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  • For me they normally happen, these career crises,

    所謂的「職業危機」對我來說

  • often, actually, on a Sunday evening,

    通常發生在禮拜天晚上

  • just as the sun is starting to set,

    隨著夜幕開始低垂

  • and the gap between my hopes for myself,

    自我期盼和生活現實之間的鴻溝

  • and the reality of my life, start to diverge so painfully

    也令人痛苦的開始拉扯擴大

  • that I normally end up weeping into a pillow.

    以至於最後總是以哭泣進入夢鄉,結束了我的週末夜

  • I'm mentioning all this,

    提到這些,

  • I'm mentioning all this because I think this is not merely a personal problem.

    無非因為,這不僅只是個人問題

  • You may think I'm wrong in this,

    或許你不是很同意

  • but I think that we live in an age when our lives are regularly

    我認為,生活在這個世代,你我的人生進行式,常常

  • punctuated by career crises,

    被這些職場危機所中斷

  • by moments when what we thought we knew,

    往往就在我們自以為知道

  • about our lives, about our careers,

    人生為何,何為生涯的時候

  • comes into contact with a threatening sort of reality.

    不期然卻遇上了衝擊 - 現實的威脅.

  • It's perhaps easier now than ever before to make a good living.

    現在要過好日子,是前所未見的簡單

  • It's perhaps harder than ever before

    但能保有一顆平靜心,又能免於生涯焦慮

  • to stay calm, to be free of career anxiety.

    也是史上空前的困難

  • I want to look now, if I may,

    如果能夠的話,我想探索的是

  • at some of the reasons why

    某些問題的答案,譬如:

  • we might be feeling anxiety about our careers.

    是什麼讓我們對生涯感到焦慮

  • Why we might be victims of these career crises,

    為什麼我們成為職場危機的犧牲品

  • as we're weeping softly into our pillows.

    為什麼淪落到以啜泣進入枕頭鄉,週末夜畫上句點?

  • One of the reasons why we might be suffering

    折磨我們的其中一個原因,

  • is that we are surrounded by snobs.

    是因為,身邊到處都是勢利鬼.

  • In a way, I've got some bad news,

    現在我要跟各位說個壞消息

  • particularly to anybody who's come to Oxford from abroad.

    尤其對從國外來訪牛津的各位來說

  • There is a real problem with snobbery.

    勢利真是大問題

  • Because sometimes people from outside the U.K.

    因為在英國以外的人往往都以為

  • imagine that snobbery is a distinctively U.K. phenomenon

    勢利是英國的特產

  • fixated on country houses and titles.

    所聯想到的是鄉間大宅以及爵位頭銜

  • The bad news is that's not true.

    壞消息是,你錯了

  • Snobbery is a global phenomenon.

    勢利無所不在

  • We are a global organization. This is a global phenomenon.

    這是個全球化組織.勢利問題是一個全球現象

  • It exists. What is a snob?

    沒錯,果真如此.但何謂勢利呢?

  • A snob is anybody who takes a small part of you

    勢利就是:任何人,切割了一小部分的你

  • and uses that to come to a complete vision of who you are.

    並且用它取代了「你是誰」的意義

  • That is snobbery.

    這,就是勢利.

  • The dominant kind of snobbery

    現今最主要的勢利

  • that exists nowadays is job snobbery.

    叫做職業勢利

  • You encounter it within minutes at a party,

    去任何宴會,五分鐘之內就會遇見

  • when you get asked that famous iconic question

    這個21世紀初,最具代表性的

  • of the early 21st century, "What do you do?"

    經典問題:「你在哪裡上班?」

  • And according to how you answer that question,

    根據你對該問題的回答

  • people are either incredibly delighted to see you,

    人們要不就是立刻對認識你感到無比的歡愉

  • or look at their watch and make their excuses.

    或者是他們只看一下手錶,就立刻想到一個結束談話的藉口

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, the opposite of a snob is your mother.

    再來,勢利鬼的相反呢,就是您的母親

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Not necessarily your mother, or indeed mine,

    並不一定真的是您的母親,或我的母親

  • but, as it were, the ideal mother,

    而是一種理想定義下的完美母親

  • somebody who doesn't care about your achievements.

    她,完全不在乎你的成就高低

  • But unfortunately, most people are not our mothers.

    但不幸的是,不是每個人都是您母親

  • Most people make a strict correlation between how much time,

    大多數人在「該花多少時間和多少...愛」這件事情上,有嚴格定規

  • and if you like, love -- not romantic love,

    我說的不是愛情電影裡那種浪漫的愛

  • though that may be something --

    雖然那也包括在內

  • but love in general, respect,

    但我要說的是比較普通,一般性質的,愛

  • they are willing to accord us, that will be strictly defined

    人們願意分配多少時間和愛給我們,那是嚴格的按照著

  • by our position in the social hierarchy.

    我們所擁有的社會階級來定義的

  • And that's a lot of the reason why we care so much about our careers

    那就是為什麼我們對工作職業那麼在乎的很重要原因

  • and indeed start caring so much about material goods.

    並且我們非常關切物質上的財富

  • You know, we're often told that we live in very materialistic times,

    大家常說我們生活在一個唯物化的時代

  • that we're all greedy people.

    說我們全是貪婪一族

  • I don't think we are particularly materialistic.

    我不認為我們是特別唯物的世代

  • I think we live in a society

    而我想,是我們所存在的這個社會

  • which has simply pegged certain emotional rewards

    它把一些情感的獎勵

  • to the acquisition of material goods.

    掛鉤在物質的取得上

  • It's not the material goods we want. It's the rewards we want.

    我們要的不是物質財富.其實我們要的是那份掛在上面的獎勵.

  • And that's a new way of looking at luxury goods.

    這使我們對奢侈財有了新的觀點

  • The next time you see somebody driving a Ferrari

    下次看到開法拉利跑車的人

  • don't think, "This is somebody who is greedy."

    不要想:「這傢伙一定是貪心鬼」

  • Think, "This is somebody who is incredibly vulnerable and in need of love."

    你該這麼想:「喔,這個人脆弱到不行,他需要很多愛」

  • In other words -- (Laughter)

    換句話說 -- (笑聲)

  • feel sympathy, rather than contempt.

    要對他有同情心,不要鄙視他

  • There are other reasons --

    還有其他原因 --

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • there are other reasons why it's perhaps harder now

    還有一些其他原因,使我們如今比過往更難

  • to feel calm than ever before.

    保有平靜安穩的心

  • One of these, and it's paradoxical because it's linked to something that's rather nice,

    其中一項是-而這相當矛盾,因為這個原因和一種頗為美好的東西連結著

  • is the hope we all have for our careers.

    那是對職業的期盼

  • Never before have expectations been so high

    從來沒有一個時代像現在,人對工作職業能有

  • about what human beings can achieve with their lifespan.

    如此高的期待,一生中能成就這麼多了不起的事情

  • We're told, from many sources, that anyone can achieve anything.

    許多訊息都灌輸:任何人都能成就任何事

  • We've done away with the caste system.

    我們早已擺脫世襲制或種姓制

  • We are now in a system where anyone can rise

    最新的制度是人人都有出頭天

  • to any position they please.

    只要你喜歡,沒什麼能限制你

  • And it's a beautiful idea.

    這想法棒透了

  • Along with that is a kind of spirit of equality. We're all basically equal.

    伴隨而來的是平等精神.人都生而平等

  • There are no strictly defined

    沒有界線限定

  • kind of hierarchies.

    這裡沒有任何的階級

  • There is one really big problem with this,

    這裡只有一個問題

  • and that problem is envy.

    唯一的問題,就是嫉妒

  • Envy, it's a real taboo to mention envy,

    嫉妒真是個禁忌話題,大家都避而不談

  • but if there is one dominant emotion in modern society, that is envy.

    但如果說我們的社會有哪個情感問題非常氾濫,非嫉妒莫數

  • And it's linked to the spirit of equality. Let me explain.

    而它還與平等精神相關.容我解釋.

  • I think it would be very unusual for anyone here, or anyone watching,

    我想現場在座的各位和觀賞影片的各位,應該都很難...

  • to be envious of the Queen of England.

    去嫉妒到-英國女王吧

  • Even though she is much richer than any of you are.

    儘管她比我們大多數人都富有

  • And she's got a very large house.

    並且她家房子真的很大

  • The reason why we don't envy her is because she's too weird.

    我們卻不嫉妒她,因為她真的太怪了.

  • She's simply too strange.

    她真的就是怪

  • We can't relate to her. She speaks in a funny way.

    我們和她扯不上半點關連性.她講話就是那麼令人想笑.

  • She comes from an odd place.

    她又來自一個很怪異的地方

  • So we can't relate to her. And when you can't relate to somebody, you don't envy them.

    我們和她沒有共通點.而當你和某人之間不具任何關聯性,你就不會忌妒他

  • The closer two people are, in age, in background,

    兩個在年齡,在背景上愈接近的人

  • in the process of identification, the more there is a danger of envy --

    就愈可能發生忌妒問題

  • which is incidentally why none of you should ever go to a school reunion --

    提醒你,為什麼大家最好千萬別去參加什麼「同學會」啦

  • because there is no stronger reference point

    因為在學校裡和你一起鬼混的那班同學

  • than people one was at school with.

    你們之間所共有的參照點實在太強了

  • But the problem, generally, of modern society, is that it turns the whole world

    問題是,現代社會卻早已經把全世界都搞成一間超級大的學校了,

  • into a school. Everybody is wearing jeans, everybody is the same.

    每個人都穿牛仔褲,每個人都一樣

  • And yet, they're not.

    其實,每個人又怎可能都相同

  • So there is a spirit of equality, combined with deep inequalities.

    所以這種平等精神,是在深處參混了許多不平等的

  • Which makes for a very -- can make for a very stressful situation.

    於是造成了 -- 或是說「將可能會造成」-- 一種非常緊張的狀態

  • It's probably as unlikely that you would nowadays

    今天你要成為一位像比爾蓋茲ㄧ樣有錢的大人物

  • become as rich and famous as Bill Gates,

    幾乎是不可能

  • as it was unlikely in the 17th century

    即便有此可能,就像你活在17世紀

  • that you would accede to the ranks of the French aristocracy.

    生而貴族,繼承著法國貴族身份一樣的,非常不可能

  • But the point is, it doesn't feel that way.

    但重點是,感覺起來卻不是那麼回事呀

  • It's made to feel, by magazines and other media outlets,

    無論雜誌或各種媒體,都一再的讓你感覺到

  • that if you've got energy, a few bright ideas about technology,

    只要你精力充沛,對科技有一些絕佳的創意點子

  • a garage, you too could start a major thing.

    再配上個車庫,你也可以白手起家搞出一番大事業

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And the consequences of this problem make themselves felt in bookshops.

    這個問題的後續結果在書店裡鮮活的呈現出來,人們也能感受

  • When you go to a large bookshop and look at the self-help sections,

    當你走進大書店走向自我提昇/心理區

  • as I sometimes do,

    這是我自己偶爾也會去逛的那一區

  • if you analyze self-help books that are produced

    如果你分析一下自我/心理架上的那些書

  • in the world today, there are basically two kinds.

    基本上是分為兩類

  • The first kind tells you, "You can do it! You can make it! Anything is possible!"

    第一種跟你說,「你能!你一定會成功!沒有不可能!」

  • And the other kind tells you how to cope

    另一種則敎你的是如何適應,應付一些問題

  • with what we politely call "low self-esteem,"

    一些我們禮貌性的稱之為「自我認知低落」的問題

  • or impolitely call "feeling very bad about yourself."

    或直接講,就是「覺得自己很爛」的問題

  • There is a real correlationship,

    這裡有一種真實的互動性,

  • a real correlation between a society that tells people that they can do anything

    在社會中有一種真實的互動關係存在,他告訴人們你潛力無限

  • and the existence of low self-esteem.

    同時也說你有個低落的自我認知

  • So that's another way in which something that is quite positive

    以致於從某種角度來說,明明是正面的某樣事物

  • can have a nasty kickback.

    結果帶來負面的,反效果

  • There is another reason why we might be feeling more anxious,

    還有一個原因令我們感到焦慮

  • about our careers, about our status in the world today, than ever before.

    在工作上,在社會地位上感到焦慮.並且是當今世代特有,前所未見的

  • And it is, again, linked to something nice,

    而再一次,又是和一些美好的事物相關連

  • and that nice thing is called meritocracy.

    這樣好東西,叫做功績主義

  • Everybody, all politicians on Left and Right,

    政治上無論左派右派

  • agree that meritocracy is a great thing,

    都同意功績-論功行賞-是件好事情

  • and we should all be trying to make our societies really, really meritocratic.

    我們應該非常非常努力,讓我們的社會按照功績原理運作

  • In other words, what is a meritocratic society?

    換句話說,什麼是功績社會呢?

  • A meritocratic society is one in which

    功績社會就是呢

  • if you've got talent and energy and skill,

    只要你有天份有動力有技能

  • you will get to the top. Nothing should hold you back.

    你就會爬到最高階級,沒什麼能擋你的路

  • It's a beautiful idea. The problem is

    這想法好得無比,但問題是:

  • if you really believe in a society

    當你真的相信一個社會之中

  • where those who merit to get to the top, get to the top,

    所有有功勞的人都爬上了最頂的地位

  • you'll also, by implication, and in a far more nasty way,

    同時你也就默認,並且是以一種相當醜惡的方式相信著

  • believe in a society where those who deserve to get to the bottom

    那些在我們社會中處在最底端的人,是活該

  • also get to the bottom and stay there.

    去到那最低下處,並且,活該就讓他們繼續在那兒待著吧.

  • In other words, your position in life comes to seem not accidental,

    也就是說,你看待生命中地位如何,並非偶然而已

  • but merited and deserved.

    而是功績和活該

  • And that makes failure seem much more crushing.

    這為失敗更加增添了支離破碎的面目

  • You know, in the Middle Ages, in England,

    我們都知道,在中世紀英國

  • when you met a very poor person,

    當你碰上了一個非常窮的人

  • that person would be described as an "unfortunate" --

    你會形容他是「不幸」

  • literally, somebody who had not been blessed by fortune, an unfortunate.

    字面意義是,「財富/幸運」沒有眷顧到這個人,他是個「無財富/不幸」的人

  • Nowadays, particularly in the United States,

    現在,特別是在美國

  • if you meet someone at the bottom of society,

    如果你碰到某個來自社會低階級的人

  • they may unkindly be described as a "loser."

    他們被很惡劣的稱為「失敗者」

  • There is a real difference between an unfortunate and a loser,

    其實在不幸者和失敗者之間,是真的有所差異的

  • and that shows 400 years of evolution in society

    這顯示出我們的社會經歷了400年進化後

  • and our belief in who is responsible for our lives.

    對於相信「誰必須對自己的人生負責」的信仰變化

  • It's no longer the gods, it's us. We're in the driving seat.

    不再是神主導,而是自己.那位坐在駕駛座上的人,正是我們自己.

  • That's exhilarating if you're doing well,

    若得心應手,一帆風順,想當然是心曠神怡.

  • and very crushing if you're not.

    反之,一敗不起.

  • It leads, in the worst cases, in the analysis of a sociologist

    最糟糕的狀況,以社會學家分析的結果,是可能導致

  • like Emil Durkheim, it leads to increased rates of suicide.

    如Emil Durkheim的研究指出,導致自殺比例的攀升

  • There are more suicides in developed individualistic countries

    在已開發,強調個人主義的國家中的自殺案例

  • than in any other part of the world.

    明顯較世界其他地區多許多

  • And some of the reason for that is that people take what happens

    其中的一些原因是人把發生在自己身上的所有事情

  • to them extremely personally.

    極端的,完全歸咎於自己

  • They own their success. But they also own their failure.

    他們擁有著自己完全的成功.但同時也擁有完全的失敗.

  • Is there any relief from some of these pressures

    有沒有能從這些壓力中得到釋放的方法呢?

  • that I've just been outlining?

    在我敘述了這許多壓力之後?

  • I think there is. I just want to turn to a few of them.

    我想是有的.我要針對其中幾個講一下.

  • Let's take meritocracy.

    以功績主義來說

  • This idea that everybody deserves to get where they get to,

    我認為活該有些人該去到比較糟糕的地位上的這種心態

  • I think it's a crazy idea, completely crazy.

    這是個瘋狂的想法,完全瘋狂

  • I will support any politician of Left and Right,

    無論左派右派,我支持任何政治人物

  • with any halfway decent meritocratic idea.

    只要大方向上走在功績主義上,我都支持

  • I am a meritocrat in that sense.

    我是不折不扣的功績主義者,就這麼簡單

  • But I think it's insane to believe that we will ever

    但我們要是相信人可以搞出一個全然功績,不偏不倚的社會

  • make a society that is genuinely meritocratic. It's an impossible dream.

    這也是個瘋狂的想法,完全不可能的夢想.

  • The idea that we will make a society

    以為我們的社會能夠

  • where literally everybody is graded,

    正確無誤的給每個人批等級給分數

  • the good at the top, and the bad at the bottom,

    好的都在最上面,不好的都在最下面

  • and it's exactly done as it should be, is impossible.

    並且完全按照應有的功能運作,如此社會和如此概念,是不可能發生的.

  • There are simply too many random factors:

    這當中有太多的隨機變數

  • accidents, accidents of birth,

    譬如意外,意外的出生

  • accidents of things dropping on people's heads, illnesses, etc.

    東西砸在某人頭上的意外,疾病,等等

  • We will never get to grade them,

    是我們所根本無從評分起

  • never get to grade people as they should.

    絕不要按照看來應該如何的原則給人們評分

  • I'm drawn to a lovely quote by St. Augustine in "The City of God,"

    聖奧古斯丁在「上帝之城」書中有一句話深得我心

  • where he says, "It's a sin to judge any man by his post."

    他說,「按地位來論斷人是一種罪」

  • In modern English that would mean

    用現代英語說,這句話的意思是

  • it's a sin to come to any view of who you should talk to

    罪,就是,你按照要交談的對方在名片上

  • dependent on their business card.

    所印的頭銜對他做出評價,這是罪

  • It's not the post that should count.

    地位根本不能算數

  • According to St. Augustine,

    按聖奧古斯丁說的,

  • it's only God who can really put everybody in their place.

    人去往何處,這真是上帝才能決定的

  • And he's going to do that on the Day of Judgment

    祂會在末日的審判日做這個決定

  • with angels and trumpets, and the skies will open.

    有天使環繞及號角聲響,天也會打開

  • Insane idea, if you're a secularist person, like me.

    如果你是世俗之人,和我一樣,這想法很瘋

  • But something very valuable in that idea, nevertheless.

    但其中卻有非常價值

  • In other words, hold your horses when you're coming to judge people.

    換言之,在論斷他人以前,且慢且慢

  • You don't necessarily know what someone's true value is.

    因你根本不明白某某人真正的價值

  • That is an unknown part of them.

    那是他們所不為人知的部份

  • And we shouldn't behave as though it is known.

    我們便不能以全知的方式來看待他

  • There is another source of solace and comfort for all this.

    另一個慰藉之源,我要講到

  • When we think about failing in life, when we think about failure,

    當我們想到生命中的失敗,想到了失敗,

  • one of the reasons why we fear failing is not just

    其實挫敗令我們懼怕並非僅限於

  • a loss of income, a loss of status.

    失去收入,失去地位

  • What we fear is the judgment and ridicule of others. And it exists.

    我們怕的是批評論斷和嘲笑.這些都是真的.

  • You know, the number one organ of ridicule

    我們都知道,嘲弄揶揄的頭號工具

  • nowadays, is the newspaper.

    在今天,就是報紙

  • And if you open the newspaper any day of the week,

    每天打開報紙所見的

  • it's full of people who've messed up their lives.

    無非是許許多多人怎樣搞砸自己的故事

  • They've slept with the wrong person. They've taken the wrong substance.

    和錯誤的對象發生性關係.錯誤的使用毒品藥物.

  • They've passed the wrong piece of legislation. Whatever it is.

    通過了一個錯誤的法案.各式各樣的故事.

  • And then are fit for ridicule.

    這一切都值得加以嘲笑一番

  • In other words, they have failed. And they are described as "losers."

    換言之,他們是失敗了.因此,被描述為「失敗者」.

  • Now is there any alternative to this?

    究竟這種說法有沒有其他代替品呢?

  • I think the Western tradition shows us one glorious alternative,

    有的,西方傳統文化中有一個輝煌的代替品

  • and that is tragedy.

    我們稱之為悲劇

  • Tragic art, as it developed in the theaters of ancient Greece,

    悲劇藝術,起源於古老的希臘劇場

  • in the fifth century B.C., was essentially an art form

    在大約西元前五世紀,主要以藝術的形式

  • devoted to tracing how people fail,

    致力於探討人們如何失敗.

  • and also according them a level of sympathy,

    並在某種程度上給予失敗的人一些同情

  • which ordinary life would not necessarily accord them.

    在尋常生活中,這份同情可能是付之闕如的.

  • I remember a few years ago, I was thinking about all this,

    我記得幾年前,當我在思索這些問題時

  • and I went to see "The Sunday Sport,"

    於是去看了「星期日運動小報」

  • a tabloid newspaper that I don't recommend you to start reading

    如果你從沒看過這份小報,

  • if you're not familiar with it already.

    倒不必特地找一份來看...

  • I went to talk to them

    後來我去找這家小報的編輯聊天

  • about certain of the great tragedies of Western art.

    聊關於西方藝術裡,幾件偉大的悲劇作品

  • I wanted to see how they would seize the bare bones

    我想看看他們會怎麼露骨的描述劇情大綱

  • of certain stories if they came in as a news item

    如果把這些故事當做新聞事件來處理的話,手法如何