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  • Alright at the beginning of the Twentieth Century

    在20世紀初期,

  • we have a really significant movement in both the visual arts

    我們有了重大的進展在視覺藝術和

  • and in music called Impressionism. Many people know impressionist visual art

    音樂上,被稱之為「印象派」。 很多人都知道繪畫的印象派

  • because they've seen all those paintings by Monet that fill up our galleries all

    因為你一定看過 莫內的那些畫作充斥在

  • over the world

    全世界各地的美術館

  • and are on posters in your houses and wherever.

    掛在你家牆上的海報上,或是任何地方

  • And here's a painting from Monet. This is one of his impression paintings from

    有一幅莫內創作的畫作。 它是「印象派」這個派別之所以

  • which we get

    之所以我們

  • the name Impressionism. At the time,

    命名「印象派」的原因之一。 當時,

  • sort of like Baroque, it was not a name that was supposed to be

    有點像是「巴洛克」(原意為形狀不圓的珍珠 (異形珠),意在諷刺 藝術風格過於誇張,過分著重細節)。「印象派」這個名字

  • complimentary. These paintings

    其實並不是讚美的話。這些畫作

  • that Monet and his contemporaries came up with

    由莫內和他同期的畫家所創作

  • were submitted to an exhibit.

    被送去一個展覽

  • This is a big exhibit in Paris every year and they were rejected.

    這是一個很大的展覽,在巴黎每年都會被盛大舉辦,然後這些畫作被拒收了

  • The the people who are running the show just thought they were just too

    策展方覺得這些畫作實在是

  • weird and

    太奇怪了

  • we're not going to accept these paintings and the

    他們不打算接受,而且

  • the critics were talking about these paintings

    評論家談到這些作品,

  • and they picked up on the name "impresson" which was in the name of one

    然後以莫內的「印象.日出」這幅畫中的「印象」來為這個畫派命名

  • of Monet's paintings

  • and used that as a negative term to describe this art that they thought wasn't

    做為一個消極的用字,在描述於這個評論家認為不好的藝術派別

  • very

  • good. So what did they not like about it? Well, you know,

    所以評論家到底為什麼不喜歡「印象派」呢? 好吧,你知道的

  • we're looking at people who are used to having paintings that are very clearly

    我們看看那些畫畫的人,他們總是習慣把線條畫得相當清晰

  • defined. The edges are

    能夠辨識,邊緣

  • edges, we know that that's the end of something. The colors are

    都有邊緣線,所以我們可以知道那是一個完整的物件

  • in rather broad sorts of swaths. So they had things they were used to seeing.

    用相當大片的平塗,且明快的方式斷開。所以傳統畫法的畫家,畫他們所看到的樣子

  • So here comes Monet and his friends and they're giving us paintings

    而這裡,莫內和他的畫家朋友們,帶給我們的畫作

  • that are little dabs of color. If you look at one of these paintings really closely

    是利用短筆觸的方式來構成畫面。如果你看這些印象派的畫作,夠靠近的話

  • you'll sometimes actually see physical space between colors. So it's not like

    通常你看到的物理上的空間,其實就只是顏色。所以那不像

  • I've painted.

    我一直以來遵循的畫風那樣。

  • I painted instead. Why did they do that?

    不同於我遵循的傳統畫風,那為什麼印象派的畫家他們要這樣做?

  • Well, one of the things that they were really interested in was

    好吧,其一是因為他們真的很感興趣

  • in trying to show how things looked at different times of day and in different

    試著去表現在一天不同時間裡

  • lighting conditions.

    看到的光影會如何不同

  • Now up until this point in time they couldn't do that.

    直到現在,時間這個主題的表現,他們也沒辦法掌握到

  • If you were an artist you had to go out into the field, you could do your sketch

    如果你是藝術家,你要到戶外寫生,你可以素描

  • with your

    用你的

  • chalks or whatever but then you would have to go back to the studio,

    粉彩筆或任何工具,問題是你之後必須要再回到工作室

  • mix up all your oil paints and

    調合所有的油彩顏料

  • then you would be able to paint in the studio. So you'd have to try to remember

    這樣一來,你才能作畫。因此你必須試著去記住

  • exactly what that light looked like.

    很精確地記住,你看到的光的顏色

  • Thanks to an American who invented oil paints in tubes,

    真是要感謝美國人發明了管狀顏料

  • painters could now take their whole little box of paints out into the world,

    畫家現在才可以帶著整套的畫具到世界各地

  • set up their easel in the park or on the street or wherever they wanted to

    架好畫架,不管是在公園、街上,還是任何他們想

  • paint,

    畫畫的地方

  • look at what they're looking at and paint it as it is,

    注視他們所畫的東西,然後去畫得跟真的一樣

  • in the natural light. So this was a big deal, very big deal.

    在自然的光線中。所以這是很重要的,非常重要的

  • So they were trying to make it look like it was in natural light, make it not

    印象派的畫家嘗試要使他們畫的,就如同他們在自然光中看到的。而那是相當不同於

  • look so sort of artificially constructed

    精雕細琢於

  • in the studio. So, the edges are blurred,

    工作室中而誕生的作品的。 所以邊緣線被模糊了

  • the colors keep kind of changing, you don't see solid blocks of color generally

    顏色使的物體形狀不那麼固定了。一般來說,你不會看到單純的色塊

  • in impressionist art.

    在印象派裡

  • So how does that work out in music? Interestingly it works out a lot the same way.

    所以,印象派如何發揮在音樂上呢?相當有趣地,其實表現的方法差不多

  • So what composers tried to do was to create that same sort of sense of

    作曲家試著創造出和印象派同樣風格的

  • vagueness

    模糊感

  • that we see in an impressionist painting. So

    正如同我們看到印象派畫作那樣的感受。所以

  • how do we accomplish that?

    我們要怎麼做到呢?

  • So, we've seen how the painter creates ambiguity, How's the composer going to create the same thing?

    我們已經看到畫家是如何創造模糊感的了。那麼作曲家如何做出同樣的效果呢?

  • So I'm going to use my little glockenspiel here to illustrate a couple of things for you.

    所以我要在這裡用鐵琴為你們做些示範

  • So, one of the ways that a composer can create ambiguity

    其中一種作曲家可以製造模糊感的方法是

  • in the tonal structure of a piece

    用於曲子的音調結構

  • is to avoid major and minor scales.

    就是避免大調和小調

  • As we know those send us somewhere. So there are a couple of different ways that a

    正如我們所知道的,那會造成什麼效果。 所以這裡有很多不同的方法

  • composer can do that.

    是作曲家可以做的

  • One of those is a new type of scale that we've not talked about before called the

    其一就是,我們以前不曾談論過的一種新的調子,稱作

  • whole

    全音

  • tone scale. Remember that major and minor scales have half steps and whole steps so

    音階(相鄰兩音階為全音)。記得大調和小調都有半音和全音,所以

  • they are

    它們

  • not whole tone, they are both half and whole. So, a whole tone scale

    不是全音,而是由全音和半音所組成。因此,一個全音音階裡

  • has no half steps. Let's listen just to remind ourselves, this is what a major scale

    沒有半音。 讓我們聽聽看來提醒自己,一個大調聽起來

  • sounds like.

    就像這樣。

  • (plays scale)

    (演奏)

  • So that's our combination of half steps and whole steps. I want to do a

    所以這就是我們連結了全音和半音。 我想演奏一段

  • whole tone scale starting on

    全音音階,開頭是

  • the same pitch.

    同樣的音調

  • (plays scale)

    (演奏)

  • Listen again!

    再聽一次

  • (plays scale)

    (演奏)

  • Now, if you were keeping an eye on the keyboard, you would have seen that I got off

    現在如果你注意看這個鍵盤,你會發現我發出來的

  • what would have been...

    是什麼樣的聲音

  • would have been the white keys so that was a difference between scales.

    白鍵的使用是不是造成在調子上不同的差異

  • Might also have noticed that there were only seven notes in that scale instead

    也許你們還注意到這裡只使用了七個音,而不是

  • of eight. When you take those two half steps and make them one, then

    八個。當你用兩個半音,並且把它們變成一個音,然後

  • you've lost a pitch so it's a seven tone scale and

    你已經把音調弄不見了,所以它變成一個七個音的音階,而且

  • it has no half-step so we don't have any places where we can naturally diverge and

    這樣沒有半音,所以我們沒辦法自然地分離出來,以及

  • go somewhere else.

    怎麼繼續下去

  • It leaves us a lot of options about directions that we can move. Another way

    這給了我們很多的意見,關於我們可以移動的方向。另外的方法是

  • that we can change our

    我們可以改變我們的

  • tonal structure is to use modes.

    音調結構,藉由使用模式的方法。

  • Remember we haven't even talked about those since about 1600 when we went to

    記得我們還沒談過那個,從將近西元1600年以來,當時我們發現了

  • the equal temperament system.

    十二平均律 (一種音樂定律方法,將一個八度平均分成十二等份,每等分稱為半音,是最主要的調音法)

  • So those are those old scale type systems that we used in Gregorian

    所以那是很古老的調子形式,我們用在「葛利果

  • Chant!

    聖歌」(是一種單聲部、無伴奏的羅馬天主教宗教音樂)

  • So, basically with a mode, if you start on any white note on this keyboard,

    所以,基本上用一種模式,如果你以琴鍵上的任何白鍵做為起音

  • then... and you stay on them, then you get a particular mode. So

    然後,保持這個音,接著你會得到一種特別的模式。所以

  • let's just take this major scale first. (plays scale)

    首先讓我們用這種小調試試吧 (演奏)

  • Now let me do the mode that starts

    現在讓我們用這種模式開始

  • on the same pitch. (plays scale)

    用同樣曲調的方式 (演奏)

  • Different sets of half steps and whole steps.

    半音和全音不同的組合

  • If I start on another note, a different note, then I get an entirely different

    如果開始於其他的音符,一個不同的音符,那麼我會得到一個完全不一樣的

  • scale. (plays scale)

    調子 (演奏)

  • That first scale that I did for you was a whole-step,

    我首先為你們示範的就是(大調)一個全音、

  • half-step, whole-step, whole-step whole-step, half-step,

    半音、全音、全音、全音、半音、

  • whole-step. The second one I did was half-step, whole-step,

    全音(網友更正 大調: 全全半全全全半)。第二個示範的(小調)是半音、全音、

  • whole-step, whole-step, half-step, whole-step, whole-step. So, the whole-steps and half-steps keep moving around

    全音、全音、半音、全音、全音(網友更正 小調: 全半全全半全全)。 所以全音和半音一直來回

  • if you change

    如果你換成

  • into those different modes. So if you're used to hearing major minor tonality

    不一樣的模式。你若是習慣於聽小調的音調

  • and all of a sudden you have this scale that doesn't have the half-steps and whole-steps where

    突然在調子裡聽到沒有半音和全音

  • you expect them,

    在你原本預期的地方出現

  • then you have different directions that you can go and the composer can create more

    那麼你會弄不清音樂的方向,而那就是作曲家刻意創造的

  • ambiguity that way.

    模糊感

  • Another thing that we see composers doing in this period of time

    另外我們看到作曲家在這個時期做的事情就是

  • is going beyond our triad. Remember when we did chords way back we had (plays example). There's a

    想要超越三和弦。還記得在和弦的時候,我們所做的 (演奏) 這是一組

  • chord.

    和絃

  • In the Romantic Period and even a little before that we've extended that

    在浪漫時期,甚至稍早於那個,我們所延續的

  • one note by going (plays example)

    藉由打算 (示範)

  • to make what we call a seventh chord but as we get into this period of time,

    創作我們稱之為「七和弦」的一個音符,但是當我們進入浪漫時期這個階段

  • the composer can keep going till we can go (plays example)

    作曲家保持繼續發展,直到我們能跟上為止 (示範)

  • and now we don't know what key we're in again because we have notes from all sorts of

    現在我們又不知道那個關鍵了,因為我們把音符從各種

  • different chords. These are not our standard

    不同的和弦脫離出來了。那些並不是我們

  • what we would expect from that chord, and now we have

    期待從和弦分離出來的標準規範,以及現在有

  • more routes that we can go so it's like every new mode is another door in our

    更多的途徑是我們可以依循的。所以每一個新模式就像是有另一扇

  • composition

    作曲之門

  • that we can open and go in an entirely new

    我們可以打開它,並通往截然不同的嶄新

  • direction. So those are things that we can do that have to do with

    方向。所以有很多我們可以做的事情,就是必須做到連同

  • the notes, the pitches, of the

    音符、音調,以及屬於具有模糊感的

  • melody and the harmony that create ambiguity. Now let's look at some other ways that we

    旋律與和諧的。現在讓我們看看一些其他

  • can create that

    可以創造模糊感的方法

  • through rhythms and the sounds that we use. Another way that they tried to

    透過韻律和我們使用的聲音的方式。另一個作曲家試著

  • create that ambiguity in the sound

    創作聲音模糊感的方法

  • was to get away from a really steady beat.

    是脫離平穩的節拍

  • A lot of music we listen to (clap, clap) it's there, you can hear it.

    很多我們聽的音樂 (打拍子、打拍子) 就是這,你可以聽出來

  • As we listen to the impressionist piece that we're going to examine,

    當聽到 我們所想要檢視的印象派作曲家所創作的曲子

  • you'll find it very hard to tap your foot to it.

    你會發現你很難用腳打拍子跟上

  • Part of it is that there's very little percussion happening so you don't have a

    部分的原因是因為曲子裡幾乎沒用到打擊樂器,所以你們沒辦法

  • drumbeat to follow anyway,

    跟著擊鼓聲打拍子

  • and the other is that it's very flexible

    另外是因為這是非常有彈性的

  • so there's like speeding up slowing down and sometimes there's just

    所以像是加速、減速,甚至有時候是

  • silence.

    無聲

  • And when there's silence and you didn't have a good sense of

    而且你要是沒有良好的直覺

  • where the beat was in the first place, you can't maintain that sense of beat so

    這拍子原來該落在哪哩,你就沒辦法維持節奏感,所以

  • you're going... what happened... where's it coming back?

    接下來要作什麼? 會怎麼樣? 什麼地方要反覆?

  • What's happening with the rhythm here? So we hear that

    這邊的節奏會發生什麼事? 同樣地讓我們聽看看

  • sort of blurred rhythmic construction as well.

    一些這種模糊節奏感的結構

  • Things do not quite what you expect them to do. Another way that composers

    事情並不如你預期的。另外的方法就是作曲家們

  • tried to copy what their visual art

    試著去模仿跟視覺藝術

  • counterparts were doing is in the use of color. So as I said when you look at

    極其相似的在色彩使用上的手法。 所以我說 當你們看

  • an impressionist painting up close you can see that they're often dots of

    一幅印象派的畫夠近的話,你們可以看到它們通常是由點狀的

  • color that don't quite connect to each other

    色彩所構成,這個點是獨立而不是連結在一起的

  • or what we perceive as being a

    或者我們觀察到的是做為一個

  • color block is actually several different little colors

    通常是由幾個少數的不同顏色所構成的色塊

  • right next to each other that our eye has blended into a single color.

    它們彼此相鄰,到了我們的肉眼都已經把它們視做是一個單一的顏色的地步了

  • So what composers do is take our instrumental colors,

    所以作曲家做的就是賦予樂器色彩,

  • our timbres, and use those to create that same sort of

    賦予音色,以及用樂器創造出同樣的

  • effect. So instead of say if we imagine that Mozart Clarinet Concerto

    效果。因此不說的話,如果我們想像莫札特的單簧管協奏曲

  • that we listened to

    我們所聽的那首曲子

  • and the clarinet plays, clarinet plays, clarinet plays, clarinet plays, clarinet

    單簧管演奏、單簧管演奏、單簧管演奏、單簧管演奏、單簧管

  • stops.

  • Well, in an impressionist piece what we might have is the melodic line

    好了,在印象派的作品裡我們有的也許就只是旋律

  • and the clarinet plays but then the flute sort of picks it up

    單簧管演奏,但是待會長笛出場了

  • and they cross over for a little bit and then the flute goes on and then maybe the

    單簧管和長笛這兩種樂器的演奏有一些重疊,再接著長笛繼續,然後也許

  • Oboe come sneaking in with it and they

    雙簧管悄悄地跟著加進來了,這些樂器

  • blend a little bit and then they separate so you don't get that clearly

    有些合在一起,然後又分開,所以你們無法清楚地

  • defined...

    辨識…

  • "Hey, we're done with that instrument, we're going on to something else."

    「嘿,我們用那種樂器演奏,想要來些不同的」

  • And a really good composer will choose those timbres so that it's really hard

    而一個真的好的作曲家在音色上有所選擇,以至於很難

  • to tell that it changed and all of a sudden you realize, "Oh, hey look,

    告訴說你們樂器換了,只是突然你們就發現 「噢,瞧,

  • that's not oboe anymore, that's a French horn playing now."

    接下來都不是雙簧管了,現在演奏的樂器是法國號。」

  • So again we get that sense of not quite knowing what sound we're in,

    所以,我們又獲得了 曉得聽到的是何種樂器聲的感知能力

  • we've blurred our colors just like we've blurred our beat,

    我們模糊了顏色正如同模糊節奏

  • and then we've blurred our tonal center. Another thing that composers can do that

    然後我們模糊了調子的主題。另外一件事就是作曲家能夠

  • has to do with the

    必須連同

  • tonal center and melodic part is to use a lot of chromatic

    調子的主題和旋律的部分,就是去使用大量半音的

  • notes. We talked about scales as being whole steps and half steps,

    音符。我們在全音、半音的時候談到調性

  • there's actually a scale that's nothing but half steps. (plays scale)

    其實一個調子拿掉半音就什麼都不是了 (演奏調子)

  • So a chromatic scale uses

    所以一個半音的調子使用了

  • all the possible notes, and if you're going to use all those notes

    所有可能的音符,假使你們想用其他音符

  • it's just like using those odd

    那會就像是用了奇怪的

  • chord structures, you can go anywhere. Once you hit any note you can go in any

    和絃結構,當然還是可以繼續發展下去沒錯。不過一旦你們彈了會引領去不同方向的音符

  • different direction because you haven't established any sense of key

    由於你們還沒建立好對這方面任何的直覺力

  • out of that. So we have chromatics as a way to do that.

    所以我們要有半音,如同一個發展的好辦法

  • Another thing the composers will do is to

    另外就是作曲家會做的就是

  • create a sense a dissonance so sounds that

    去創造一種感覺,不和諧,所以聲音的問題

  • are unresolved, not necessarily clashing or ugly, but they just...

    並沒有被解決,這種不和諧的感覺不需要是有衝擊性或是刺耳的,但作曲家就是

  • they feel like they need to go somewhere and what the composer will do

    會想、會需要更進一步,那麼作曲家會做的

  • is

    就是

  • fail to go somewhere. So you're you're hanging there like I-

    阻斷接下來到哪邊去。所以你們打算前往那理,像是我

  • I-I have to go, I have to go, this has to go somewhere else,

    我必須去,必須去,需要到其他的什麼地方

  • and then they either don't go anywhere at all, or they go somewhere completely

    然後其實哪裡也沒去,或者是反而到了完全

  • unexpected.

    出乎預料的地方

  • So it upsets your sort of

    所以是有點不舒服的,

  • aural balance because you expect this chord to go in a certain place and all of a sudden

    對於聽覺平衡來說,因為你預期和絃下一步會來到某個地方,而突然

  • it goes

  • somewhere else. That's another way of keeping that sort of

    轉向了。這是另外一種保持

  • ambiguity that we expected that. So

    我們所想要的模糊感的方法。所以

  • in the pieces of music that we hear in the Impressionist Period

    在我們聽到屬於印象時期的曲子裡,

  • most of them are relatively small, short,

    絕大多數是小的、短的、

  • sort of compact kinds of pieces. Probably

    有點簡潔小巧的曲子。那大概、

  • maybe because we can't deal with that much ambiguity on a long scale you know, 20

    或許是因為我們都沒有在時間規模長的曲目中處裡很多模糊感,你知道的,20分鐘

  • minutes of that kind of ambiguity

    處在這種模糊感裡

  • would be stressful for you as a listener. So what we tend to see is much smaller

    對聽眾來說是很有壓力的。所以我們傾向於比較小巧的

  • sorts of forms

    型式

  • so the composer can really illustrate all those things that they're trying to do.

    所以作曲家真的有辦法示範出任何他們想嘗試去做的

  • So let's look at a composer now who is sort of the king of impressionist music and that is

    現在讓我們看看一個有點像是印象派音樂時期最厲害的音樂家的人,就是

  • Claude Debussy

    克勞德.狄布西

  • or as some people say Deb-boo-see depends on how snooty you wish to be about

    或者有的人叫他 德-布-西,這發音取決於你們的心態有多麼傲慢地把那改成是

  • his name.

    他的名字啦

  • So he lived from 1862 to 1918. He died

    他的生卒年是西元1862年到1918。他逝世於

  • right as Paris was actually being liberated at the end of World

    巴黎,剛好是一次世界大戰的尾聲

  • War One. So he was there

    所以他剛好恭逢其時,

  • during World War One. He wrote

    經歷了一次大戰。他寫了

  • lots and lots of beautiful pieces of music

    很多很多很美的曲子

  • and we have a certain sound that we tend to associate with Debussy and that

    我們傾向於將這類的音樂和狄布西做連結

  • is that

    而那正是

  • impressionist sort of sound. So we are going to listen to

    印象派的音樂。我們來聽聽

  • his Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun. And that's an f-a-u-n faun not

    他的「牧神的午後 前奏曲」。這是拼成f-a-u-n的faun,是牧神的意思,

  • not Bambi fawn. In the Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun what he has done is

    不是「小鹿斑比」那個小鹿的fawn。狄布西作曲的「牧神的午後 前奏曲」

  • taken a poem

    源自於一首詩

  • by another -ism this is by a symbolist poet

    由另一種風格,一位象徵主義的詩人所創作

  • so this is a symbolist poem. And nobody sings it,

    是一首象徵主義的詩,而且沒有人吟唱過

  • there's no talking, so this is an example of a type of program music

    甚至沒有人談論這首詩,所以這其實是一個例子,屬於標題音樂 (是一種敘事性或描述性的音樂) 的一種型式

  • but he's taking this poem and he wants you to get

    但是狄布西用這首詩,想要你們感受到

  • the sense of the poem. He's not trying to strictly represent the poem, he's not trying

    這首詩的意境。他並不想嚴密地呈現出這首詩來,他不打算

  • to say here's where this happens here's where that happens

    說 這裡面到底發生了什麼

  • particularly the overall sense

    特別是綜觀

  • of what this poem is about. So let me read to you

    這首詩在講什麼。所以讓我唸給你們聽

  • the text of this.

    這首詩的內容

  • These nymphs, I would perpetuate them, so light

    那些精靈,我要她們永存不朽,是如此輕盈,

  • their gossamer embodiment, floating on the air

    她們纖細的化身飄浮於

  • inert with heavy slumber,

    陷入沉睡般,幾乎凝結的空氣之中。

  • was it a dream I loved, my doubting harvest of the bygone night

    我愛上的是一場夢嗎?我那似真似假的收穫,是往昔的夜晚

  • ends in countless tiny branches,

    結束於無盡的密林,

  • together remaining a whole forest they prove alas

    是共同維持了整座森林,她們證明了悲哀

  • that since I'm alone, my fancy triumph

    是由於我寂寞的芳心,自以為贏得的