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  • Oh, excuse me!

    不好意思!

  • Have you ever yawned

    別人打哈欠

  • because somebody else yawned?

    你會不會也打哈欠?

  • You aren't especially tired,

    其實沒有特別累

  • yet suddenly your mouth opens wide

    但突然就張大嘴巴

  • and a big yawn

    一個大哈欠

  • comes out.

    就跑出來了

  • This phenomenon is known as contagious yawning.

    這現象叫哈欠傳染

  • And while scientists still don't fully understand

    對於背後的原因

  • why it happens,

    科學家還不完全了解

  • there are many hypotheses currently being researched.

    但已經有人在研究各種假說

  • Let's take a look at a few

    讓我們來了解

  • of the most prevalent ones,

    一些廣為流傳的說法

  • beginning with two physiological hypotheses

    先聽聽 2 種生理假說

  • before moving to a psychological one.

    再看看 1 種心理假說

  • Our first physiological hypothesis

    第 1 種生理假說認為

  • states that contagious yawning

    哈欠傳染其來有自

  • is triggered by a specific stimulus,

    會由特定刺激引起

  • an initial yawn.

    就是最初的哈欠

  • This is called fixed action pattern.

    這叫固定行為模式

  • Think of fixed action pattern like a reflex.

    有點像反射動作

  • Your yawn makes me yawn.

    你的哈欠讓我打哈欠

  • Similar to a domino effect,

    類似多米諾骨牌效應

  • one person's yawn triggers a yawn

    一個人的哈欠

  • in a person nearby that has observed the act.

    讓附近看到的人也打哈欠

  • Once this reflex is triggered,

    這效應一旦啟動

  • it must run its course.

    就會持續一定的時間

  • Have you ever tried to stop a yawn

    快打哈欠時

  • once it has begun?

    你有試過阻止自己嗎?

  • Basically impossible!

    根本不可能!

  • Another physiological hypothesis

    第 2 種生理假說

  • is known as non-conscious mimicry,

    叫無意識模仿

  • or the chameleon effect.

    又稱變色龍效應

  • This occurs when you imitate someone's behavior

    人會模仿他人的行為

  • without knowing it,

    下意識地

  • a subtle and unintentional copycat maneuver.

    做出細微、自然的複製動作

  • People tend to mimic each other's postures.

    人會模仿他人的姿勢

  • If you are seated across from someone

    像是對面的人翹腳

  • that has their legs crossed,

    你看到了

  • you might cross your own legs.

    很有可能也會翹起腳來

  • This hypothesis suggests

    這假說認為

  • that we yawn when we see someone else yawn

    看到別人打哈欠就跟進

  • because we are unconsciously copying

    是因為不知不覺中

  • his or her behavior.

    我們會模仿他人的行為

  • Scientists believe that this chameleon effect

    科學家相信

  • is possible because of a special set of neurons

    變色龍效應可能和特殊的神經元有關

  • known as mirror neurons.

    也就是鏡像神經元

  • Mirror neurons are a type of brain cell

    鏡像神經元是一群腦細胞

  • that responds equally when we perform an action

    像鏡子一樣

  • as when we see someone else

    看到他人的動作後

  • perform the same action.

    我們會做出相同的動作

  • These neurons are important

    這組神經元很重要

  • for learning and self-awareness.

    尤其對學習和自我覺察

  • For example, watching someone do something physical,

    例如,看到別人的動作

  • like knitting

    像是編織

  • or putting on lipstick,

    或是擦口紅

  • can help you do those same actions more accurately.

    能讓我們精確地做出相同的動作

  • Neuroimaging studies using fMRI,

    腦神經影像利用醫學技術

  • functional magnetic resonance imaging,

    也就是功能性核磁共振造影

  • shows that when we seem someone yawn

    發現看到別人打哈欠

  • or even hear their yawn,

    或只是聽到哈欠聲

  • a specific area of the brain

    我們腦中

  • housing these mirror neurons

    有鏡像神經元的區塊

  • tends to light up,

    會有反應

  • which, in turn, causes us to respond

    促使我們做出回應

  • with the same action: a yawn.

    重複相同的動作:打哈欠

  • Our psychological hypothesis also involves

    最後要談的心理假說

  • the work of these mirror neurons.

    也和鏡像神經元有關

  • We will call it the empathy yawn.

    稱為同理哈欠

  • Empathy is the ability to understand

    同理心是種能力

  • what someone else is feeling

    能感知他人的感受

  • and partake in their emotion,

    融入對方的情緒

  • a crucial ability for social animals like us.

    對人這種社會性動物很重要

  • Recently, neuroscientists have found

    近來,神經學家發現

  • that a subset of mirror neurons

    鏡像神經元有組子集

  • allows us to empathize with others' feelings

    能讓我們同理他人

  • at a deeper level.

    而且是深層同理

  • Scientists discovered

    事實上

  • this empathetic response to yawning

    同理哈欠現象

  • while testing the first hypothesis we mentioned,

    是在測試固定行為時

  • fixed action pattern.

    所發現的

  • This study was set up to show

    這研究假設

  • that dogs would enact a yawn reflex

    如果狗聽到人類打哈欠

  • at the mere sound of a human yawn.

    也會反射性地打起哈欠

  • While their study showed this to be true,

    不僅證實了這種現象

  • they found something else interesting.

    還發現了其他有趣的事

  • Dogs yawned more frequently at familiar yawns,

    熟人的哈欠對狗比較有影響力

  • such as from their owner's,

    像是主人

  • than at unfamiliar yawns from strangers.

    但對陌生人就不是了

  • Following this research,

    同樣地

  • other studies on humans and primates

    以人類和靈長類為研究對象

  • have also shown that contagious yawning

    也證實哈欠傳染

  • occurs more frequently among friends than strangers.

    在熟人間發生的機率高於陌生人

  • In fact, contagious yawning starts occurring

    事實上,早在4、5 歲時

  • when we are about four or five years old,

    對哈欠傳染就有反應了

  • at the point when children

    那時

  • develop the ability to identify others' emotions properly.

    兒童開始能正確了解他人的情緒

  • Still, while newer scientific studies aim

    儘管相關研究推陳出新

  • to prove that contagious yawning

    想證明哈欠傳染的產生

  • is based on this capacity for empathy,

    是因為同理能力

  • more research is needed

    但其實

  • to shed light on what exactly is going on.

    更需要研究的是背後的機制

  • It's possible that the answer lies

    說不定真正的答案

  • in another hypothesis all together.

    就藏在其他假說裡

  • The next time you get caught in a yawn,

    下次打哈欠時

  • take a second to think about what just happened.

    停下來想想剛才的情形

  • Were you thinking about a yawn?

    是不是想到了哈欠這件事?

  • Did someone near you yawn?

    附近有人打哈欠嗎?

  • Was that person a stranger or someone close?

    是熟人?還是陌生人?

  • And are you yawning right now?

    你現在在打哈欠嗎?

Oh, excuse me!

不好意思!

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 哈欠 假說 傳染 神經元 熟人

【TED-Ed】什麼?打哈欠也會傳染?! (Why is yawning contagious? - Claudia Aguirre)

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