.

    對世界上中高收入的人口來說 還是負擔得起的。

  • So that when a disease strikes,

    當賭注是我們自己的健康

  • the animals are much more resilient.

    或我們所愛的人的健康時, 這個代價算非常低。

  • And this three-pronged nutribiosis approach

    所以,你認為如何? 我們要朝哪個方向走?

  • involving the host, nutrition and the microbiome

    我們是要讓抗生素抗藥性 變成最大的殺手,

  • is the way to do it.

    以巨大的財務 和個人健康為代價?

  • Now the practice of raising animals on an antibiotic-containing

    還是除了減少把抗生素 用在人類身上之外,

  • or antibiotic-use-provoking diet is a bit cheaper at farm level.

    也要真正去擁抱 無抗生素的動物產品?

  • But in the end, we are talking about a few percent at the consumer level.

    我很清楚要選哪一個。

  • That's actually quite affordable

    但,若要實現,

  • for the middle- and high-income part of the world population.

    我們必須設定減量目標,

  • And a very small price to pay

    並確保全世界都要朝這個目標進行。

  • when our own health or our loved ones' health is at stake.

    因為農夫彼此間會競爭。

  • So what do you think, what direction do we take?

    就國家的層級、貿易特區, 或全球市場來說,

  • Do we allow antimicrobial resistance to become our biggest killer,

    成本非常重要。

  • at huge financial and a special personal cost?

    此外,我們也得要實際點。

  • Or do we, besides reducing human antibiotic consumption,

    農夫必須要有可能

  • truly start embracing antibiotic-free animal production?

    投資更多在改善管理和飼料上,

  • For me, the choice is very obvious.

    才有可能達成這種減量目標。

  • But to make this happen,

    除了用法律來限制之外, 市場也可以盡一份心力,

  • we have to set reduction targets

    市場可以提供抗生素減量 或無抗生素的產品。

  • and make sure that they're followed all around the world.

    隨著消費者意識提升,

  • Because farmers compete with each other.

    這些市場力量也會越來越強。

  • And at a country level,

    我談的這一切 對我們似乎都很棒。

  • trading block or the global market,

    但對動物呢?

  • costs are very important.

    猜猜如何?牠們的生活也會改善。

  • And also, we have to be realistic.

    更健康、壓力更少、生活更快樂。

  • Farmers need to have the possibilities

    現在你們知道了。

  • to invest more in better management and better feed

    我們有知識,

  • in order to achieve this reduction.

    我們知道如何製造出不含抗生素

  • And besides legal limits, the market can play a role,

    或抗生素非常少的 肉類、蛋,和牛奶,

  • by offering antibiotic-reduced or antibiotic-free products.

    且我認為這個代價算小,

  • And with growing consumer awareness,

    因為我們可以避免在未來

  • these market forces will increase in power.

    細菌感染再次成為 我們最大的殺手。

  • Now everything I've been talking about seems to be great for us.

    謝謝。

  • But what about the animals?

    (掌聲)

  • Now, guess what, their lives get better, too.

  • Better health, less stress, happier life.

  • So now you know.

  • We have the knowledge how to produce meat, eggs and milk

  • without or with very low amounts of antibiotics,

  • and I'll argue it's a small price to pay

  • to avoid a future in which bacterial infections

  • again become our biggest killer.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Translator: Ivana Korom Reviewer: Krystian Aparta

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: 易帆 余

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B1 中級 中文 TED 抗生素 動物 抗藥性 農夫 細菌

無抗生素動物的緊迫性--Leon Marchal (The urgent case for antibiotic-free animals | Leon Marchal)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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