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  • Our story is about a girl named Iris.

    這是個關於一位名叫 Iris 的女孩的故事(Iris 同時有虹膜的意思)。

  • Iris is very sensitive.

    Iris 非常敏感。

  • So much that she is always in tears.


  • She cries when she's sad, when she's happy, and even tears up when things just get to her.

    當她難過的時候她會哭,當她高興的時候她會哭, 甚至當有東西使她煩惱的時候,她也會哭。

  • She has special lacrimal glands to make new tears and special tubes, called lacrimal puncta, to drain old ones away.


  • And she cries so much that she goes through ten ounces of tears per day.


  • Thirty gallons a year!


  • In fact, if you look closely, you'll see that she's crying a little bit all the time.


  • The basal tears that Iris constantly produces form a thin coating of three layers that cover her and keep dirt and debris away.

    Iris 持續分泌的基礎眼淚形成了一個三層的薄膜覆蓋住她,避免灰塵和碎片接近。

  • Right next to Iris is the mucus layer, which keeps the whole thing fastened to her.

    緊靠著 Iris 的是黏液層,黏液層能讓整團淚滴緊貼著她。

  • On top of it is the aqueous layer,


  • which keeps Iris hydrated, repels invasive bacteria, and protects her skin, or cornea, from damage.

    它讓 Iris 保持濕潤,擊退入侵的細菌, 並保護她的薄層或角膜,使其免於傷害。

  • And finally, there is the lipid layer,


  • an oily outer film that keeps the surface smooth for Iris to see through, and prevents the other layers from evaporating.

    油性的外膜可以保持表面平滑,讓 Iris 可以看得清楚, 並避免其他膜層的水份蒸發。

  • Normally, Iris goes about her day without really noticing the basal tears doing their thing.

    正常來講,Iris 一整天都不會注意到基礎眼淚的作用。

  • That's kind of their whole point.


  • But one day, she meets a girl named Onion.


  • Iris is immediately smitten.

    Iris 馬上就被迷住了。

  • Onion looks gorgeous in her bright purple jacket, and she smells terrific.


  • So, Iris invites Onion to her house for dinner.

    所以,Iris 邀請洋蔥妹到她家吃晚餐。

  • But when she comes in and takes off her jacket, something terrible happens.


  • You see, when Onion's jacket is removed, a chemical reaction happens,


  • converting the sulfoxides that make her smell so great into sulfenic acid,


  • which then becomes a nasty substance with a long name:


  • syn-Propanethial S-oxide.


  • The gas stings Iris, and suddenly, she can't help it, she starts weeping uncontrollably.

    這個氣體刺激著 Iris,突然間,她忍不住了,她開始不能控制地流淚。

  • These reflex tears are different from the basal tears that Iris is used to.

    這些反射性眼淚跟 Iris 平常流的基礎眼淚不一樣。

  • Because they're designed to wash away harmful substances, or particles,


  • they're released in much larger amounts,


  • and their aqueous layer contains more antibodies to stop any microorganisms that may be trying to get in, as well.


  • Both Iris and Onion are devastated.

    Iris 和洋蔥妹都傷心欲絕。

  • They know they can't continue their relationship if Iris is going to hurt and cry every time Onion takes off her jacket.

    她們知道,要是每次洋蔥妹脫掉她的外套時 Iris 都會受傷並且哭泣,她們就無法繼續她們的關係。

  • So, they decide to break up.


  • As Onion walks out the door, Iris stops crying, and immediately starts again.

    當洋蔥妹一踏出門,Iris 就停止哭泣了, 但馬上又再次流淚。

  • Only now, she's not crying reflex tears but emotional tears.


  • When someone is either too sad or too happy, it feels like a loss of control, which can be dangerous.


  • So, emotional tears are sent in to stabilize the mood as quickly as possible, along with other physical reactions, such as an increased heart rate and slower breathing.


  • But scientists still aren't sure exactly how or why the tears themselves are helpful.


  • They may be a social mechanism to elicit sympathy or show submission.


  • But some studies have also found that emotional tears contain higher levels of stress hormones, such as ACTH and enkephalin, an endorphin and natural pain killer.

    但是有一些研究也發現情感性眼淚有著更高層次的壓力賀爾蒙,像是促腎上腺皮質刺激素(Adrenocorticotropic hormone)和腦啡,一種內啡肽和天然的止痛劑。

  • In this case, emotional tears are also directly calming Iris down, as well as signaling her emotional state to others.

    在這種情況下,情感性眼淚也會直接使 Iris 平靜下來,並且發出她的情緒狀態訊號給其他人。

  • Sorry things didn't work out with Onion, Iris.


  • But don't worry.


  • As long as you have all three kinds of tears working to keep you balanced and healthy, it will get better.


  • You'll see.


Our story is about a girl named Iris.

這是個關於一位名叫 Iris 的女孩的故事(Iris 同時有虹膜的意思)。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 眼淚 外套 普通 脫掉 物質

【TED-Ed】我們為何會哭? 三種不同的眼淚 (Why do we cry? The three types of tears - Alex Gendler)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2022 年 03 月 21 日