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  • My story begins in Zimbabwe


  • with a brave park ranger named Orpheus

    當我遇見一位叫做 Orpheus 的 勇敢野生動物保護員

  • and an injured buffalo.


  • And Orpheus looked at the buffalo on the ground, and he looked at me,

    Orpheus 看著地上的水牛 然後轉頭凝視著我

  • and as our eyes met, there was an unspoken grief between the three of us.

    當我們目光相遇的時候 一種潛在的悲痛緊扣在我們三個之間

  • She was a beautifully wild and innocent creature,


  • and Orpheus lifted the muzzle of his rifle to her ear. (Gunshot)

    Orpheus 解開手中步槍的保險栓 對著她的耳朵扣下了板機(槍聲)

  • And at that moment, she started to give birth.


  • As life slipped from the premature calf, we examined the injuries.

    當我們開始檢測她的傷勢時 發現早產小牛的生命正在流失

  • Her back leg had been caught in an eight-strand wire snare.


  • She'd fought for freedom [for] so hard and so long


  • that she'd ripped her pelvis in half.


  • Well, she was finally free.


  • Ladies and gentlemen, today I feel a great sense of responsibility

    各位先生、女士 今晚我背負著沉重的責任

  • in speaking to you on behalf of those that never could.


  • Their suffering is my grief, is my motivation.

    牠們的痛苦是我的悲傷 也是我前進的動力

  • Martin Luther King best summarises my call to arms here today.

    馬丁.路德.金恩有段話 能總結今天我要說我的一切

  • He said, "There comes a time when one must take a position that's neither safe,

    他說:「總有那麼一天, 人們做的選擇不該是安全

  • nor politic, nor popular.


  • But he must take that position because his conscience tells him that it's right."


  • Because his conscience tells him it is right.


  • At the end of this talk I'm gonna ask you all a question.


  • That question is the only reason I traveled here today

    這個問題是今天我遠從 非洲大草原來到這裡的唯一原因

  • all the way from the African savanna.


  • That question for me has cleansed my soul.


  • How you answer that question will always be yours.

    當我是個小男孩的時候 我看了電影《綠野仙蹤》

  • I remember watching the movie The Wizard of Oz as a young kid,


  • and I was never scared of the witch or the flying monkeys.

    我最害怕的是,我會像故事裡的那隻獅子 沒有勇氣的長大成人

  • My greatest fear was that I'd grow up like the Lion, without courage.

    等我長大了總是問自己 我覺得自己勇敢嗎?

  • And I grew up always asking myself if I thought I'd be brave?


  • Well, years after Dorothy had made her way back to Kansas,


  • and the Lion had found his courage,


  • I walked into a tattoo parlor and had the words


  • 'Seek and Destroy' tattooed across my chest.


  • And I thought that'd make me big and brave.

    但是這些感觸卻花了我 近十年的時間來化為文字

  • But it'd take me almost a decade to grow into those words.

    當我 20 歲時,我是海軍的清潔潛水夫

  • By the age of 20 I'd become a clearance diver in the navy.

    25 歲時,身為特戰部隊的狙擊手

  • By 25, as a special operations sniper,

    如果要從 700 米外擊中移動中的目標頭部

  • I knew exactly how many clicks of elevation I needed on the scope of my rifle

    我能精準地從瞄準器上判斷 來福槍的準星要向上調整幾響

  • to take a headshot on a moving target from 700m away.


  • I knew exactly how many grams of high explosives it takes


  • to blast through a steel plate door from only a few meters away,


  • without blowing myself, or my team, up behind me.

    我知道巴格達是多麼低劣的地方 只要「砰」的一聲

  • And I knew that Baghdad was a shitty place, and when things go bang,


  • well, people die.

    回歸正題,當我還不懂 什麼叫做保育的時候

  • Now back then, I'd no idea what a conservationist did,

    我以為那只是去擁抱樹 和惹大型企業生氣的事情(笑聲)

  • other than hug trees and piss off large corporations. (Laughter)

    我知道他們有綁辮子 我知道他們抽大麻(笑聲)

  • I knew they had dreadlocks. I knew they smoked dope. (Laughter)

    過去我從來沒有真正的關心過環境 為什麼我要關心?

  • I didn't really give a shit about the environment, and why should I?

    我還曾經像個白癡似的在路上 開車時加快速度試著去撞鳥

  • I was the idiot that used to speed up in his car just trying to hit birds on the road.


  • My life was a world away from conservation.


  • I'd just spent nine years doing things in real life

    去做一件大部分人覺得只會發生 在遊戲機內的射擊槍殺工作

  • most people wouldn't dream of trying on a Playstation.

    經過十二次出兵至伊拉克作為所謂的傭兵 我學到了一個非常專業的技能:

  • Well, after 12 tours to Iraq as a so-called 'mercenary', the skills I had were good for one thing:


  • I was programmed to destroy.

    回頭看過去我所做的每件事 以及去過的每個地方

  • Looking back now, on everything I've done, and the places I've been,


  • in my heart, I've only ever performed one true act of bravery.

    那只是一個簡單的決定: 「要」或「不要」

  • And that was a simple choice of deciding 'Yes' or deciding 'No'.


  • But it was that one act which defines me completely

    而且確保在我是誰和我做的事之間 不會有一絲分岐

  • and ensures there'll never be separation between who I am, and what I do.


  • When I finally left Iraq behind me I was lost.


  • Yeah I feltahh – I just had no idea where I was going in life

    我不知道自己要做什麼 我在 2009 年初抵達非洲

  • or where I was meant to be and I arrived in Africa at the beginning of 2009.

    當時我 29 歲

  • I was aged 29 at the time.

    不知怎麼的,當我感到一團混亂的時候 我總能發現我的目標

  • Somehow, I always knew I'd find a purpose amongst chaos,


  • and that's exactly what happened.

    雖然我沒料到自己會在 辛巴威的叢林裡找到目標

  • I'd no idea though, I'd find it in a remote part of the Zimbabwe bush.


  • And we were patrolling along, and the vultures circled in the air

    當我們一步步接近死亡的惡臭 空氣中就像是一層厚厚的面紗

  • and as we got closer the stench of death hung there, in the air like a thick, dark veil,


  • and sucked the oxygen out of your lungs.


  • And as we got closer, there was a great bull elephant,


  • resting on its side, with its face cut away.


  • And the world around me stopped.


  • I was consumed by a deep and overwhelming sadness.

    看著無辜的動物這樣被殺死 這樣的感受是我從未面臨過的打擊

  • Seeing innocent creatures killed like this hit me in a way like nothing before.

    在我還是青少年時,我曾偷獵動物 那是我想在死時帶著一起埋葬的回憶

  • I'd actually poached as a teenager and they're memories I'll take to the grave.

    時間改變了我許多 我的內在已全然不同

  • Time had changed me though; something inside wasn't the same.


  • And it's never gonna be again.

    我問自己:「比起那隻大象 需要自己的臉的程度

  • I asked myself, "Does that elephant need its face

    某個亞洲人更需要在桌面上 放上牠的象牙嗎?」

  • more than some guy in Asia needs a tusk on his desk?"


  • Well of course it bloody does, that was irrelevant.


  • All that mattered there and then was:

    我是否願意拿出勇氣放棄生命中的一切 來幫助動物不再受苦?

  • Would I be brave enough to give up everything in my life


  • to try and stop the suffering of animals?


  • This was the one true defining moment of my life:

    第二天我聯繫了我的家人 然後開始賣掉了我的房子

  • Yes or no?

    對一個明智的傭兵而言 賺取資產最快最多的方式來自於戰爭

  • I contacted my family the next day and began selling all my houses.

    我一生的積蓄都開始拿來用在 推動國際反盜獵基金會

  • These are assets a well-advised mercenary quickly acquires with the proceeds of war.

    國際反盜獵基金會是一個 採取直接行動與執法的機構

  • My life-savings have since been used to found and grow


  • the International Anti-Poaching Foundation.

    我們每天都在戰鬥 希望把軍事解決方式用來

  • The IAPF is a direct-action, law enforcement organization.


  • From drone technology, to an international qualification for rangers,


  • we're battling each and every day to bring military solutions

    但我並不打算用它 來談我正在工作的組織

  • to conservation's thin green line.


  • Now my story may be slightly unique,


  • but I'm not going to use it to talk to you today about the organization I run --


  • in what probably could have been a pretty good fundraiser.

    我不可能起床後到這裡 只是為了談論拯救野生動物

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    因為我知道動物福利 在社會中有更廣泛的問題

  • Remember, today is about the question I'm gonna ask you at the end.

    在我看到那隻大象的幾年之後 有天我起得特別早

  • Because it's impossible for me to get up here and talk about just saving wildlife

    我已經知道了我總是 問自己的那個問題的答案了

  • when I know the problem of animal welfare is much broader throughout society.


  • A few years after I saw that elephant I woke up very early one morning.

    「到底一頭牛的生命價值 是否比我享受燒烤 BBQ 更重要?」

  • I already knew the answer to the question I was about to ask myself,

    這段時間裡我一直內疚著 「物種歧視」這個詞

  • but it was the first time I'd put it into words:

    物種歧視就像是一種 種族歧視或是性別歧視

  • Does a cow value its life more than I enjoy a barbecue?

    它涉及了對不同價值、權利 或是針對個人特殊需求的分配

  • See, I'd been guilty all this time of what's termed 'speciesism'.


  • Speciesism is very much the same as racism or sexism.


  • It involves the allocation of a different set of values,

    所產生的彈性道德觀 我感到十分噁心

  • rights or special considerations to individuals,

    你看,我一直愛指責亞洲地區 對象牙和犀牛角貪得無厭的需求

  • based solely on who or what they are.


  • The realisation of the flexible morality


  • I'd used to suit my everyday conveniences made me sick in the stomach.


  • See, I'd loved blaming parts of Asia for their insatiable demand for ivory and rhino horn,


  • and the way the region's booming economic growth


  • is dramatically increasing the illegal wildlife trade.

    或是亞洲那些將象牙飾品 擺在辦公桌上的人好多少

  • When I woke up that morning though I realised,

    由於這種「過度消費的肉食者」 我把這些動物稱為「禽獸」

  • even though I'd dedicated my life to saving animals,


  • in my mind I was no better than a poacher,


  • or the guy in Asia with a tusk on his desk.


  • As this 'over-consumptive meat-eater' I'd referred to some animals as 'beasts'.

    我們不能否認我們知道 這些動物都有感情

  • When in reality I'd been the beast: destructively obedient,


  • a slave to my habits, a cold shoulder to my conscience.


  • We've all had contact with pets or other animals in our lives.

    就如同我們一樣,每種動物 都有表達知足的能力

  • We can't deny our understanding of the feelings that each animal has.

    建立家庭結構 以及滿足基本的本能和慾望

  • The ability to suffer pain or loneliness.


  • And to fear.


  • Like us also, each animal has the ability to express contentment,


  • to build family structures, and want of satisfying basic instincts and desires.

    購買產品以及實際將產品 帶到市場的成本之間

  • For many of us though,


  • that's as far as we allow our imagination to explore

    動物被用像商品的方式對待 變成了我們的資產

  • before the truth inconveniences our habits.

    我們把殺了一個人類,稱為「謀殺」 在還沒有建立合法和非法的行業裡

  • The disconnect that exists between consuming a product


  • and the reality it takes to bring that product to market is a phenomenon to itself.

    我們付錢請人對這些動物做這些事情時 我們沒有人會親自參與動手

  • Animals are treated like commodities and referred to as property.

    只因為我們不想看見這個市場關閉 但並不意味著我們不需要承擔責任

  • We call it 'murder' to kill a human being yet create legal and illegal industries

    以討論「物種岐視」一詞為名的 彼得•辛格(Peter Singer)曾寫到:

  • out of what would be regarded as torture if humans were involved.


  • And we pay people to do things to animals that none of us would engage in personally.


  • Just because we don't see it up close does not mean we're not responsible.


  • Peter Singer, the man who popularised the term 'speciesism' wrote,


  • "Although there may be differences between animals and humans


  • they each share the ability to suffer.

    今年全世界大概有 650 億隻動物 在畜牧工廠中被宰殺

  • And we must give equal consideration to that suffering.


  • Any position that allows similar cases to be treated in a dissimilar fashion

    這個演講廳裡,一名肉食者平均 一輩子可以消耗大約 8,000 隻動物

  • fails to qualify as an acceptable moral theory."


  • Around the world this year 65 billion animals will be killed in factory farms.


  • How many animals' lives is one human's life worth?


  • A meat-eater in this room will consume, on average, 8,000 animals in their lifetime.

    非法的野生動物交易,現在已名列為 世界最嚴重的犯罪產業之一

  • Ocean pollution, global warming and deforestation


  • are driving us towards the next great mass-extinction


  • and the meat industry is the greatest negative factor in all of these phenomena.


  • The illegal traffic in wildlife now ranks as one of the largest criminal industries in the world --


  • it's up there with drugs, guns and human trafficking.


  • The ability to stop this devastation

    如果動物跟人類如此相似 我們可以用牠們做為人類的替代品

  • lies in the willingness of an international community


  • to step in and preserve a dying global treasure.


  • Experimentation on animals

    不管我們正在講的是畜牧工廠 牲畜出口、動物偷獵還是毛皮交易

  • If animals are so like us that we can substitute using them instead of humans


  • then surely they have the very same attributes


  • that mean they deserve to be protected from harm?


  • Whether we're talking about factory farming, live export, poaching, the fur trade,


  • logically, it's all on the same playing field to me.


  • Suffering is suffering,


  • and murder is murder.


  • And the more helpless the victim,


  • the more horrific the crime.


  • Next time you think an animal lover is too emotional,

    我發現自己疑惑著: 「他要進入什麼樣的世界?」

  • too passionate, or even a little crazy, please remember

    我們會是讓人類 被定義為失敗者的世代嗎?

  • we see things through a different lens.


  • So in a few days, my son's gonna be born.


  • I find myself wondering, "What kind of world is he entering?"

    而那些有意義的行動 都需要某個程度上的犧牲

  • Are we gonna be the generation that defines our failure as a species?


  • I believe our generation will be judged


  • by our moral courage to protect what's right.


  • And that every worthwhile action requires a level of sacrifice.

    我們是個大家庭 一起生活在同一個星球上

  • Well, I now offer myself, without reservation, to animals.


  • And when I strip away all the material belongings around me,

    只有一種物種有能力決定 要讓其他有知覺的生物承受

  • I see that I too, am an animal.


  • We're family. Together on one planet.


  • And of the five million species on that planet,

    或是在對抗盜獵上盡一分心力 又或是為那些無法講話的生物發聲

  • only one has the power to determine what level of suffering is acceptable


  • for all other sentient beings to endure.

    我們在生活中做小小的改變 對其他物種會是大大的改變

  • Whether it's eating less meat,


  • contributing to the fight against poaching or speaking up for the voiceless,


  • we all have choices.


  • And small changes in our lives mean big changes in others' [lives].


  • So now back to the beginning.


  • My reason for being here is my question for you:


  • next time you have an opportunity to make a difference for animals,

  • will you be brave enough?

  • Yes or no?

  • Thank you very much.

  • (Applause)

My story begins in Zimbabwe


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