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  • When you introduce new materials, you usually enable a new technology on with a new technology society changes.

  • It has actually been like this all through history.

  • We go from stone age, started using stones, we went to brunch on stage, had bronze tools, iron age and so on.

  • And every time this new material came, people got it easier to live and exist and develop.

  • And they got more time to do more pleasurable things.

  • One of the pleasurable things that you actually can do.

  • It's science.

  • And we scientists have used this to be able now to this sign materials atom by atom, depositing them layer by layer and building materials with designer properties.

  • Just think about silicon and semiconductors.

  • It has brought us the turn, sister.

  • And what has come out is the i t age.

  • We all connected.

  • Wireless communication is all in there, and we're still making new materials to for this.

  • But what I'm going to tell you about it, something that actually has been around more or less all the time.

  • And I would actually challenge you that you might have made it yourself in kindergarten or preschool.

  • When you use your pencils because what graphene is on, what I'm going to talk about is actually a single layer off graphite.

  • And that's what comes when you do a trace with a pencil.

  • Basically carbon coming out.

  • There's more molds.

  • Now that is Black Griffin.

  • It's not going to be black, but in principle, the invisible.

  • But there might very well be graphene on graphene.

  • Off course has always been there, and it was actually explained with all the super properties by theoreticians in the forties.

  • But it hadn't bean isolated in a laboratory, and you couldn't prove all the amazing properties.

  • And in fact, we usually refer to it as a material off superlatives.

  • It means that it has all these properties, and whatever property you're looking at, it usually is one off the best.

  • You can never make exits expect to have and from the discovery or the isolation on the proof.

  • In 2004 it took only six years until the noble price was aborted in physics to undergo time and cost another celeb for this discovery.

  • So let's look a little bit at the list off superlatives or properties.

  • Well, it's a very different material, every material we know is three dimensional.

  • It has a length with a breath, and you can only access the surface.

  • But here, the material that is only one atom thick or thin.

  • I don't know.

  • How should we put it?

  • It's up to you, right?

  • But anyway, the point is that you can address and functional eyes the whole piece of material.

  • And Carmen, as it is made out of, has a special chemical structure that makes it that this mash it looks like a chicken wire.

  • This match is the strongest material that is around, and it's still flexible, so you have something that is strong, but you can still bend it.

  • So it's a fantastic material in that sense, also have spectacular Elektronik properties.

  • It's one of the best conductors.

  • It's the best thermal conductor, and it's also transparent, actually, a single layer of atoms as this only absorb 2% roughly off light.

  • So it's you can't see by the naked eye, and now you have this material with all this fantastic properties, and you have all these humans with all the imaginations off course, we'll make nice things out of it, and I will try to make Sun examples.

  • A few are present here.

  • We call this translational nano technology because it's down on the nano scale and we're trying to move it from US academics into businesses.

  • Let's start with this simple film.

  • I have a signed piece of graphene with the size of my hand, and I have connected Elektronik to it.

  • It's on a plastic film, and there is also another film there of a liquid crystal.

  • And that liquid crystal can be turned transparent and opaque, depending on how much currently to run through and what you're seeing there, either see the lager or not off the University of Cambridge, where this experiment was done.

  • Very impressive, right?

  • But in fact you could use it.

  • That's a curtain Andi could, but you don't need to end here.

  • You can go and look att, everyday products, and this is a car.

  • It's a concept car put out by buffs and dime lifts, and they actually plan to have Ruffinen it.

  • They wanted to make the sea teething biography, and that's good because you just run a current through it and it's and it's a comfortable right, but you can do more.

  • I think if you use our imagination a little bit here.

  • Why not eat the windows and defrost them?

  • You can do more.

  • You can do smart electronics in the windscreen.

  • That means that you project all the instrumentation there and you actually become much safer driver because the instrumentation is never away from your line of sight.

  • You can do that.

  • Another application.

  • What off graphene is actually one of the hurdles off electrical cars, and that is that you can make very good batteries that you can charge quickly.

  • That's a major hurdle today, and you can also use them several times.

  • So you could put light graphene based batteries into this car.

  • And of course, we would function eyes the roof and make it a solar cell.

  • So we'll harvest from the sun.

  • And while we're at it, why not just build the whole car out of graphene?

  • Because you make very good compass sites of it all from a single layer of atoms and in fact, the first product that ever came out from graphene.

  • Believe it or not, force a tennis racket that Novak Djokovic actually uses where you got good strength to weight ratio and he could smash harder than ever before.

  • These are big things, which we are always developing.

  • It brings a better society, and I think my favorite.

  • It's actually when you go back into the body and we can functional eyes this mesh of carbon atoms and we could make a mess of transistors that can light up.

  • And the funny thing with carbon based materials and graphene in particular is over that ourselves like to grow on it.

  • They can act as scaffolds, and you see in the picture here that you can actually disrupt a cell and send the message via carbon because that's electrical impulses.

  • And you can make signaling and connecting to the sounds.

  • And what the idea here from this German research group was to use this to make an artificial retina.

  • This is a very hard thing to make a prosthesis out of, and what you would do is you say that you have a damaged time, but your visual court is still working, and you let it interact with this mesh off Griffin transistors, and the impulses will go into the visual center your brain on.

  • Since it has nothing better to do, it will start in interpretative these electrical signals as a picture because that's just what it's meant to do.

  • So what you do is of course, you put a small camera in a piece of your glass and you project it on this mesh and you give someone who would be blind some kind of eyesight back.

  • This is a fantastic idea, several off them, these things that have told it doesn't exist.

  • So it's basically what happens there many, many applications, and it's basically our imagination that is limiting here.

  • We have to try and see what we can do with this material.

  • It's also very nice material in the sense we're tapping into an endless resource.

  • Carbon is the fourth most abundant material around us available to us, and we can make all these things out of it.

  • And we are making things based on something that this one atom layer thick and to get an idea how much carbon you actually need to use.

  • I think everyone has a picture of a football field, Yeah, but three of them and you need 10 grams to cover the whole football field.

  • 10 Grand's.

  • How much is that?

  • I had to check.

  • I went into a candy store and I looked at the different countries night.

  • My eye caught a Snickers bar.

  • That's 50 grams so I could make a technology that basically could function allies all the windows on ah, high rise, for instance, making smart windows with one bite off a Snickers bar.

  • So we're talking about a technology where material will never be the issue.

  • It's just how we can refine it.

  • So what is hindering us today to move forward in this?

  • It's of course, production were very good at making riffing, but we can make it the whole way and in small quantities and in any other way, we're still developing.

  • Now.

  • I'll show you a few here, so the initial way was called Mechanical Exploration or the Scotch tape method.

  • Just two pieces of Scotch tape a piece of graphite, stick it in between and ripping apart.

  • Get refined on both.

  • You think which one is thinner and you repeat six times and then you'll have graffiti off course.

  • You'll get the best coffee in this way, but you'll get a square micrometer, and that's far away from that tire eyes, so you need to do better better ways.

  • So there are ways being developed all the time.

  • And I have a piece of graphene that I'll show you, and I'll bring it up now.

  • Yeah, it looks like this.

  • Okay, anyone?

  • How many percents off my face vanished when I looked through it.

  • I think it's pretty close to one layer off atoms.

  • It's on a plastic film Bo like this on.

  • In fact today.

  • By this method, you can make graphene on roll to roll productions, and they're made 800 meter long so the methods are improving.

  • Um, in fact, in one way, now that we're making it for many development, it's basically a kitchen style method that you put graphite in solution in your kitchen blender.

  • You run it, and you get high grade graphene, which you can use for composites.

  • You can use it in batteries, and you can also use it to make touch screens for the smartphones and tablets around.

  • And this is quite important because, just as we said, there's enormous urge for all these gadgets, and the's are usually relying on very rare materials.

  • And if we can replace them with morphine, wow, and they're even some better models out for these touch phones at the moment.

  • But of course, as we were talking yesterday when we were rehearsing, why does the tablet have to look like that?

  • It could be this, and you can have it interacted on the picture of the Harry Potter newspaper.

  • Isn't that far away because you can function, allies it in many different ways.

  • So by this, I hope I've given you a little bit of flavor that we might be close to.

  • Ah, new material revolution.

  • Thank you.

When you introduce new materials, you usually enable a new technology on with a new technology society changes.

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Mikael Fogelstrom:石墨烯,從一層原子到應用 (Mikael Fogelstrom: Graphene, from a layer of atoms to applications)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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