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  • For me they normally happen, these career crises,

    所謂的「職業危機」對我來說

  • often, actually, on a Sunday evening,

    通常發生在禮拜天晚上

  • just as the sun is starting to set,

    隨著夜幕開始低垂

  • and the gap between my hopes for myself,

    自我期盼和生活現實之間的鴻溝

  • and the reality of my life, start to diverge so painfully

    也令人痛苦的開始拉扯擴大

  • that I normally end up weeping into a pillow.

    以至於最後總是以哭泣進入夢鄉,結束了我的週末夜

  • I'm mentioning all this,

    提到這些,

  • I'm mentioning all this because I think this is not merely a personal problem.

    無非因為,這不僅只是個人問題

  • You may think I'm wrong in this,

    或許你不是很同意

  • but I think that we live in an age when our lives are regularly

    我認為,生活在這個世代,你我的人生進行式,常常

  • punctuated by career crises,

    被這些職場危機所中斷

  • by moments when what we thought we knew,

    往往就在我們自以為知道

  • about our lives, about our careers,

    人生為何,何為生涯的時候

  • comes into contact with a threatening sort of reality.

    不期然卻遇上了衝擊 - 現實的威脅.

  • It's perhaps easier now than ever before to make a good living.

    現在要過好日子,是前所未見的簡單

  • It's perhaps harder than ever before

    但能保有一顆平靜心,又能免於生涯焦慮

  • to stay calm, to be free of career anxiety.

    也是史上空前的困難

  • I want to look now, if I may,

    如果能夠的話,我想探索的是

  • at some of the reasons why

    某些問題的答案,譬如:

  • we might be feeling anxiety about our careers.

    是什麼讓我們對生涯感到焦慮

  • Why we might be victims of these career crises,

    為什麼我們成為職場危機的犧牲品

  • as we're weeping softly into our pillows.

    為什麼淪落到以啜泣進入枕頭鄉,週末夜畫上句點?

  • One of the reasons why we might be suffering

    折磨我們的其中一個原因,

  • is that we are surrounded by snobs.

    是因為,身邊到處都是勢利鬼.

  • In a way, I've got some bad news,

    現在我要跟各位說個壞消息

  • particularly to anybody who's come to Oxford from abroad.

    尤其對從國外來訪牛津的各位來說

  • There is a real problem with snobbery.

    勢利真是大問題

  • Because sometimes people from outside the U.K.

    因為在英國以外的人往往都以為

  • imagine that snobbery is a distinctively U.K. phenomenon

    勢利是英國的特產

  • fixated on country houses and titles.

    所聯想到的是鄉間大宅以及爵位頭銜

  • The bad news is that's not true.

    壞消息是,你錯了

  • Snobbery is a global phenomenon.

    勢利無所不在

  • We are a global organization. This is a global phenomenon.

    這是個全球化組織.勢利問題是一個全球現象

  • It exists. What is a snob?

    沒錯,果真如此.但何謂勢利呢?

  • A snob is anybody who takes a small part of you

    勢利就是:任何人,切割了一小部分的你

  • and uses that to come to a complete vision of who you are.

    並且用它取代了「你是誰」的意義

  • That is snobbery.

    這,就是勢利.

  • The dominant kind of snobbery

    現今最主要的勢利

  • that exists nowadays is job snobbery.

    叫做職業勢利

  • You encounter it within minutes at a party,

    去任何宴會,五分鐘之內就會遇見

  • when you get asked that famous iconic question

    這個21世紀初,最具代表性的

  • of the early 21st century, "What do you do?"

    經典問題:「你在哪裡上班?」

  • And according to how you answer that question,

    根據你對該問題的回答

  • people are either incredibly delighted to see you,

    人們要不就是立刻對認識你感到無比的歡愉

  • or look at their watch and make their excuses.

    或者是他們只看一下手錶,就立刻想到一個結束談話的藉口

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, the opposite of a snob is your mother.

    再來,勢利鬼的相反呢,就是您的母親

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Not necessarily your mother, or indeed mine,

    並不一定真的是您的母親,或我的母親

  • but, as it were, the ideal mother,

    而是一種理想定義下的完美母親

  • somebody who doesn't care about your achievements.

    她,完全不在乎你的成就高低

  • But unfortunately, most people are not our mothers.

    但不幸的是,不是每個人都是您母親

  • Most people make a strict correlation between how much time,

    大多數人在「該花多少時間和多少...愛」這件事情上,有嚴格定規

  • and if you like, love -- not romantic love,

    我說的不是愛情電影裡那種浪漫的愛

  • though that may be something --

    雖然那也包括在內

  • but love in general, respect,

    但我要說的是比較普通,一般性質的,愛

  • they are willing to accord us, that will be strictly defined

    人們願意分配多少時間和愛給我們,那是嚴格的按照著

  • by our position in the social hierarchy.

    我們所擁有的社會階級來定義的

  • And that's a lot of the reason why we care so much about our careers

    那就是為什麼我們對工作職業那麼在乎的很重要原因

  • and indeed start caring so much about material goods.

    並且我們非常關切物質上的財富

  • You know, we're often told that we live in very materialistic times,

    大家常說我們生活在一個唯物化的時代

  • that we're all greedy people.

    說我們全是貪婪一族

  • I don't think we are particularly materialistic.

    我不認為我們是特別唯物的世代

  • I think we live in a society

    而我想,是我們所存在的這個社會

  • which has simply pegged certain emotional rewards

    它把一些情感的獎勵

  • to the acquisition of material goods.

    掛鉤在物質的取得上

  • It's not the material goods we want. It's the rewards we want.

    我們要的不是物質財富.其實我們要的是那份掛在上面的獎勵.

  • And that's a new way of looking at luxury goods.

    這使我們對奢侈財有了新的觀點

  • The next time you see somebody driving a Ferrari

    下次看到開法拉利跑車的人

  • don't think, "This is somebody who is greedy."

    不要想:「這傢伙一定是貪心鬼」

  • Think, "This is somebody who is incredibly vulnerable and in need of love."

    你該這麼想:「喔,這個人脆弱到不行,他需要很多愛」

  • In other words -- (Laughter)

    換句話說 -- (笑聲)

  • feel sympathy, rather than contempt.

    要對他有同情心,不要鄙視他

  • There are other reasons --

    還有其他原因 --

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • there are other reasons why it's perhaps harder now

    還有一些其他原因,使我們如今比過往更難

  • to feel calm than ever before.

    保有平靜安穩的心

  • One of these, and it's paradoxical because it's linked to something that's rather nice,

    其中一項是-而這相當矛盾,因為這個原因和一種頗為美好的東西連結著

  • is the hope we all have for our careers.

    那是對職業的期盼

  • Never before have expectations been so high

    從來沒有一個時代像現在,人對工作職業能有

  • about what human beings can achieve with their lifespan.

    如此高的期待,一生中能成就這麼多了不起的事情

  • We're told, from many sources, that anyone can achieve anything.

    許多訊息都灌輸:任何人都能成就任何事

  • We've done away with the caste system.

    我們早已擺脫世襲制或種姓制

  • We are now in a system where anyone can rise

    最新的制度是人人都有出頭天

  • to any position they please.

    只要你喜歡,沒什麼能限制你

  • And it's a beautiful idea.

    這想法棒透了

  • Along with that is a kind of spirit of equality. We're all basically equal.

    伴隨而來的是平等精神.人都生而平等

  • There are no strictly defined

    沒有界線限定

  • kind of hierarchies.

    這裡沒有任何的階級

  • There is one really big problem with this,

    這裡只有一個問題

  • and that problem is envy.

    唯一的問題,就是嫉妒

  • Envy, it's a real taboo to mention envy,

    嫉妒真是個禁忌話題,大家都避而不談

  • but if there is one dominant emotion in modern society, that is envy.

    但如果說我們的社會有哪個情感問題非常氾濫,非嫉妒莫數

  • And it's linked to the spirit of equality. Let me explain.

    而它還與平等精神相關.容我解釋.

  • I think it would be very unusual for anyone here, or anyone watching,

    我想現場在座的各位和觀賞影片的各位,應該都很難...

  • to be envious of the Queen of England.

    去嫉妒到-英國女王吧

  • Even though she is much richer than any of you are.

    儘管她比我們大多數人都富有

  • And she's got a very large house.

    並且她家房子真的很大

  • The reason why we don't envy her is because she's too weird.

    我們卻不嫉妒她,因為她真的太怪了.

  • She's simply too strange.

    她真的就是怪

  • We can't relate to her. She speaks in a funny way.

    我們和她扯不上半點關連性.她講話就是那麼令人想笑.

  • She comes from an odd place.

    她又來自一個很怪異的地方

  • So we can't relate to her. And when you can't relate to somebody, you don't envy them.

    我們和她沒有共通點.而當你和某人之間不具任何關聯性,你就不會忌妒他

  • The closer two people are, in age, in background,

    兩個在年齡,在背景上愈接近的人

  • in the process of identification, the more there is a danger of envy --

    就愈可能發生忌妒問題

  • which is incidentally why none of you should ever go to a school reunion --

    提醒你,為什麼大家最好千萬別去參加什麼「同學會」啦

  • because there is no stronger reference point

    因為在學校裡和你一起鬼混的那班同學

  • than people one was at school with.

    你們之間所共有的參照點實在太強了

  • But the problem, generally, of modern society, is that it turns the whole world

    問題是,現代社會卻早已經把全世界都搞成一間超級大的學校了,

  • into a school. Everybody is wearing jeans, everybody is the same.

    每個人都穿牛仔褲,每個人都一樣

  • And yet, they're not.

    其實,每個人又怎可能都相同

  • So there is a spirit of equality, combined with deep inequalities.

    所以這種平等精神,是在深處參混了許多不平等的

  • Which makes for a very -- can make for a very stressful situation.

    於是造成了 -- 或是說「將可能會造成」-- 一種非常緊張的狀態

  • It's probably as unlikely that you would nowadays

    今天你要成為一位像比爾蓋茲ㄧ樣有錢的大人物

  • become as rich and famous as Bill Gates,

    幾乎是不可能

  • as it was unlikely in the 17th century

    即便有此可能,就像你活在17世紀

  • that you would accede to the ranks of the French aristocracy.

    生而貴族,繼承著法國貴族身份一樣的,非常不可能

  • But the point is, it doesn't feel that way.

    但重點是,感覺起來卻不是那麼回事呀

  • It's made to feel, by magazines and other media outlets,

    無論雜誌或各種媒體,都一再的讓你感覺到

  • that if you've got energy, a few bright ideas about technology,

    只要你精力充沛,對科技有一些絕佳的創意點子

  • a garage, you too could start a major thing.

    再配上個車庫,你也可以白手起家搞出一番大事業

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And the consequences of this problem make themselves felt in bookshops.

    這個問題的後續結果在書店裡鮮活的呈現出來,人們也能感受

  • When you go to a large bookshop and look at the self-help sections,

    當你走進大書店走向自我提昇/心理區

  • as I sometimes do,

    這是我自己偶爾也會去逛的那一區

  • if you analyze self-help books that are produced

    如果你分析一下自我/心理架上的那些書

  • in the world today, there are basically two kinds.

    基本上是分為兩類

  • The first kind tells you, "You can do it! You can make it! Anything is possible!"

    第一種跟你說,「你能!你一定會成功!沒有不可能!」

  • And the other kind tells you how to cope

    另一種則敎你的是如何適應,應付一些問題

  • with what we politely call "low self-esteem,"

    一些我們禮貌性的稱之為「自我認知低落」的問題

  • or impolitely call "feeling very bad about yourself."

    或直接講,就是「覺得自己很爛」的問題

  • There is a real correlationship,

    這裡有一種真實的互動性,

  • a real correlation between a society that tells people that they can do anything

    在社會中有一種真實的互動關係存在,他告訴人們你潛力無限

  • and the existence of low self-esteem.

    同時也說你有個低落的自我認知

  • So that's another way in which something that is quite positive

    以致於從某種角度來說,明明是正面的某樣事物

  • can have a nasty kickback.

    結果帶來負面的,反效果

  • There is another reason why we might be feeling more anxious,

    還有一個原因令我們感到焦慮

  • about our careers, about our status in the world today, than ever before.

    在工作上,在社會地位上感到焦慮.並且是當今世代特有,前所未見的

  • And it is, again, linked to something nice,

    而再一次,又是和一些美好的事物相關連

  • and that nice thing is called meritocracy.

    這樣好東西,叫做功績主義

  • Everybody, all politicians on Left and Right,

    政治上無論左派右派

  • agree that meritocracy is a great thing,

    都同意功績-論功行賞-是件好事情

  • and we should all be trying to make our societies really, really meritocratic.

    我們應該非常非常努力,讓我們的社會按照功績原理運作

  • In other words, what is a meritocratic society?

    換句話說,什麼是功績社會呢?

  • A meritocratic society is one in which

    功績社會就是呢

  • if you've got talent and energy and skill,

    只要你有天份有動力有技能

  • you will get to the top. Nothing should hold you back.

    你就會爬到最高階級,沒什麼能擋你的路

  • It's a beautiful idea. The problem is

    這想法好得無比,但問題是:

  • if you really believe in a society

    當你真的相信一個社會之中

  • where those who merit to get to the top, get to the top,

    所有有功勞的人都爬上了最頂的地位

  • you'll also, by implication, and in a far more nasty way,

    同時你也就默認,並且是以一種相當醜惡的方式相信著

  • believe in a society where those who deserve to get to the bottom

    那些在我們社會中處在最底端的人,是活該

  • also get to the bottom and stay there.

    去到那最低下處,並且,活該就讓他們繼續在那兒待著吧.

  • In other words, your position in life comes to seem not accidental,

    也就是說,你看待生命中地位如何,並非偶然而已

  • but merited and deserved.

    而是功績和活該

  • And that makes failure seem much more crushing.

    這為失敗更加增添了支離破碎的面目

  • You know, in the Middle Ages, in England,

    我們都知道,在中世紀英國

  • when you met a very poor person,

    當你碰上了一個非常窮的人

  • that person would be described as an "unfortunate" --

    你會形容他是「不幸」

  • literally, somebody who had not been blessed by fortune, an unfortunate.

    字面意義是,「財富/幸運」沒有眷顧到這個人,他是個「無財富/不幸」的人

  • Nowadays, particularly in the United States,

    現在,特別是在美國

  • if you meet someone at the bottom of society,

    如果你碰到某個來自社會低階級的人

  • they may unkindly be described as a "loser."

    他們被很惡劣的稱為「失敗者」

  • There is a real difference between an unfortunate and a loser,

    其實在不幸者和失敗者之間,是真的有所差異的

  • and that shows 400 years of evolution in society

    這顯示出我們的社會經歷了400年進化後

  • and our belief in who is responsible for our lives.

    對於相信「誰必須對自己的人生負責」的信仰變化

  • It's no longer the gods, it's us. We're in the driving seat.

    不再是神主導,而是自己.那位坐在駕駛座上的人,正是我們自己.