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  • When you disagree with everyone around you, do you have the courage to speak up?

    當你不同意周遭人們的意見時,你有勇氣說出來嗎?

  • Most people find that hard to do.

    大多數的人都會覺得很難說出口。

  • We feel pressure to go along with what those around us are saying or doing, and we don't

    我們對於贊同周遭人們的意見和行為,以及不需根據

  • have to rely on our personal experiences to know this is true.

    自己的個人經歷去判斷事情的對錯會感到有壓力。

  • A number of experiments reveal a powerful human desire to conform.

    有許多實驗顯示人類有很強大的從眾傾向。

  • In the 1950s, psychologist Solomon Asch conducted a famous conformity experiment.

    1950 年代心理學家所羅門阿希曾做過一個有名的實驗。

  • In this study, a test subject is asked to sit with a group of other people.

    實驗過程中要求受測者與其他一群人們坐在一起。

  • He thinks everyone else is a test subject, like he is, but the others are really confederates

    受測者以為其他人都和他一樣也都是受測者,不過其他人其實是研究人員

  • of the researcher, who have been told to give certain answers in the experiment.

    安插的幫手,事先已被告知在實驗過程中提供特定答案。

  • The researcher presents a line drawn on a board.

    研究人員拿出一張上面畫了一條直線的卡片,

  • Beside it are three lines of different lengths.

    並拿了另一張上面畫了三條直線的卡片並列。

  • He asks, "Which of the three lines is the same length as the first line?"

    研究人員提出的問題是「這三條線中哪一條的長度與第一張卡片中的直線長度相同?」

  • The test is designed so that the answer is obvious.

    測試設計的答案非常明顯。

  • The subject has been positioned so that he hears most of the others give their answer

    測驗中特意設計讓受測者最後一個回答,如此他便會聽完自己同組人的答案

  • out loud before he does.

    之後才回答。

  • The group repeats this process for many different sets of lines.

    測試中團體不斷重複回答許多不同的線條題目。

  • In the first few rounds, everyone gives the correct answer, but then something strange

    在前面幾輪中,每個人都回答出正確的答案,不過接著便開始發生一些

  • starts to happen.

    奇妙的狀況。

  • In about two thirds of the rounds that follow, everyone ahead of the subject gives the same

    在這之後三分之二的出題中,所有和受測者同組的人都一致回答

  • wrong answer.

    錯誤的答案。

  • The subject faces a dilemma.

    於是受測者開始面臨兩難。

  • Does he give the answer he believes is correct or go along with the group?

    受測者要思考究竟要回答他認為正確的答案還是要從眾呢?

  • Asch repeated variations of this experiment with over 120 subjects, and some troubling

    阿希對總共對 120 名受測者重複此實驗的變化,開始出現一些令人擔憂的趨勢

  • trends emerged.

    出現了。

  • When the rest of the group was answering incorrectly, 37% of the subjects' responses conformed with

    當團體中的其他人都回答錯誤的答案時,37% 的受測者的回答會依循團體中其他人的

  • the incorrect group response; 75% of subjects caved to peer pressure and gave the wrong

    錯誤答案;而 75% 的受測者的回答屈服了同儕壓力,至少回答一次

  • answer at least once.

    錯誤的答案。

  • That means only one out of every four test subjects was willing to consistently voice

    這意味著受測者中只有四分之一的人願意持續堅持表達與團體不相同的

  • dissent.

    意見。

  • Keep in mind, there was no overt pressure to conform.

    請注意,實驗中沒有特意施加要順從的壓力。

  • There were no rewards for giving the correct answer and no punishments for giving the wrong

    回答正確的答案不會有獎勵,而錯誤的答案也不會遭到

  • answer.

    處罰。

  • The stakes were low, but the social pressure was high, nonetheless.

    回報很低,但是社會壓力很高。

  • Subjects were asked afterwards why they had chosen to give the wrong answer.

    實驗結束後詢問受測者選擇錯誤答案的原因。

  • Some figured, "These people can't all be wrong, so I must be seeing things wrong."

    一部份認為「不可能全部的人都看錯,所以應該是我看錯了。」

  • Others remained convinced their own answer was right, but they didn't want to disagree

    而另一部分受測者則堅信他們的答案是正確的,並且不同意同組其他人

  • with the rest of the group.

    的意見。

  • The line length test seems quite different from the situations we face in everyday life,

    線條長度測驗雖然看似與我們日常生活中遇到的情境度相同

  • but we see similar findings when people are asked to make more meaningful judgments, too.

    但是我們發現實驗結果與當人們必須進行有意義的判斷時的結果十分相近。

  • Psychologist Richard Crutchfield asked subjects to consider the following statement: "Free

    心理學家理查德·克拉菲爾德曾要求受測者思考以下這段話:「當自由言論

  • speech, being a privilege rather than a right, it is proper for a society to suspend free

    變成是一種特權而非權利,這種氛圍的社會會傾向只要覺得自己的地位受到威脅挑戰

  • speech whenever it feels itself threatened."

    便會隨時停止自由言論。」

  • Among subjects answering alone, only 19% agreed, but when faced with a group unanimously affirming

    在受測者需單獨回答此問題的情境下,只有 19% 的人會回答同意,然而當受測者所處的團體贊成

  • the statement, 58% of subjects agreed.

    這項敘述,有高達 58% 的受測者回答同意!

  • These experiments reveal a powerful tendency to conform with those around us, even when

    這些實驗透露出人們對於周遭人的意見有很大的從眾心態,即使

  • that means we act against what we actually think is right, but there is a ray of hope.

    我們必須做出與自己覺得正確相反的實情,不過這種狀況仍有一線希望。

  • In a variation of his original experiment, Asch instructed a single confederate to give

    阿希在原始的實驗設計做了一些變動,他指示特定一位同夥回答

  • the right answer.

    正確答案。

  • That means the test subject still held the minority view, but there was now one other

    這意味著儘管受測者仍處於少數弱勢的局勢,但是現在受測者的身邊多了一個

  • person on his side.

    支持者。

  • In this scenario, subjects conformed only one quarter as often as when they faced a

    在此情況下,受測者面臨意見一致的大多數的從眾的比率,只有原先的

  • unanimous majority.

    四分之一。

  • This suggests an important lesson.

    這個結果透露一個重大訊息:

  • If you're in the uncomfortable position of disagreeing with the people around you, try

    當你處於周遭人都不同意你的意見的窘境時,嘗試拿出勇氣

  • to have the courage to speak up.

    堅持自己的意見。

  • There's a good chance others will be emboldened by your example and do the same.

    如此你便有機會激發他人,以你為首站出來替你說話。

  • Overcoming the pull of conformity is hard, but when the stakes are high, and the majority

    克服從眾的拉力的確很不容易,然而當大多數人的意見是錯誤的,而採取大多數人的意見會導致

  • is wrong, the courage of one person can make all the difference.

    很高的風險代價,勇於站出來說話的那個人,便可將局勢完全逆轉。

When you disagree with everyone around you, do you have the courage to speak up?

當你不同意周遭人們的意見時,你有勇氣說出來嗎?

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你有勇氣提出異議嗎? (Do You Have the Courage to Dissent?)

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    Annie Huang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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