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  • 4,300 years ago in ancient Sumer, the most powerful person in the city of Ur was banished to wander the vast desert.

    4300 年前,古蘇美爾烏爾城最有權勢的人被放逐到廣闊的沙漠。

  • Her name was Enheduanna.

    她的名字叫做恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna)。

  • She was the high priestess of the moon god and history's first known author.


  • By the time of her exile, she had written 42 hymns and three epic poems, and Sumer hadn't heard the last of her.

    她被放逐時,已經寫了 42 首聖歌和 3 首史詩,但她帶給蘇美爾人的創作不止於此。

  • Enheduanna lived 1,700 years before Sappho, 1,500 years before Homer, and about 500 years before the Biblical patriarch Abraham.

    恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 的誕生早於莎芙1700年、早於荷馬1500年、早於聖經中的族長亞伯拉罕約500年。

  • She was born in Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and the birthplace of the first cities and high cultures.


  • Her father was King Sargon the Great, history's first empire builder, who conquered the independent city-states of Mesopotamia under a unified banner.

    她的父親是薩爾貢 (Sargon) 大帝,史上第一個帝國締造者,統一了美索不達米亞的獨立城邦。

  • Sargon was a northern Semite who spoke Akkadian, and the older Sumerian cities in the south viewed him as a foreign invader.

    薩爾貢 (Sargon) 是說阿卡德語的北方閃米特人,而位於南方的蘇美爾舊城視他為外來入侵者。

  • They frequently revolted to regain their independence, fracturing his new dynasty.


  • To bridge the gap between cultures, Sargon appointed his only daughter, Enheduanna, as high priestess in the empire's most important temple.

    為了彌合文化差異,薩爾貢 (Sargon) 國王任命他唯一的女兒恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 為帝國最重要的廟宇的高級祭司。

  • Female royalty traditionally served religious roles, and she was educated to read and write in both Sumerian and Akkadian, and make mathematical calculations.


  • The world's first writing started in Sumer as a system of accounting, allowing merchants to communicate over long distances with traders abroad.


  • Their pictogram system of record keeping developed into a script about 300 years before Enheduanna's birth.

    他們的象形文字記錄系統在恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 出生前300年發展成文字。

  • This early writing style, called cuneiform, was written with a reed stylus pressed into soft clay to make wedge-shaped marks.


  • But until Enheduanna, this writing mostly took the form of record keeping and transcription, rather than original works attributable to individual writers.

    但在恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 之前,寫作多為記錄和抄寫而非獨立作家的原創作品。

  • Enheduanna's Ur was a city of 34,000 people with narrow streets, multi-storied brick homes, granaries, and irrigation.

    恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 所在的烏爾城擁有 34,000 人、狹窄的街道、多層樓磚房、糧倉和灌溉設施。

  • As high priestess, Enheduanna managed grain storage for the city, oversaw hundreds of temple workers, interpreted sacred dreams, and presided over the monthly new moon festival and rituals celebrating the equinoxes.

    身為高級祭司,恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 負責管理城市的糧食倉儲、監督數百名寺廟工人、解讀神聖的夢,並主持每個月的新月節慶和慶祝春分的儀式。

  • Enheduanna set about unifying the older Sumerian culture with the newer Akkadian civilization.

    恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 著手統一較舊的蘇美爾文化與較新的阿卡德文明。

  • To accomplish this, she wrote 42 religious hymns that combined both mythologies.


  • Each Mesopotamian city was ruled by a patron deity, so her hymns were dedicated to the ruling god of each major city.


  • She praised the city's temple, glorified the god's attributes, and explained the god's relationship to other deities within the pantheon.


  • In her writing, she humanized the once aloof gods: now they suffered, fought, loved, and responded to human pleading.


  • Enheduanna's most valuable literary contribution was the poetry she wrote to Inanna, goddess of war and desire, the divinely chaotic energy that gives spark to the universe.

    恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 最有價值的文學貢獻是她寫伊南娜 (Inanna) 的詩。伊南娜 (Inanna) 是戰爭與慾望之神,賦予宇宙火花的神聖混沌能量。

  • Inanna delighted in all forms of sexual expression and was considered so powerful that she transcended gender boundaries, as did her earthly attendants, who could be prostitutes, eunuchs, or cross-dressers.

    伊南娜 (Inanna) 樂於各種形式的性表達,祂強大到超越性別界線,就像祂的塵世侍從,可以是妓女、太監或變裝者。

  • Enheduanna placed Inanna at the top of the pantheon as the most powerful deity.

    恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 將伊南娜 (Inanna) 置於萬神殿的頂端,奉為最強大的神。

  • Her odes to Inanna mark the first time an author writes using the pronoun "I," and the first time writing is used to explore deep, private emotions.

    她寫給伊南娜 (Inanna) 的詩作是作家首次在寫作中使用代名詞「我」,也是史上首度利用寫作探索內心深處的私密情感。

  • After the death of Enheduanna's father, King Sargon, a general took advantage of the power vacuum and staged a coup.

    恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 的父親,薩爾貢 (Sargon) 國王過世後,一位將軍趁權力真空期發動政變。

  • As a powerful member of the ruling family, Enheduanna was a target, and the general exiled her from Ur.

    身為統治家族的強大成員,恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 成為眾人攻擊的目標,將軍將她驅逐出了烏爾城。

  • Her nephew, the legendary Sumerian king Naram-Sin, ultimately crushed the uprising and restored his aunt as the high priestess.

    她的姪子,傳說中的蘇美爾國王納拉姆辛 (Naram-Sin),最後鎮壓了暴動,恢復了姑姑高級祭司的職位。

  • In total, Enheduanna served as high priestess for 40 years.

    恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 總共擔任了40年的高級女祭司。

  • After her death, she became a minor deity, and her poetry was copied, studied, and performed throughout the empire for over 500 years.


  • Her poems influenced the Hebrew Old Testament, the epics of Homer, and Christian hymns.


  • Today, Enheduanna's legacy still exists, on clay tablets that have stood the test of time.

    恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 的遺產歷經了時間的考驗,至今仍然存在。

  • Enheduanna wasn't the only literary princess of old.

    恩赫杜安娜 (Enheduanna) 並非古代唯一的文學公主。

  • Take a look at the life and work of Anna Komnene, a historian torn between loyalty to her controversial family and loyalty to the truth.

    來看看歷史學家 Anna Komnene 夾在忠於備受爭議的家族和忠於真理之間,左右為難的生活和工作方式。

4,300 years ago in ancient Sumer, the most powerful person in the city of Ur was banished to wander the vast desert.

4300 年前,古蘇美爾烏爾城最有權勢的人被放逐到廣闊的沙漠。

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