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  • I want you to, for a moment,

    我想讓大家花一點時間

  • think about playing a game of Monopoly,

    想像一下自己正在玩大富翁遊戲

  • except in this game, that combination

    只不過在這個遊戲裡面

  • of skill, talent and luck

    那些幫助你贏得遊戲的因素,比如技巧,才能和運氣

  • that help earn you success in games, as in life,

    在此無關緊要

  • has been rendered irrelevant,

    就像對於人生一樣

  • because this game's been rigged,

    因為這個遊戲被操縱了

  • and you've got the upper hand.

    而你已經佔了上風

  • You've got more money,

    你有更多的錢

  • more opportunities to move around the board,

    有更多在棋盤上移動的機會

  • and more access to resources.

    以及更多獲得資源的機會

  • And as you think about that experience,

    在你想像這個經歷的時候

  • I want you to ask yourself,

    我想讓大家問一下自己

  • how might that experience of being

    一個被操縱的遊戲裡面

  • a privileged player in a rigged game

    作為優勢玩家的經歷

  • change the way that you think about yourself

    會如何改變你思考自己和

  • and regard that other player?

    對待對手的方式?

  • So we ran a study on the U.C. Berkeley campus

    在加州大學伯克利分校,我們做了一個試驗

  • to look at exactly that question.

    來研究這個問題

  • We brought in more than 100 pairs

    我們招募了100多對

  • of strangers into the lab,

    陌生人到實驗室

  • and with the flip of a coin

    通過投擲硬幣的方式

  • randomly assigned one of the two

    隨機選定一對中的一個

  • to be a rich player in a rigged game.

    作為這個遊戲中佔上風的玩家

  • They got two times as much money.

    他們拿到了兩倍的錢

  • When they passed Go,

    當他們途徑起點的時候

  • they collected twice the salary,

    他們拿到兩倍的工資

  • and they got to roll both dice instead of one,

    而且他們可以同時擲兩個骰子而不是一個

  • so they got to move around the board a lot more.

    所以他們可以在棋盤上移動更多

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And over the course of 15 minutes,

    在接下來的15分鐘內

  • we watched through hidden cameras what happened.

    我們通過隱藏的攝像頭觀察了現場情況

  • And what I want to do today, for the first time,

    今天是第一次

  • is show you a little bit of what we saw.

    我想和大家分享一下我們觀察到的

  • You're going to have to pardon the sound quality,

    有的時候音質可能不太好,還請大家原諒

  • in some cases, because again, these were hidden cameras.

    因為畢竟是用隱藏的攝像頭

  • So we've provided subtitles.

    所以我們加上了字幕

  • Rich Player: How many 500s did you have?

    富玩家:你有多少張500塊?

  • Poor Player: Just one.

    窮玩家:就一張。

  • Rich Player: Are you serious. Poor Player: Yeah.

    富玩家:真的嗎? 窮玩家:是啊。

  • Rich Player: I have three. (Laughs)

    富玩家:我有三張(笑聲)

  • I don't know why they gave me so much.

    不知道為什麼他們給了我那麼多。

  • Paul Piff: Okay, so it was quickly apparent to players

    保羅 - 皮夫:所以,玩家們很快就意識到

  • that something was up.

    這個遊戲明顯有點奇怪

  • One person clearly has a lot more money

    一個玩家比另一個玩家

  • than the other person, and yet,

    明顯有更多的錢

  • as the game unfolded,

    隨著遊戲慢慢展開

  • we saw very notable differences

    我們觀察到兩個玩家

  • and dramatic differences begin to emerge

    開始有一些

  • between the two players.

    明顯不同的表現

  • The rich player

    富的玩家

  • started to move around the board louder,

    在棋盤上移動的聲音更大

  • literally smacking the board with their piece

    移動的時候

  • as he went around.

    幾乎是在狠狠砸棋盤

  • We were more likely to see signs of dominance

    我們看到了富玩家們更多的

  • and nonverbal signs,

    “霸主”信號,肢體動作

  • displays of power

    權力的顯露

  • and celebration among the rich players.

    以及互相慶祝

  • We had a bowl of pretzels positioned off to the side.

    我們在旁邊放了一碗椒鹽捲餅

  • It's on the bottom right corner there.

    就在右下角

  • That allowed us to watch participants' consummatory behavior.

    這使得我們可以觀察玩家吃椒鹽捲餅的行為

  • So we're just tracking how many pretzels participants eat.

    我們就是看看玩家吃了多少椒鹽捲餅

  • Rich Player: Are those pretzels a trick?

    富玩家:這些椒鹽捲餅有什麼貓膩麼?

  • Poor Player: I don't know.

    窮玩家:不知道啊。

  • PP: Okay, so no surprises, people are onto us.

    保羅·皮夫:好吧,不出所料,大家覺得有問題。

  • They wonder what that bowl of pretzels

    起先他們好奇那一碗椒鹽捲餅

  • is doing there in the first place.

    為什麼會在那裡

  • One even asks, like you just saw,

    就像你剛才看到的,其中一個甚至問:

  • is that bowl of pretzels there as a trick?

    這碗椒鹽捲餅有什麼貓膩麼?

  • And yet, despite that, the power of the situation

    但儘管如此

  • seems to inevitably dominate,

    整個現場的主導形勢還是不可避免

  • and those rich players start to eat more pretzels.

    那些富的玩家開始吃更多的椒鹽捲餅

  • Rich Player: I love pretzels.

    富玩家:我愛椒鹽捲餅。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • PP: And as the game went on,

    保羅·皮夫:遊戲繼續進行,

  • one of the really interesting and dramatic patterns

    我們發現了一個很明顯的

  • that we observed begin to emerge

    有趣現象

  • was that the rich players actually

    就是富玩家

  • started to become ruder toward the other person,

    開始對另一個玩家表現得不友好

  • less and less sensitive to the plight

    對那些可憐玩家的貧窮困境

  • of those poor, poor players,

    越來越不敏感

  • and more and more demonstrative

    開始越來越頻繁的炫富

  • of their material success,

    開始越來越頻繁的炫富

  • more likely to showcase how well they're doing.

    更喜歡展示他們正在做的一切

  • Rich Player: I have money for everything.

    富玩家:我什麼都買得起

  • Poor Player: How much is that?

    窮玩家:你有多少錢?

  • Rich Player: You owe me 24 dollars.

    富玩家:你還欠我24塊

  • You're going to lose all your money soon.

    你很快就要輸光了

  • I'll buy it. I have so much money.

    我要買它,我太多錢了

  • I have so much money, it takes me forever.

    那麼多花都花不完的錢

  • Rich Player 2: I'm going to buy out this whole board.

    富玩家2 :我要把整個棋盤都買下來

  • Rich Player 3: You're going to run out of money soon.

    富玩家3 :你很快就要沒錢了

  • I'm pretty much untouchable at this point.

    我已經差不多不可戰勝了

  • PP: Okay, and here's what I think

    保羅 - 皮夫:下面是我覺得

  • was really, really interesting,

    一個非常非常有意思的現象

  • is that at the end of the 15 minutes,

    在15分鐘要結束的時候

  • we asked the players to talk about their experience during the game.

    我們請玩家談論他們在遊戲中的經歷

  • And when the rich players talked about

    當富玩家談論

  • why they had inevitably won

    他們在這個被操縱的遊戲裡面

  • in this rigged game of Monopoly --

    為什麼必勝的時候

  • (Laughter) —

    (笑聲)

  • they talked about what they'd done

    他們提到了自己

  • to buy those different properties

    為了買到不同地產

  • and earn their success in the game,

    和贏得遊戲所做的努力

  • and they became far less attuned

    而他們忽略了

  • to all those different features of the situation,

    這個遊戲一開始的不同形勢

  • including that flip of a coin

    也就是投擲硬幣

  • that had randomly gotten them into

    隨機決定了他們

  • that privileged position in the first place.

    哪一個獲得優勢

  • And that's a really, really incredible insight

    而這對我們理解大腦如何看待優勢

  • into how the mind makes sense of advantage.

    提供了非常好的啟發

  • Now this game of Monopoly can be used

    我們可以用這個大富翁的遊戲作比喻

  • as a metaphor for understanding society

    來理解我們的社會以及社會分層

  • and its hierarchical structure, wherein some people

    也就是有的人

  • have a lot of wealth and a lot of status,

    有大量的財富和地位

  • and a lot of people don't.

    而很多人沒有

  • They have a lot less wealth and a lot less status

    他們僅有很少的財富和地位

  • and a lot less access to valued resources.

    以及很少獲得寶貴資源的機會

  • And what my colleagues and I for the last seven years have been doing

    我和我的同事在過去的7年裡一直在做的

  • is studying the effects of these kinds of hierarchies.

    就是研究這些不同層次的影響

  • What we've been finding across dozens of studies

    全國范圍內的

  • and thousands of participants across this country

    大量研究都表明

  • is that as a person's levels of wealth increase,

    當一個人的財富增加時

  • their feelings of compassion and empathy go down,

    他們的同情心和同理心下降

  • and their feelings of entitlement, of deservingness,

    而他們的優越感增加

  • and their ideology of self-interest increases.

    也更注重個人利益

  • In surveys, we found that it's actually

    在調查中,我們發現

  • wealthier individuals who are more likely

    富有的人更可能

  • to moralize greed being good,

    把貪婪定義為好的

  • and that the pursuit of self-interest

    把對個人利益的追求

  • is favorable and moral.

    定義為有利的,道德的

  • Now what I want to do today is talk about

    今天我想談的就是

  • some of the implications of this ideology self-interest,

    這種個人利益思維的影響

  • talk about why we should care about those implications,

    談談為什麼我們應該關注這些影響

  • and end with what might be done.

    以及我們能做些什麼

  • Some of the first studies that we ran in this area

    我們在這一領域最初做的一些研究

  • looked at helping behavior,

    觀察了助人行為

  • something social psychologists call

    社會心理學家稱之為

  • pro-social behavior.

    親社會行為

  • And we were really interested in who's more likely

    我們很想知道什麼人更傾向於

  • to offer help to another person,

    給其他人提供幫助

  • someone who's rich or someone who's poor.

    富人還是窮人

  • In one of the studies, we bring in rich and poor

    其中一個研究,我們把一個社區的富人和窮人

  • members of the community into the lab

    都帶到了實驗室

  • and give each of them the equivalent of 10 dollars.

    給了每個人10美元

  • We told the participants

    我們告訴他們

  • that they could keep these 10 dollars for themselves,

    他們可以把這10塊錢給自己用

  • or they could share a portion of it,

    也可以把其中一部分拿出來分享

  • if they wanted to, with a stranger

    如果他們願意的話

  • who is totally anonymous.

    跟一個陌生人分享

  • They'll never meet that stranger and the stranger will never meet them.

    一個永遠不會再相遇的陌生人

  • And we just monitor how much people give.

    我們觀察人們給了多少

  • Individuals who made 25,000 sometimes

    那些年收入為25000

  • under 15,000 dollars a year,

    甚至低於15000美元的人

  • gave 44 percent more of their money

    和那些年收入為15萬

  • to the stranger

    甚至20萬的人比起來

  • than did individuals making 150,000

    多給了44 %

  • or 200,000 dollars a year.

    多給了44 %

  • We've had people play games

    我們還讓人們玩遊戲

  • to see who's more or less likely to cheat

    看看什麼人更可能

  • to increase their chances of winning a prize.

    為了贏得一個獎品而作弊

  • In one of the games, we actually rigged a computer

    其中一個遊戲,我們其實操縱了電腦

  • so that die rolls over a certain score

    使得某些數字

  • were impossible.

    不可能出現

  • You couldn't get above 12 in this game,

    這個遊戲裡面,你不可能超過12

  • and yet, the richer you were,

    然而,越富有的人

  • the more likely you were to cheat in this game

    越有可能在這個遊戲中作弊

  • to earn credits toward a $50 cash prize,

    去爭取那個最終能夠贏取50美元現金的分數

  • sometimes by three to four times as much.

    可能性甚至高達3到4倍

  • We ran another study where we looked at whether

    我們還做了另一個實驗

  • people would be inclined to take candy

    觀察人們是否會

  • from a jar of candy that we explicitly identified

    從糖罐裡面拿糖

  • as being reserved for children --

    糖罐上清楚地寫著:給小朋友預留......

  • (Laughter) —

    (笑聲)

  • participating -- I'm not kidding.

    我是認真的

  • I know it sounds like I'm making a joke.

    我知道這聽上去像我在講笑話

  • We explicitly told participants

    我們明確地告訴了參與者

  • this jar of candy's for children participating

    這一罐糖是給隔壁發展中心的

  • in a developmental lab nearby.

    小朋友準備的

  • They're in studies. This is for them.

    他們在實驗中,這是給他們的

  • And we just monitored how much candy participants took.

    然後我們觀察這些參與者拿了多少糖果

  • Participants who felt rich

    那些感覺富有的參與者

  • took two times as much candy

    比那些感覺貧窮的參與者

  • as participants who felt poor.

    多拿了兩倍的糖果

  • We've even studied cars,

    我們還研究了汽車

  • not just any cars,

    不只是汽車

  • but whether drivers of different kinds of cars

    而是不同類型汽車的司機

  • are more or less inclined to break the law.

    誰更傾向於做一些違法的事情

  • In one of these studies, we looked at

    其中一個實驗,我們觀察了

  • whether drivers would stop for a pedestrian

    司機在碰到行人(我們安排的)過馬路時的

  • that we had posed waiting to cross at a crosswalk.

    停車行為

  • Now in California, as you all know,

    在加州,大家都知道

  • because I'm sure we all do this,

    因為我相信我們都有這樣做

  • it's the law to stop for a pedestrian who's waiting to cross.

    法律規定碰到行人要過馬路,我們必須停車

  • So here's an example of how we did it.

    下面我告訴大家我們是怎樣做的

  • That's our confederate off to the left

    左側是我們的研究人員

  • posing as a pedestrian.

    裝作一個行人

  • He approaches as the red truck successfully stops.

    他正要過馬路,這時候紅色的卡車停了下來

  • In typical California fashion, it's overtaken

    當然這是在加州

  • by the bus who almost runs our pedestrian over.

    很快一輛巴士呼嘯而過,差點要撞倒我們的行人

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now here's an example of a more expensive car,

    這是一輛比較貴的車

  • a Prius, driving through,

    一輛普銳斯開過來

  • and a BMW doing the same.

    一輛寶馬車也一樣

  • So we did this for hundreds of vehicles

    幾天內

  • on several days,

    我們測試了幾百輛車

  • just tracking who stops and who doesn't.

    記錄誰停了誰沒有停

  • What we found was that as the expensiveness

    我們發現

  • of a car increased,

    隨著車價的增加

  • the driver's tendencies to break the law

    司機違法的傾向

  • increased as well.

    也增加了

  • None of the cars, none of the cars

    而在我們的廉價車系裡

  • in our least expensive car category

    沒有一輛車

  • broke the law.

    做出違法行為

  • Close to 50 percent of the cars

    而在我們的昂貴車系裡

  • in our most expensive vehicle category

    有接近50 %的車

  • broke the law.

    都違法了

  • We've run other studies finding that

    我們還做了其它研究並發現

  • wealthier individuals are more likely to lie in negotiations,

    越有錢的人越有可能在談判中說謊

  • to endorse unethical behavior at work

    贊同工作中的不道德行為

  • like stealing cash from the cash register,

    比如從收銀台偷現金

  • taking bribes, lying to customers.

    受賄,忽悠顧客等

  • Now I don't mean to suggest

    我並不是說

  • that it's only wealthy people

    只是有錢人

  • who show these patterns of behavior.

    會表現出類似的行為

  • Not at all. In fact, I think that we all,

    完全不是,事實上,我覺得我們每個人

  • in our day-to-day, minute-by-minute lives,

    在我們日常的分分秒秒中

  • struggle with these competing motivations

    都要跟這些動機作鬥爭

  • of when, or if, to put our own interests

    什麼時候以及是否把我們的利益置於

  • above the interests of other people.

    他人的利益之上

  • And that's understandable because

    這很容易理解

  • the American dream is an idea

    因為美國夢告訴我們

  • in which we all have an equal opportunity

    每個人都有同等的機會

  • to succeed and prosper,

    可以成功,發達

  • as long as we apply ourselves and work hard,

    只要我們足夠努力

  • and a piece of that means that sometimes,

    而這也意味著有的時候

  • you need to put your own interests

    你需要把自己的利益

  • above the interests and well-being of other people around you.

    置於你周邊人的利益和幸福之上

  • But what we're finding is that,

    但是我們的發現是

  • the wealthier you are, the more likely you are

    你越有錢,則越有可能

  • to pursue a vision of personal success,

    去追求一種個人的成功

  • of achievement and accomplishment,

    個人的成果和成就

  • to the detriment of others around you.

    這可能是建立在對旁人的損害之上

  • Here I've plotted for you the mean household income

    這裡我為大家畫出了

  • received by each fifth and top five percent of the population

    在過去20年裡

  • over the last 20 years.

    每個的1/5和最高5 %人口的平均家庭收入

  • In 1993, the differences between the different

    1993年

  • quintiles of the population, in terms of income,

    每個的1/5之間的收入差異

  • are fairly egregious.

    還是相當大的

  • It's not difficult to discern that there are differences.

    我們不難看出其中的差別

  • But over the last 20 years, that significant difference

    但是在過去的20年裡面

  • has become a grand canyon of sorts

    這種巨大差異最終成為了

  • between those at the top and everyone