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  • Our story is about a girl named Iris.

    這是個關於一位名叫 Iris 的女孩的故事(Iris 同時有虹膜的意思)。

  • Iris is very sensitive.

    Iris 非常敏感。

  • So much that she is always in tears.

    敏感到她總是在流淚。

  • She cries when she's sad, when she's happy, and even tears up when things just get to her.

    當她難過的時候她會哭,當她高興的時候她會哭, 甚至當有東西使她煩惱的時候,她也會哭。

  • She has special lacrimal glands to make new tears and special tubes, called lacrimal puncta, to drain old ones away.

    她有個特殊的淚腺能製造新的眼淚還有特殊的管子,叫做淚點,會把舊的眼淚排走。

  • And she cries so much that she goes through ten ounces of tears per day.

    她太愛哭了,她每天會哭出十盎司的眼淚。

  • Thirty gallons a year!

    一整年有三十加侖!

  • In fact, if you look closely, you'll see that she's crying a little bit all the time.

    事實上,如果你靠近點看,你會看見她的眼睛總是有點濕濕的。

  • The basal tears that Iris constantly produces form a thin coating of three layers that cover her and keep dirt and debris away.

    Iris 持續分泌的基礎眼淚形成了一個三層的薄膜覆蓋住她,避免灰塵和碎片接近。

  • Right next to Iris is the mucus layer, which keeps the whole thing fastened to her.

    緊靠著 Iris 的是黏液層,黏液層能讓整團淚滴緊貼著她。

  • On top of it is the aqueous layer,

    在它的上面是淚水層,

  • which keeps Iris hydrated, repels invasive bacteria, and protects her skin, or cornea, from damage.

    它讓 Iris 保持濕潤,擊退入侵的細菌, 並保護她的薄層或角膜,使其免於傷害。

  • And finally, there is the lipid layer,

    而最後,是油脂層,

  • an oily outer film that keeps the surface smooth for Iris to see through, and prevents the other layers from evaporating.

    油性的外膜可以保持表面平滑,讓 Iris 可以看得清楚, 並避免其他膜層的水份蒸發。

  • Normally, Iris goes about her day without really noticing the basal tears doing their thing.

    正常來講,Iris 一整天都不會注意到基礎眼淚的作用。

  • That's kind of their whole point.

    基礎眼淚大概就是這麼回事。

  • But one day, she meets a girl named Onion.

    但是有一天,她遇到了一個叫做洋蔥的女孩。

  • Iris is immediately smitten.

    Iris 馬上就被迷住了。

  • Onion looks gorgeous in her bright purple jacket, and she smells terrific.

    洋蔥妹穿著亮紫色的夾克看起來很華麗,而且她聞起來非常香。

  • So, Iris invites Onion to her house for dinner.

    所以,Iris 邀請洋蔥妹到她家吃晚餐。

  • But when she comes in and takes off her jacket, something terrible happens.

    但是當她進來並脫下了她的外套時,可怕的事情發生了。

  • You see, when Onion's jacket is removed, a chemical reaction happens,

    你看,當洋蔥妹的外套脫下,就會發生了一種化學反應,

  • converting the sulfoxides that make her smell so great into sulfenic acid,

    讓洋蔥妹聞起來很香的化合物亞碸轉換為次硫磺,

  • which then becomes a nasty substance with a long name:

    而後又變成一種令人難受、有著落落長名字的物質:

  • syn-Propanethial S-oxide.

    順式-丙硫醛-S-氧化物。

  • The gas stings Iris, and suddenly, she can't help it, she starts weeping uncontrollably.

    這個氣體刺激著 Iris,突然間,她忍不住了,她開始不能控制地流淚。

  • These reflex tears are different from the basal tears that Iris is used to.

    這些反射性眼淚跟 Iris 平常流的基礎眼淚不一樣。

  • Because they're designed to wash away harmful substances, or particles,

    因為它們是被設計用來清洗有害的物質,或顆粒,

  • they're released in much larger amounts,

    它們釋放的量更大,

  • and their aqueous layer contains more antibodies to stop any microorganisms that may be trying to get in, as well.

    淚水層也包含更多的抗體去阻止任何試圖進入的微生物。

  • Both Iris and Onion are devastated.

    Iris 和洋蔥妹都傷心欲絕。

  • They know they can't continue their relationship if Iris is going to hurt and cry every time Onion takes off her jacket.

    她們知道,要是每次洋蔥妹脫掉她的外套時 Iris 都會受傷並且哭泣,她們就無法繼續她們的關係。

  • So, they decide to break up.

    所以,她們決定分手。

  • As Onion walks out the door, Iris stops crying, and immediately starts again.

    當洋蔥妹一踏出門,Iris 就停止哭泣了, 但馬上又再次流淚。

  • Only now, she's not crying reflex tears but emotional tears.

    只有現在,她不是流出反射性眼淚,而是情感性眼淚。

  • When someone is either too sad or too happy, it feels like a loss of control, which can be dangerous.

    當某人太難過或是太高興時,會感覺像是失控,而這可能會導致危險發生。

  • So, emotional tears are sent in to stabilize the mood as quickly as possible, along with other physical reactions, such as an increased heart rate and slower breathing.

    所以,情感性眼淚被派去快速穩定這樣的情緒,伴隨其他身體反應,像是加快心跳和減緩呼吸。

  • But scientists still aren't sure exactly how or why the tears themselves are helpful.

    但是科學家仍不確定眼淚究竟如何提供幫助以及為何會有幫助。

  • They may be a social mechanism to elicit sympathy or show submission.

    眼淚可能是一種社交機制用以引起同情或示弱。

  • But some studies have also found that emotional tears contain higher levels of stress hormones, such as ACTH and enkephalin, an endorphin and natural pain killer.

    但是有一些研究也發現情感性眼淚有著更高層次的壓力賀爾蒙,像是促腎上腺皮質刺激素(Adrenocorticotropic hormone)和腦啡,一種內啡肽和天然的止痛劑。

  • In this case, emotional tears are also directly calming Iris down, as well as signaling her emotional state to others.

    在這種情況下,情感性眼淚也會直接使 Iris 平靜下來,並且發出她的情緒狀態訊號給其他人。

  • Sorry things didn't work out with Onion, Iris.

    很遺憾和洋蔥妹的感情失敗了,Iris。

  • But don't worry.

    但是別擔心。

  • As long as you have all three kinds of tears working to keep you balanced and healthy, it will get better.

    只要妳擁有三種眼淚幫助你保持平靜和健康,一切都會變好的。

  • You'll see.

    妳會懂的。

Our story is about a girl named Iris.

這是個關於一位名叫 Iris 的女孩的故事(Iris 同時有虹膜的意思)。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 眼淚 外套 普通 脫掉 物質

【TED-Ed】我們為何會哭? 三種不同的眼淚 (Why do we cry? The three types of tears - Alex Gendler)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2022 年 03 月 21 日
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