Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Hello.

    大家好

  • Since early childhood,

    我從小時候起

  • I have been interested in the mind,

    就對心靈相當感興趣

  • in consciousness,

    包含意識、

  • in understanding reality,

    理解現實

  • and through that, help others.

    以及藉由這些方面來幫助他人

  • I was wondering

    我想知道

  • if anybody of you

    你們當中是否有人

  • has not ask these questions to themselves:

    從沒問過自己以下的這些問題:

  • What is consciousness?

    什麼是意識?

  • What is reality?

    什麼是現實?

  • Well, for me this has been my life long passion.

    對我來說 探索這些問題是我人生的志業

  • And, I've been inspired by that

    我獲得許多啟發

  • and I have been having that motivation

    並且也有

  • to find out more.

    深入了解的動機

  • In order to understand these fascinating topics,

    為了瞭解這些令人著迷的題目

  • I thought I had to decide between

    我想 我必須決定是要學習

  • either studying physics,

    物理學還是醫學

  • or medicine or maybe philosophy,

    又或者該念哲學

  • but that was not a hard science,

    但哲學並非自然科學

  • or psychology.

    或者是念心理學

  • So, I decided to study pharmacology

    最後 我決定修讀藥理學

  • because I knew that there was the whole

    因為我知道藥理學包含了

  • range of fascinating substances

    許多對心靈產生影響的

  • that had an effect on the mind.

    化學物質

  • I thought that by studying these substances,

    藉由學習這些化學物質

  • I will have a better understanding of

    我想我將能更了解

  • what is the mind

    什麼是意志

  • and how it works.

    以及它如何運作

  • Little did I know.

    當時的我還搞不懂狀況

  • After finishing my studies,

    完成學位之後

  • I worked many years with people

    我花了好幾年的時間

  • who had addictions, depressions,

    研究成癮症、憂鬱症、

  • anxieties, fears,

    焦慮症、恐懼症

  • and other mental illnesses.

    以及其他精神疾病

  • We were very skilled at defining

    我們非常擅長定義

  • mental disorders and dysfunctions.

    何謂心理失調與官能障礙

  • But what is a healthy mind?

    但健康的心靈是什麼樣子?

  • A mind that flourishes

    一個蓬勃發展的心靈、

  • that is actually happy.

    確實快樂的心靈

  • We had no clue.

    我們毫無頭緒

  • We were giving these some

    我們過去給了一些

  • strong substances, but they rarely helped

    強烈的藥物處方

  • with the mental causes that

    但它們卻很少在第一時間

  • triggered these dysfunctions in the first place.

    對觸發這些官能障礙的心理因素產生幫助

  • Addictions, for example,

    以成癮症為例

  • do not begin with a physiological dependency.

    並非一開始就是一種生理依賴

  • They are actually triggered

    它實際上

  • by other mental causes that lead to

    是受到其他心理因素所觸發

  • that, such as craving and desire

    舉例來說 患者可能對滿足與快樂

  • for pleasures and happiness.

    有一種強烈的渴求與欲望

  • Following my work with people who

    在我接觸到

  • have these challenges with mental disorders,

    這些飽受精神障礙所苦的人之後

  • I then signed up with an organization

    我報名參加了一個

  • called Pharmaciens sans Frontieres,

    叫做無國界藥師的組織

  • which is an organization like

    它是一個類似

  • decins Sans Frontières but for

    無國界醫師組織

  • pharmacist. And I worked in Asia

    但由藥劑師所組成

  • with people who had leprosy,

    我那時在亞洲工作 接觸到一些

  • tuberculosis and parasites,

    患有痲瘋病、肺結核、

  • serious cases of parasites.

    以及被寄生蟲嚴重感染的人

  • And it really struck me

    我被深深地打動

  • and I was really surprised to see these people

    而且我非常驚訝看到這些

  • that had actually physical disintegration.

    身體上不完整的人

  • But they were in many ways more happy

    在各方面反而比那些

  • than the people I was working

    過去我在瑞士那清淨的環境工作時

  • back in Switzerland where it's clean.

    所接觸到的人更快樂

  • These people in Switzerland had

    在瑞士的這些人

  • physical well-being but

    他們的身體安康

  • were actually disintegrating mentally.

    但實際上心理卻不完整

  • These really confused me.

    這真的使我很困惑

  • I was looking and I was trying to find

    我試著找出

  • scientific explanation of what that cause was.

    是什麼樣的原因以及

  • Why that happened?

    為什麼會發生這種情況的科學解釋

  • With the tools that I had learned,

    過去我所學的

  • I was not able to describe

    並無法讓我很容易地

  • these actual experiences of these people

    了解這些人的狀況

  • who were disintegrating mentally

    他們的不同

  • or were different because

    是因為心理上不完整

  • they were disintegrating physically too.

    還是因為身體上也不完整呢?

  • So even less could I understand them.

    若是這樣 我更沒有解答

  • I was really confused and was looking for

    我著實感到疑惑

  • a scientific explanation.

    並尋求科學解釋

  • It's during that research

    正是在進行那個研究的時候

  • that I encountered the Buddhist teachings

    我接觸到了佛教教義

  • and its systematic methodology

    及其透過實際經驗來分析現實

  • of analyzing reality through actual experience.

    這套有系統的方法論

  • While in modern science,

    在現代科學當中

  • we look at reality as if it were out there,

    我們看現實的方式 就彷彿它一直都在那裡

  • as if there is something out there

    彷彿有什麼不受我們理解方式所支配

  • independent of our way of perceiving it.

    而存在那裡

  • Some schools in Buddhism,

    在某些佛學院內

  • they take mind as the center

    他們視心靈為

  • of experienced reality.

    五種感官結論的中心

  • In many ways,

    在許多方面

  • when I discovered that,

    當我發現到

  • this was the missing link between

    這是兩個世界之間

  • these two worlds,

    所缺失的環節

  • a science of the mind par excellence,

    是一門心靈卓越的科學

  • I was hooked and accordingly I spent

    我就此迷上

  • the next eleven years in Dharamsala

    並因此花了接下來十一年的時間

  • in India among the Tibetan community

    待在印度德蘭薩拉

  • in exile.

    跟隨著流亡的西藏社群

  • I first learned Tibetan,

    我首先學習藏語

  • and then in Tibetan,

    接著透過藏語

  • I studied philosophy,

    我研讀哲學、

  • Buddhist dialectics,

    佛教辯證法、

  • practice, and also debate.

    佛教的修行以及佛法辯經

  • But it's there that I met

    在那裡我遇見了

  • His Holiness the Dalai Lama

    達賴喇嘛尊者

  • and met a group of scientists

    並遇見了一群科學家

  • who were coming up to Dharamsala

    他們每兩到三年

  • every two to three years

    來德蘭薩拉一回

  • to hold dialogues with him around science.

    與尊者舉行有關科學的對話

  • These were the mind and life dialogues.

    這是心靈與生命的對話

  • I had the privilege to join this group.

    我有幸加入這個團體

  • And after few years, I had the honor

    並在幾年後

  • also to moderate some of the proceedings.

    有幸參與以及主持一些會議

  • These meetings have been going on since 1987.

    這項集會從1987年持續舉辦到現在

  • At the beginning were behind close doors.

    它起初是不對外開放

  • They were the private exploration of topics

    他們私下探索包括

  • such as sleeping, dreaming and dying

    睡眠、作夢、死亡、

  • or destructive emotions

    破壞性情緒、

  • or quantum physics

    量子物理、

  • as well as craving, desire, and addiction.

    還有渴求、慾望以及上癮等題材

  • over the years, these gatherings have also

    多年來

  • taken place in public.

    這些集會也公開舉行

  • And, many of these dialogues

    而且在會議中的

  • in these proceedings have been

    許多對話

  • actually published as books

    也被出版成書

  • and have been translated into

    並翻譯成

  • many languages.

    多種語言

  • On the YouTube,

    你也可以直接

  • you can also even find some

    在YouTube上找到

  • of the dialogues directly as

    一些在會議過程中

  • they were filmed during the proceedings.

    所錄下的對話

  • All of these meetings were arranged by

    所有的研討會皆由

  • the Mind and Life Institute

    「心靈與生命協會」籌辦

  • and hosted by His Holiness the Dalai Lama,

    並由達賴喇嘛尊者主持

  • who is also the Mind and Life honorary chairman

    他同時是心靈與生命協會的榮譽主席

  • and co-founder of this institute.

    也是共同創辦人

  • Mind and Life Institute seeks to

    心靈與生命協會致力於

  • bridge and integrate contemplative wisdom

    連結並整合

  • and practices with modern research capabilities,

    能觀的智慧與現代研究

  • and then, use the resulting knowledge

    把產生的知識

  • to catalyze and initiate programs

    用來催化和啟動研究方案

  • to alleviate suffering and

    包含如何減緩痛苦、

  • promote human flourishing.

    提倡人類蓬勃發展等等計劃

  • And here it's important to differentiate that

    這裡有很重要的一點要區別

  • we are not talking about pain,

    我們不是談論關於肉體的疼痛

  • we are talking about mental suffering.

    我們談的是精神層面的痛苦

  • During a meeting in the year 2000,

    在2000年的會議中

  • His Holiness the Dalai Lama

    達賴喇嘛尊者

  • challenged the scientist present and said,

    挑戰這些科學家並說:

  • "All these dialogues are very interesting,

    「所有的討論都非常有趣,

  • but what can we do for society?

    但我們可以為社會做些什麼?

  • Can you with your tools,

    你能不能用你所學的一切

  • prove that what we think is beneficial

    證明我們所想的有益方法

  • to really be of benefit?

    是真正有益的?

  • And if it's beneficial,

    如果這是有益的

  • then we should make it available to everybody."

    我們就應該讓所有人取得這些方法」

  • This unleashed the whole new range

    這解開了基礎研究

  • of basic research

    整個嶄新的範疇

  • what we nowadays call contemplative science.

    也就是我們現在所謂「冥想科學」

  • One question that I was having is,

    我當時有一個問題:

  • "how can such dialogue unfold

    「如何在各自抱持著不同世界觀下

  • when you have world views that are so different?"

    展開這類的對話?」

  • It was helpful for me

    幫助我理解的方法是

  • to hear His Holiness the Dalai Lama

    聆聽達賴喇嘛尊者

  • defining three parts of Buddhism.

    對佛學三個部分的定義

  • Buddhist science,

    佛教科學、

  • Buddhist philosophy,

    佛教哲學、

  • and Buddhist religion.

    以及佛教信仰

  • These dialogues focus on the first two:

    這些討論聚焦在前兩個部分

  • Buddhist science and Buddhist philosophy,

    也就是佛教科學與佛教哲學

  • which His Holiness encourage us to take out religion

    尊者鼓勵我們除去信仰的部分

  • because after all,

    因為這部分畢竟是

  • this is one's individual choice.

    個人的選擇

  • So, when we talk about science,

    所以當我們談論科學時

  • it might be important and helpful

    我們先了解「科學」這個字的起源

  • to understand the English word science

    英文字「科學」(science)

  • comes from the Latin word 'scientia'

    是來自拉丁文 "scientia"

  • meaning knowledge.

    代表「知識」之意

  • So science is defined as a systematic

    科學被定義為一個

  • enterprise that builds and organizes

    有步驟的、龐大的發展體系

  • knowledge in the form of testable explanations

    科學的知識 都是從可被解釋的實驗或現象觀察

  • and predictions about the world.

    一個個建立、累積下來

  • It is important here to note that

    在這裡特別要注意到

  • it doesn't say how this knowledge is acquired,

    這並不是在談如何取得這項知識

  • only that it needs to be testable,

    它只是需要被測試

  • it needs to make explanations,

    需要被解釋

  • and that it needs to make predictions about the world.

    需要做出關於世界的現象觀察

  • So accordingly one method to gain knowledge

    因此取得知識的一個方法

  • is by looking inside

    就是藉由往內看

  • and explore the inner world.

    探索內心世界

  • This is something that contemplative practitioners,

    而這就是進行冥想的人、

  • psychologists, and psychoanalysts

    心理學家、精神分析學家

  • have been doing.

    一直以來所做的事

  • This is what we call the first person exploration

    這就是我們所謂

  • of the inner world.

    第一人稱的內心世界探索

  • On the other side,

    從另一方面來說

  • by looking outside,

    藉由向外看

  • and explore the outer world,

    探索外在世界

  • you can also gaining knowledge.

    你也可以獲得知識

  • This is what science has been doing

    這就是從伽利略·伽利莱以來

  • since let's say Galileo Galilei.

    科學一直在做的事

  • It's an observational of the external world

    它是個對外在世界的觀察

  • and is therefore called the third person

    所以也被稱為

  • perspective of the world.

    第三人稱視角的世界

  • It is my conviction that

    我相信這兩種

  • these two ways of acquiring knowledge

    取得知識的方式

  • do not need to be mutually exclusive.

    不需要是互斥的

  • There are many aspects that speak to that

    有很多跡象

  • combination such as the exploration

    表明這樣的結合

  • of actual experience,

    像是實際經驗的探索、

  • such as what are you experiencing right now?

    像是你現在所感受到的

  • This is something only you can

    這是只有你能夠

  • actually access.

    實際接近的

  • I can't.

    我不能

  • Nobody else can.

    沒有人可以

  • And also the effect of mental training.

    當然還有心理訓練的影響

  • To me, this combination

    對我而言

  • can be seen in this iconic image

    這樣的結合能透過以下的肖像照

  • of the Yogi in the lab.

    「實驗室的瑜伽修行者」 察覺出來

  • The Yogi is the long-term practitioner

    瑜伽修行者是一位長期實踐者

  • that has dedicated his life

    他花了一輩子的時間

  • to really understand the inside

    真正地去了解

  • of his mental world.

    自己的內心世界

  • There several ways how this image

    這張「實驗室的瑜伽修行者」照片

  • can be interpreted.

    有好幾種詮釋方式

  • And this image has also been featured on

    順帶一提 這張照片也曾登上

  • National Geographic and on

    國家地理雜誌與

  • Time Magazine by the way.

    時代雜誌

  • On the one side,

    一方面

  • there is the science of meditation

    這是冥想的科學

  • where meditation become the object of investigation.

    冥想成為調查的對象

  • We call this the science of meditation.

    我們稱之為冥想的科學

  • On the other side,

    另一方面

  • meditation itself can be a method

    冥想本身可以是一種

  • to explore and gain knowledge.

    探索和取得知識的方法

  • So meditation as science.

    所以冥想作為科學

  • Through this, one gains insight

    人們可以藉此

  • into the mental process

    洞悉心理過程

  • and to actual experience.

    以及實際經驗

  • Research in consciousness therefore require

    因此研究意識

  • an integrated research method,

    需要採取綜合的研究方法

  • a method that includes multiple disciplines,

    來自各種學科的學者們

  • and scientists from neuroscience,

    包含神經科學、

  • from clinical science,

    臨床科學、

  • from philosophy,

    哲學和

  • and most important from contemplative traditions.

    最重要的冥想式傳統學

  • So over the last twenty years,

    所以在過去二十年

  • a lot has changed

    有關意識的科學研究

  • in regard to the scientific study of consciousness.

    有了許多改變

  • New tools, new methods, and

    新的工具、新的方法、

  • new insights were combined

    新的理解被結合在一起

  • and have led to much

    並因此產生許多

  • ground-breaking understanding.

    具開創性的理解

  • First steps were taken in that direction

    一群科學家於1992年

  • in 1992 when a group of scientists came

    來到印度德蘭薩拉時

  • to Dharamsala in India,

    朝這個方向邁開了第一步