Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • When I was nine years old

    在我九歲時

  • I went off to summer camp for the first time.

    第一次要去參加夏令營

  • And my mother packed me a suitcase

    媽媽幫我整理的行李箱

  • full of books,

    裡面塞滿了書

  • which to me seemed like a perfectly natural thing to do.

    這對我來說是完全正常的事情

  • Because in my family,

    因為在我的家庭中

  • reading was the primary group activity.

    閱讀是主要的群體活動

  • And this might sound antisocial to you,

    對你來說我們似乎顯得不愛社交

  • but for us it was really just a different way of being social.

    但對於我們而言,這只是另一種社交方式罷了

  • You have the animal warmth of your family

    你能享受到家人坐在身邊

  • sitting right next to you,

    動物性的溫暖

  • but you are also free to go roaming around the adventureland

    也能自由自在地

  • inside your own mind.

    在內心深處的冒險樂園中遨遊

  • And I had this idea

    而我以為

  • that camp was going to be just like this, but better.

    夏令營就應該像這樣子,而且是更好一些

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I had a vision of 10 girls sitting in a cabin

    我的腦海浮現著10個女孩

  • cozily reading books in their matching nightgowns.

    穿相似的睡衣,坐在小木屋裡愜意地讀書

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Camp was more like a keg party without any alcohol.

    夏令營就像是一個沒有酒精飲料的派對聚會

  • And on the very first day

    在入營的第一天

  • our counselor gathered us all together

    營長把我們召集一起

  • and she taught us a cheer that she said we would be doing

    她教了我們ㄧ個在暑假餘下的日子裡

  • every day for the rest of the summer

    每天都會用到的口號

  • to instill camp spirit.

    藉以凝聚營舎精神

  • And it went like this:

    這句口號是這樣的:

  • "R-O-W-D-I-E,

    "R-O-W-D-I-E (譯註:即 rowdy 作吵鬧解)

  • that's the way we spell rowdie.

    我們是這樣拼 rowdie 的

  • Rowdie, rowdie, let's get rowdie."

    嘰喳嘰喳嘰,盡情吵鬧吧。"

  • Yeah.

    是的

  • So I couldn't figure out for the life of me

    我完全不能理解

  • why we were supposed to be so rowdy,

    為何要吵鬧

  • or why we had to spell this word incorrectly.

    而且為何要錯誤地拼這個字

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But I recited a cheer. I recited a cheer along with everybody else.

    不過我還是背誦了這口號,跟其他人一同呼叫

  • I did my best.

    我盡力而為

  • And I just waited for the time

    然後等待

  • that I could go off and read my books.

    可以回房看書的時間

  • But the first time that I took my book out of my suitcase,

    但當我終於可以把書拿出來的時候

  • the coolest girl in the bunk came up to me

    營裡最酷的女孩走過來

  • and she asked me, "Why are you being so mellow?" --

    問我,"你在裝甚麼老成啊?" --

  • mellow, of course, being the exact opposite

    老成,剛好是

  • of R-O-W-D-I-E.

    吵鬧 (R-O-W-D-I-E) 的相反詞

  • And then the second time I tried it,

    然後第二次我再拿書出來時

  • the counselor came up to me with a concerned expression on her face

    營長面露關心的走過來

  • and she repeated the point about camp spirit

    重申了營隊精神

  • and said we should all work very hard

    說我們都應該努力變得

  • to be outgoing.

    活潑外向

  • And so I put my books away,

    所以我把書收進

  • back in their suitcase,

    我的行李箱裡

  • and I put them under my bed,

    把它們放在床下

  • and there they stayed for the rest of the summer.

    讓它整個夏天都待在那裡

  • And I felt kind of guilty about this.

    然而我卻覺得有點愧疚

  • I felt as if the books needed me somehow,

    總覺得這些書本需要我

  • and they were calling out to me and I was forsaking them.

    他們不停呼喚著我

  • But I did forsake them and I didn't open that suitcase again

    但我把它拋棄了而且再也沒有打開我的行李箱

  • until I was back home with my family

    一直到夏天的尾巴

  • at the end of the summer.

    我回家的那天

  • Now, I tell you this story about summer camp.

    我說的這個夏令營的故事

  • I could have told you 50 others just like it --

    事實上可以有五十個相同的版本--

  • all the times that I got the message

    旁人傳遞來的訊息總是說

  • that somehow my quiet and introverted style of being

    我的安靜內向

  • was not necessarily the right way to go,

    不是一般人應該有的表現

  • that I should be trying to pass as more of an extrovert.

    我應該更活潑外向一點

  • And I always sensed deep down that this was wrong

    但我內心深處我知道

  • and that introverts were pretty excellent just as they were.

    內向才是我真正自在的表現

  • But for years I denied this intuition,

    但,多年來我試圖否定我的直覺

  • and so I became a Wall Street lawyer, of all things,

    所以我成為華爾街的律師

  • instead of the writer that I had always longed to be --

    而不是我一直想成為的作家--

  • partly because I needed to prove to myself

    一部份原因是我想證明

  • that I could be bold and assertive too.

    自己有行事果斷的能力

  • And I was always going off to crowded bars

    我常去最熱門的酒吧

  • when I really would have preferred to just have a nice dinner with friends.

    但其實我更想要與好友自在的享用晚餐

  • And I made these self-negating choices

    我下意識的做這些

  • so reflexively,

    背離我個性的選擇

  • that I wasn't even aware that I was making them.

    而我竟已渾然不覺

  • Now this is what many introverts do,

    其實很多內向的人都這麼做

  • and it's our loss for sure,

    這不只是我們個人損失

  • but it is also our colleagues' loss

    更是我們同僚

  • and our communities' loss.

    與社會群眾的損失

  • And at the risk of sounding grandiose, it is the world's loss.

    聽起來言重,但這也是對這個世界的損失

  • Because when it comes to creativity and to leadership,

    因為創造力和領導力

  • we need introverts doing what they do best.

    正需要這些內斂的人發揮他們的長才

  • A third to a half of the population are introverts --

    有1/3至一半的人口是偏內向的--

  • a third to a half.

    1/3近一半!

  • So that's one out of every two or three people you know.

    也就是說每兩三個人中就有一個內向人口

  • So even if you're an extrovert yourself,

    就算你本身是外向的

  • I'm talking about your coworkers

    你的同事

  • and your spouses and your children

    你的另一半和你的小孩

  • and the person sitting next to you right now --

    還有你旁邊坐的那位--

  • all of them subject to this bias

    都可能是受害者

  • that is pretty deep and real in our society.

    這種觀念深植在我們社會中

  • We all internalize it from a very early age

    我們在還不會說話時

  • without even having a language for what we're doing.

    就已被這種思想內化了

  • Now to see the bias clearly

    為了要更加明白這個偏見

  • you need to understand what introversion is.

    我們必須瞭解什麼是內向

  • It's different from being shy.

    內向不是害羞

  • Shyness is about fear of social judgment.

    害羞是無法承受社會眼光

  • Introversion is more about,

    內向比較像是

  • how do you respond to stimulation,

    你對外在世界的反應

  • including social stimulation.

    外向的人需要很多的刺激

  • So extroverts really crave large amounts of stimulation,

    但內斂的人相反

  • whereas introverts feel at their most alive

    他們對自身感受敏銳

  • and their most switched-on and their most capable

    反而在不被注目時

  • when they're in quieter, more low-key environments.

    最能發揮他們的能耐

  • Not all the time -- these things aren't absolute --

    偶而會有例外

  • but a lot of the time.

    但大多是如此

  • So the key then

    所以關鍵在於

  • to maximizing our talents

    去將各人的長才發揮至極致

  • is for us all to put ourselves

    適才所長

  • in the zone of stimulation that is right for us.

    各司其職

  • But now here's where the bias comes in.

    但就因為社會的偏見

  • Our most important institutions,

    我們最重要的機構

  • our schools and our workplaces,

    學校及職場

  • they are designed mostly for extroverts

    卻像是為外向者設計的

  • and for extroverts' need for lots of stimulation.

    提供很多的刺激給每個人

  • And also we have this belief system right now

    這樣的不成文社會慣例

  • that I call the new groupthink,

    我稱之為新團體思考

  • which holds that all creativity and all productivity

    把所有的想像力跟創造力

  • comes from a very oddly gregarious place.

    綑在一個群聚的團體中

  • So if you picture the typical classroom nowadays:

    所以,想像一個早期典型的教室:

  • When I was going to school,

    我以前上學時

  • we sat in rows.

    我們都排排坐在

  • We sat in rows of desks like this,

    行列整齊的書桌前

  • and we did most of our work pretty autonomously.

    各自做著我們的功課

  • But nowadays, your typical classroom

    但現在,普遍的教室

  • has pods of desks --

    都把桌椅和併成團--

  • four or five or six or seven kids all facing each other.

    四,五,六,七個小朋友面對面

  • And kids are working in countless group assignments.

    每個人都要參與團體作業

  • Even in subjects like math and creative writing,

    甚至連算數或是創意寫作

  • which you think would depend on solo flights of thought,

    這種可以獨自完成的作業

  • kids are now expected to act as committee members.

    都要小朋友像委員會成員一樣參與討論

  • And for the kids who prefer

    而那些想要獨自

  • to go off by themselves or just to work alone,

    或獨立完成作業的孩子

  • those kids are seen as outliers often

    被視為不和群的異類

  • or, worse, as problem cases.

    甚至是問題孩童

  • And the vast majority of teachers reports believing

    幾乎所有老師都認為

  • that the ideal student is an extrovert

    好的學生應該是外向活潑的

  • as opposed to an introvert,

    內向的孩子則正好相反

  • even though introverts actually get better grades

    雖然內向的孩子成績較好

  • and are more knowledgeable,

    甚至更博學多聞

  • according to research.

    這是根據研究論文的喔

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Okay, same thing is true in our workplaces.

    在職場上何嘗不是如此

  • Now, most of us work in open plan offices,

    我們大多在開放的空間工作

  • without walls,

    沒有隔閡

  • where we are subject

    我們持續暴露於

  • to the constant noise and gaze of our coworkers.

    嘈雜的聲音跟同事的目光下

  • And when it comes to leadership,

    而關於領導能力

  • introverts are routinely passed over for leadership positions,

    內向的人大多不被認為具有領導能力

  • even though introverts tend to be very careful,

    就算他們行事更謹慎

  • much less likely to take outsize risks --

    更不會為了出鋒頭冒不必要的險--

  • which is something we might all favor nowadays.

    我們不都偏好這種人當領袖嗎?

  • And interesting research by Adam Grant at the Wharton School

    Adam Grant研究發現

  • has found that introverted leaders

    這些內向的領導者

  • often deliver better outcomes than extroverts do,

    往往更能勝任領導職責

  • because when they are managing proactive employees,

    因為他們善於管理不同人才

  • they're much more likely to let those employees run with their ideas,

    讓有遠見的員工自由發揮

  • whereas an extrovert can, quite unwittingly,

    反之外向的領導者,不經意的

  • get so excited about things

    對事情反應過度

  • that they're putting their own stamp on things,

    他們的見解較為主觀

  • and other people's ideas might not as easily then

    這使很多員工的創新想法

  • bubble up to the surface.

    沒有機會被採用

  • Now in fact, some of our transformative leaders in history have been introverts.

    事實上,很多有改革力的偉大領袖是些內向的人

  • I'll give you some examples.

    羅斯福、蘿莎帕克斯、甘地

  • Eleanor Roosevelt, Rosa Parks, Gandhi --

    這些人對自我的描述都是

  • all these peopled described themselves

    內向,文靜,說話溫柔

  • as quiet and soft-spoken and even shy.

    甚至是害羞的人

  • And they all took the spotlight,

    他們矗立在鎂光燈下

  • even though every bone in their bodies

    不是因為他們天生愛指揮

  • was telling them not to.

    也不是想要萬眾矚目

  • And this turns out to have a special power all its own,

    他們成為領袖是因為一種使命感

  • because people could feel that these leaders were at the helm,

    因為他們深知這是必須要做的

  • not because they enjoyed directing others

    而人們可以明白感受到

  • and not out of the pleasure of being looked at;

    他們當領袖不是因為好大喜功

  • they were there because they had no choice,

    而是責任感

  • because they were driven to do what they thought was right.

    驅使他們做認為對的事情

  • Now I think at this point it's important for me to say

    現在我必須申明

  • that I actually love extroverts.

    我其實非常喜歡外向的人

  • I always like to say some of my best friends are extroverts,

    我很多知心友人都是外向者

  • including my beloved husband.

    我心愛的丈夫也是

  • And we all fall at different points, of course,

    內向外向就像個光譜

  • along the introvert/extrovert spectrum.

    而我們坐落在不同程度的兩端

  • Even Carl Jung, the psychologist who first popularized these terms, said

    心理學大師榮格如是說

  • that there's no such thing as a pure introvert

    事上沒有絕對的內向

  • or a pure extrovert.

    或是外向的人

  • He said that such a man would be in a lunatic asylum,

    即使真有這樣的人存在

  • if he existed at all.

    他就會被關進精神病院

  • And some people fall smack in the middle

    在這道內向外向的光譜上

  • of the introvert/extrovert spectrum,

    有的人剛好坐落在中間

  • and we call these people ambiverts.

    我們稱之為中間性格

  • And I often think that they have the best of all worlds.

    我認為他們是最值得稱讚的

  • But many of us do recognize ourselves as one type or the other.

    但大多數的我們都自認不是外向就是內向

  • And what I'm saying is that culturally we need a much better balance.

    我想表達的是,我們的社會文化需要平衡

  • We need more of a yin and yang

    需要內向外向

  • between these two types.

    陰與陽的調和

  • This is especially important

    這點在創造力與生產力的表現上

  • when it comes to creativity and to productivity,

    尤其重要

  • because when psychologists look

    因為根據心理學家的觀察

  • at the lives of the most creative people,

    最有創意的一群人

  • what they find

    不只擅長於

  • are people who are very good at exchanging ideas

    交換意見,溝通

  • and advancing ideas,

    與創新

  • but who also have a serious streak of introversion in them.

    更存有內向的特質

  • And this is because solitude is a crucial ingredient often

    偶發的孤獨感

  • to creativity.

    是創造力的關鍵

  • So Darwin,

    所以,達爾文

  • he took long walks alone in the woods

    會獨自在樹林間漫步

  • and emphatically turned down dinner party invitations.

    且斷然的拒絕晚餐宴會的邀約

  • Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss,

    Theodor Geisel,也就是「蘇斯博士」

  • he dreamed up many of his amazing creations

    是在他加州拉荷亞的老家

  • in a lonely bell tower office that he had

    一個寂寞鐘塔裡的書房

  • in the back of his house in La Jolla, California.

    創造出許多舉世聞名的童話書

  • And he was actually afraid to meet

    而他其實非常害怕

  • the young children who read his books

    跟他的小讀者們見面

  • for fear that they were expecting him

    因為他怕小朋友們

  • this kind of jolly Santa Claus-like figure

    看到他會期待落空

  • and would be disappointed with his more reserved persona.

    因為他不像聖誕老人那樣親和有趣

  • Steve Wozniak invented the first Apple computer

    Steve Wozniak 在惠普公司

  • sitting alone in his cubical

    的一個小辦公室裡

  • in Hewlett-Packard where he was working at the time.

    發明了世上第一台蘋果電腦

  • And he says that he never would have become such an expert in the first place

    他說他以前年輕時,如果不是

  • had he not been too introverted to leave the house

    因為太過內向而都宅在家裡

  • when he was growing up.

    他不可能可以成為了不起的工程師

  • Now of course,

    當然

  • this does not mean that we should all stop collaborating --

    這絕非告訴大家我們從此不要再合作了--

  • and case in point, is Steve Wozniak famously coming together with Steve Jobs

    好比 Steve Wozniak 和賈伯斯

  • to start Apple Computer --

    兩人同心協力才能創辦蘋果公司--

  • but it does mean that solitude matters

    但,獨立自主是非常重要的

  • and that for some people

    對一些人來說

  • it is the air that they breathe.

    這就是他們生活的方式

  • And in fact, we have known for centuries

    事實上,幾世紀以來

  • about the transcendent power of solitude.

    我們都知道獨處所帶來的推動力

  • It's only recently that we've strangely begun to forget it.

    但直到近期我們不知怎麼遺忘了

  • If you look at most of the world's major religions,

    世界上那些偉大的宗教領袖

  • you will find seekers --

    你會發現這些人--

  • Moses, Jesus, Buddha, Muhammad --

    摩西,耶稣,佛祖,穆罕默德 --

  • seekers who are going off by themselves

    他們都遠離塵囂

  • alone to the wilderness

    獨自走進曠野

  • where they then have profound epiphanies and revelations

    他們而後尋得啟示與頓悟

  • that they then bring back to the rest of the community.

    再把所得貢獻回他們的社會

  • So no wilderness, no revelations.

    所以,沒有獨處的荒野,就不會有啟示錄

  • This is no surprise though

    這其實不是什麼新鮮事

  • if you look at the insights of contemporary psychology.

    仔細的看看你周遭的人們

  • It turns out that we can't even be in a group of people

    我們如果不模仿彼此的言行舉止

  • without instinctively mirroring, mimicking their opinions.

    我們根本不會變成一個群體

  • Even about seemingly personal and visceral things

    我們甚至連價值觀

  • like who you're attracted to,

    都被大環境牽著走

  • you will start aping the beliefs of the people around you

    你甚至會在不知不覺中