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  • (soft music)

    (輕柔的音樂)

  • (Narrator) The story of writing, astronomy, and law.

    (旁白) 書寫、天文、與法律的故事。

  • The story of civilization itself begins in one place.

    一個文明故事起源之地。

  • Not Egypt, not Greece, not Rome.

    不是埃及,不是希臘,也不是羅馬。

  • But Mesopotamia.

    而是美索不達米亞。

  • Mesopotamia is an exceedingly fertile plain situated between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.

    美索不達米亞就位於底格里斯河與幼發拉底河之間,是處極其肥沃的平原。

  • For five millennia, the small strip of land situated in what is today Iraq, Kuwait and Syria fostered innovations that would change the world forever.

    5,000 年來,座落今日伊拉克、科威特與敘利亞的狹小土地上,促進許多創新發展,永遠改變了世界。

  • Inhabited for nearly 12,000 years,

    文明在此將近 12,000 年,

  • Mesopotamia's stable climate, rich soil

    美索不達米亞有穩定的氣候、肥沃的土壤,

  • and steady supply of fresh water made it ideal for agriculture to develop and thrive.

    還有持續供給的淡水,這樣理想的條件使當地農業蓬勃發展。

  • About 6,000 years ago, seemingly overnight,

    大約 6,000 年前,幾乎是一夜之間,

  • some of these agricultural settlements blossomed into some of the world's first cities.

    有一些農業聚落發展成了世界上最早的城市。

  • In the period between 4,000 and 3,100 BC,

    在公元前 4,000 至 3,100 年,

  • Mesopotamia was dotted with a constellation of competing city states.

    美索不達米亞散布著許多互相競爭的城市國家。

  • At one point, they were unified under the Akkadian Empire

    阿卡德帝國一度統一了這些城市國家,

  • and then broke apart forming the empires of Assyria and Babylon.

    然後分裂成為亞述帝國與巴比倫帝國。

  • Despite near constant warfare,

    儘管幾乎連年征戰,

  • innovation and development thrived in ancient Mesopotamia.

    古美索不達米亞的創新與發展仍舊蓬勃。

  • They built on a monumental scale from palaces to ziggurats,

    他們建造了巨大建築,從宮殿到金字形神塔,

  • mammoth temples served as ritual locations to commune with the gods.

    龐大的神廟是用來與神祇交流的儀式場所。

  • They also developed advanced mathematics,

    他們也發展了高等數學,

  • including a base 60 system that created

    包括以 60 為基數的系統,

  • a 60-second minute, a 60-minute hour

    創造出 60 秒為分,60 分為時,

  • and a 360-degree circular angle.

    以及 360 度的圓形角度。

  • The Babylonians used their sophisticated system of mathematics to map and study the sky.

    巴比倫人用他們複雜的數學系統來繪製、研究天空。

  • They divided one earth year into 12 periods.

    他們將一個地球年分成 12 個時期。

  • Each was named after the most prominent constellations in the heavens,

    每一個都以天空最著名的星座命名,

  • a tradition later adopted by the Greeks to create the zodiac.

    這個傳統後來被希臘人採用,創造出黃道帶。

  • They also divided the week into seven days,

    他們也把一周時間分為七天,

  • naming each after their seven gods

    以他們的七個神祇命名,

  • embodied by the seven observable planets in the sky.

    體現七個天空中可以被觀察到的行星。

  • But perhaps the most impactful innovation to come out of Mesopotamia is literacy.

    但或許美索不達米亞最有影響力的創新是讀寫能力。

  • What began as simple pictures scrawled onto wet clay to keep track of goods and wealth

    一開始是簡單的圖畫,潦草的畫上濕泥板上,用來記錄貨物與財富,

  • developed into a sophisticated writing system by the year 3,200 BC.

    到了公元前 3,200 年發展成複雜的書寫系統。

  • This writing system would come to be called cuneiform in modern times

    這樣的書寫系統在現代被稱為楔形文字,

  • and proved so flexible that over the span of 3,000 years,

    而且在 3,000 年期間被證實使用上相當的靈活,

  • it would be adapted for over a dozen different major languages

    楔形文字被改編成十餘種不同的主要語言,

  • and countless uses including recording the law of the Babylonian king Hammurabi,

    還有無數的用途,包括紀錄巴比倫國王漢摩拉比頒布的法典。

  • which formed the basis of a standardized justice system.

    這部法典建立了標準司法系統的基礎。

  • But Mesopotamia's success became its undoing.

    但美索不達米亞的成功,也成為他的敗因。

  • Babylon in particular proved too rich a state to resist outside envy.

    特別是巴比倫,結果變成一個太過富裕的國家,而抵擋不了外界的忌妒。

  • In 539 BC, the Persian king Cyrus conquered Babylon

    公元前 539 年,波斯王居魯士大帝征服了巴比倫,

  • and sealed his control over the entirety of Mesopotamia.

    從而控制了全部的美索不達米亞地區。

  • For centuries, this area became a territory of foreign empires.

    好幾個世紀以來,這個地區變成外來帝國的領土。

  • Eventually, Mesopotamia would fade like its kings into the mists of history.

    最終,美索不達米亞會像他的諸王一樣,消失在歷史的迷霧之中。

  • And its cities would sink beneath the sands of Iraq.

    而他的城市會陷入伊拉克的沙土之下。

  • But its ideas would prevail in literacy, law, math, astronomy and the gift of civilization itself.

    但思想會普遍留存在識字、法律、數學、天文學以及文明本身的餽贈上。

(soft music)

(輕柔的音樂)

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 美索不達米亞 巴比倫 帝國 書寫 文明 天空

古代美索不達米亞101|國家地理雜誌 (Ancient Mesopotamia 101 | National Geographic)

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    Seraya 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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