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Rome's emperors, sometimes brilliant, sometimes mad.
All of them powerful.
But Rome wasn't always ruled by these dictators.
Once it was a largely democratic society.
Its leaders were elected, and no one could hold too much power.
They called it the Republic, and it lasted for 500 years.
So why did Rome give up on this apparently fair society
and turn to the emperors?
It's a story that begins with a small boy a long, long time ago.
Jupiter, god of our ancestors,
behold, in death, your most trustworthy soldier,
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus,
statesman, general, despiser of kings,
champion of our great Republic!
Young Tiberius, your father will be praised
as long as Rome is remembered.
In an age before Rome was ruled by emperors,
young Tiberius Gracchus had been brought up to respect his father's principles
of honour and Justice.
But in Just 20 years, he will die defending his father's ideals.
Murdered by the aristocrats standing behind him.
His crime, starting a revolution so powerful, it changed Rome forever,
setting it on the path to its greatest triumphs and worst excesses.
He was a great man, Tiberius. Don't be sad.
You can be even greater one day.
Gracchus, Gracchus.
Tiberius Gracchus was to make his first mark on history
Just ten years after his father's death.
Rome was preparing for the final assault on its arch rival, Carthage.
The Republic's hopes for victory
rested on the shoulders of General Scipio Aemilianus.
Laelius, you will be ready to advance your units along this front,
- immediately I give the command. No delays. - Yes, Consul.
You won't learn anything from over there, Tiberius.
Gentlemen, my brother-in-law.
Then we launch the final attack,
and whoever scales the wall first will win the golden crown.
The Roman people have waited long enough.
Tomorrow, we'll assert justice over tyranny, decency over a barbaric people.
It will be a victory for civilisation, for Rome and the Republic.
The Republic!
Nervous?
I don't want to make a mess of it.
And I want to be first over the wall tomorrow.
Your mother would be very proud. She has great hopes for you.
I hope I don't let you all down.
You won't. You have your father's blood in your veins.
Jupiter, give me strength.
We're with you, sir.
The two superpowers, Rome and Carthage,
had been locked in conflict for 120 years.
Now, the victor would take control of the ancient world.
Come on, men. Give them hell!
That's it! That's it! Pull harder!
Come on! Up the ladder! Come on!
Look out, sir.
Inside the city walls, the Romans became locked in a bitter fight for every street.
To break the deadlock, Aemilianus ordered the city to be burnt.
Ancient sources describe how the streets ran with blood.
But eventually, after six days of brutal fighting, the Carthaginians surrendered.
This is your day, Tiberius. Hold your head high.
You did it.
If only your father could see you now.
Rome is proud of her son.
We have triumphed.
From now on, nothing can challenge the power of Rome!
But we're not finished. I want this damn city taken apart.
Reduce it to dust. And we'll plough the dust with salt,
so not even weeds will grow in memory of Carthage.
Carthage was utterly razed to the ground.
In a few months, nothing was left of this great civilisation.
Its wealth was looted, and its survivors sold into slavery.
Rome would now reign supreme for the next 600 years.
But its rulers'greed was sowing the seeds of the Republic's ultimate destruction.
Tiberius returned to a city
that hardly seemed worthy of its new position as capital of the ancient world.
While the rich were growing fat on the spoils from Carthage,
Rome's streets were overflowing with the poor.
How disgusting. Why do they keep coming into the city?
Ah, Cornelia. Welcome. How are you?
Nasica.
You must see what Aemilianus has brought me from Carthage.
It's exquisite.
Mmm, pity they won't be making any more.
The journey here was so frightening.
Soon we won't be able to go out at night if they keep flooding in.
Hmm, most of them do nothing for a living. Rome's become a cesspit.
- Ah, Aemilianus. - Nasica.
I was saying to Cornelia,
Rome's overflowing with the unwashed these days and I blame you.
Blame me? Why, what have I done?
Destroyed the one thing that kept the plebs in their place.
Oh, and what's that?
The fear of Carthage.
Nothing like the fear of an enemy to keep the plebs under control.
Perhaps, Nasica, we should create a new enemy,
a new fear to put them back in their place.
That's not a bad idea by your standards, Pulcher.
Carthage didn't just keep the plebs under control,
it kept us all in our place.
Now it's over, there's nothing to stop some in their relentless pursuit
of wealth and power.
Don't be such a sanctimonious old bore.
Come on.
What do you mean?
We have a responsibility,
a duty to take care of those less fortunate than ourselves.
Fail, and the Republic falls apart.
Tiberius, like most citizens, was a firm believer in the Roman Republic.
For 400 years,
this largely democratic society had tried to achieve peace and stability for all.
But now, the growing gap between rich and poor threatened its foundations.
Do you like that one?
You need to be wiser, Tiberius.
I saw you talking to Pulcher last night.
- What's wrong with Pulcher? - Huh!
He's got principles. What he says makes a lot of sense.
He is not to be trusted.
So who would you have me trust, Mother? Nasica?
He doesn't care about anyone but himself.
You be careful, Tiberius. This idealism will get you enemies.
So what are you saying? That I should sacrifice my principles?
Is that what my father did?
Of course you must have principles.
But if you don't get the power first, nobody will ever listen to you.
Oh, Tiberius, you have the ability to become a great leader.
I don't want to be known as the mother-in-law of Aemilianus.
I want to be known as the mother of Tiberius Gracchus.
Tiberius hoped to satisfy his mother's expectations with further military glory.
He set off with reinforcements, to help crush a rebellion in Spain.
Leave the cart! No! Please. No...
Stop. No, my son.
What's going on here?
Tell them not to break the cart. It's all we have.
How are we going to get to Rome now?
They've taken our farm! Everything we've worked for!
- Who's taken your farm? - I lost my husband fighting for your lot!
We've no money, no food, nothing! What am I supposed to do? You tell me!
Mend the cart.
Give them food.
Tiberius.
Octavius. Good to see you.
- How long's it been? - Too long. Come in.
Do you remember all he used to serve you was that piss water?
And I loved it. Although it was worse than piss water.
- This, mercifully, is a little better. - I should bloody hope so.
It's not yours?
Grown right here.
Bring more, lots more.
You should try farming.
You can make a fortune out here.
Just grab some land.
Just grab some land?
Just grab some land.
Do you know, I met a family coming here. Someone had grabbed their land.
- The woman was screaming the place down. - She's a pain in the arse.
- You know her? - Yes.
Everybody round here knows her.
So who took her farm?
Octavius?
Well, the army took her husband. Hmm?
Anyway, where am I going to plant my grapes?
- Well, how many other farms have you taken? - Oh, come on, I'm not the only one.
You can't just take someone's land.
- What's going to happen to that family? - I don't know.
Go to Rome. Find their fortune.
Why should I care?
You don't give a shit, do you?
Tiberius, come, have another drink.
I don't think so.
We're leaving for Spain early.
It wasn't Just a few, but thousands of farmers who had lost their land.
The rich landowners had brought in slaves to replace them.
Many from Carthage.
When he reached Spain,
Tiberius fought the same tribe his father had confronted 40 years earlier,
the Numantines.
But this time there was no chance for glory. Battle after battle was lost to the fierce warriors.
The campaign was a disaster.
Consul Mancinus, the luckless commander, tried to lead his 20,000 troops to safety.
But his entire army was surrounded by the barbarians.
Facing annihilation, Mancinus's only option was to send out a peace envoy.
Why is he taking so bloody long?
They refuse to negotiate.
- Then we're all dead. - No. They won't negotiate with me.
- Only Tiberius. - What?
I can't allow it.
I can't put the lives of 20,000 Romans into the hands of a junior officer.
What alternative is there, sir?
What are they trying to do?
It must be a trap.
Sir?
Go then.
Why should I let you go? We could kill you all.
Why don't you, then?
Because of your father.
We fought him a long time, but he finally made peace with us.
Can you do the same?
- Yes. But my terms are... - Your terms?
My terms are that you free our men and allow them to return in safety.
And what do we get?
Equality with Rome, and a lasting peace.
Rome will agree to that?
I speak for Rome as my father did.
Give me your oath.
By Jupiter Lapis, I swear I will keep my word.
And if I fail, may I be cast out as this stone is now.
Your father never betrayed us. I know you won't either.
Tiberius returned to Rome
and to a hero's welcome from the families of the soldiers he'd saved.
But then he and Mancinus were summoned to appear before the Senate.
Prepare yourself.
How is it, members of the Senate, I ask myself,
that our great Republic,
supreme power in all the world,
now finds itself
asked to ratify a treaty with these barbarians?
Please, consider the...
Speak up.
Please consider the situation we were in.
It was the only chance we had to get out alive!
Alive? I don't understand.
Better killed in the glorious action
than skulking away with your tail between your legs.
Or maybe you're dead.
This is your ghost and this preposterous treaty is all a nightmare.
We can't let this treaty stand.
It was an oath made before the gods.
The Senate must honour it.
You should have thought about that before, young man.
What you are doing will dishonour Rome.
The only way we can show the gods and the Numantines
that we reject this treaty is to punish those who made it.
I say send Mancinus and his officer, Tiberius, back to the Numantines,
stripped naked and bound in chains.
Let's remember who the real culprit is here.
This young officer was only obeying the orders of an incompetent general.
And it is Mancinus, and Mancinus alone,
who should face the Numantines!
Tiberius, you have to see it from their point of view.
They're doing what's best for Rome.
Best for Rome? To break an oath made to the gods?
It's not that simple. You put them in an impossible position.
I saved thousands of lives.
You are lucky that Aemilianus stepped in to save you.
I've told him you'll apologise.
- Apologise? - Yes, Tiberius.
You've embarrassed me and the family in front of the whole Senate.
Apologise to Aemilianus and maybe he'll help to restore your reputation.
Mother,
I have no reputation,
no future, no hope, no honour.
I am utterly disgraced.
I have nothing.
Stop it! I will not have this whining.
You will go to Aemilianus and you will apologise.
And you will restore this family's honour. Do you understand?
The walls at Carthage were much higher. I could cross these in one leap.
- Ah, what do you think? The walls are too low. - Why didn't you support me?
What do you mean, support you? I saved you, Tiberius.
Saved me?
- You've finished me. - You made a fool of yourself in the Senate.
I made a sacred oath.
I thought you were an honourable man.
In Carthage, you said that we fought for truth and justice.
Or have you forgotten?
I stuck my neck out for you, and this is how you thank me?
Well, now I have to go to Spain to clear your mess up.
So you have forgotten.
I had high hopes for you, Tiberius. I thought you'd become a great leader.
But you're not your father's son.
Gracchus!
You saved my son!
You see how easy it is to get to you?
I'm sorry, sir, but I had to show you. You need protection.
I know about these things, sir, and I can help you.
When you become important, you make a lot of enemies,
and the people need you.
You're a hero to them.
- I'm not a hero. - You are to my people.
My name is Matho. I'll watch your back. I'll be loyal, sir. Not like the Senate.
He's not seeing anyone today. So go back to your homes. He won't see you!
He'll see me.
I told him you weren't seeing anybody.
Why are you here?
What you said in the Senate was true.
Didn't help, did it?
But you were right. Rome is dishonoured if it doesn't keep its word.
If you really believe that, you could still make a difference.
Why not run for political office?
Stand for Tribune of the People.
Tribune?
Of the people whose lives you've saved.
Those soldiers and their families will support you.
They've been waiting for someone like you,
someone to stand up for them, someone to fight for them.
If we don't curb the excesses of senators like Nasica,
we could face a civil war.
Gracchus!
Tiberius ran for Tribune.
Each year, ten were elected to defend the people's rights.
But many were Just political pawns of the Senate.
So what difference will you make?
I can help you.
From here across the line...
I can get back your land, your farms.
And why should we believe you? - Because we're on the same side.
I know what they're like. I've been treated badly by them too.
As Tribune, I can pass new laws that will give land back to you.
I promise you, I'll keep my word.
I said, on! On!
Come across.
I said, on! On!
Hurry up, or you'll lose them!
What he's proposing is outrageous.
All our hard work making the land profitable,
now it'll go to the lazy, bloody poor.
My ancestors are buried here. My father's grave is on this land.
I can't just give it up to some peasant.
Well, there's nothing the Senate can do.
If he wins, he can pass his laws.
We can't touch a Tribune.
Hey, move across! Across!
No, but another Tribune can. Eh?
Octavius, champion of the plebs.
I don't want to get involved. Tiberius is a good friend.
Was.
There, there they go, look. Off you go. Move!
You'll make a lot of powerful enemies.
You're going to have a hard fight.
Maybe we should seal our alliance.
What would you say to bringing our families together?
You know my daughter, Claudia.
I'd be honoured.
Tiberius's political marriage was swiftly followed by election victory.
Gracchus, Gracchus.
There are more farmers in Rome today than in the country!
More farmers, more votes!
Tribune Tiberius Gracchus
now asked the People's Assembly to vote on his radical land reform.
All domestic laws had to be passed by this open-air gathering.
But Tiberius had broken with convention.
He had snubbed the Senate by not consulting it first.
Octavius, congratulations. I'm so pleased. I never thought you'd stand as Tribune.
Tiberius Gracchus.
Citizens of the Republic, even a wild animal has a cave to live in,
but many of you have nowhere to call your own.
They expect you to die protecting Rome.
But whose homeland are you defending when you have none?
This must stop!
So I'm proposing new laws,
laws that will take back the land from those who have too much
and give it back to the people who need it the most.
Citizens, let us vote.
Gracchus, Gracchus.
Tribunes, are you agreed the people can vote?
Agreed.
Agreed.
Agreed.
Agreed.
Veto!
Can he veto?
Any Tribune can stop the vote.
Octavius, what are you doing?
That's my answer.
Magistrate, Octavius and I have to discuss things. I need more time.
We'll come back tomorrow.
Wait outside.
I might need you.
Take care, you bloody idiot!
Here comes our hero.
Have you reconsidered, Octavius?
Oh, yes. He's thought about it for many hours.
Will you use your veto tomorrow?
You'll cause chaos. There'll be riots.
Ah, the mob are with you for the moment. And then they're against you.
Get on with it.
They're not to be trusted.
My feet.
He's using you.
Well, you're no different. Hmm?
This is all about politics, Tiberius.
I've got a future in the Senate. Even if you haven't.
I pity you.
Get everyone you know and make sure they come to the assembly tomorrow.
Tribunes, are you agreed the people can vote?
Veto!
Wait.
Wait. Wait, calm yourselves.
Proceed with the daily business.
Tribunes, are you agreed we can open the law courts?
Veto! Continue.
The courts are shut, order of Tribune Tiberius Gracchus.
Gracchus, Gracchus.
Tribunes, are you agreed we can open the Public Treasury?
Veto! Continue.
The Public Treasury is closed.
Tribunes, are you agreed the markets can open?
Veto.
Veto.
Veto.
- Can he do this? - Yes, he can, the little shit.
No one had ever used the mob in this way before.
Tiberius had brought the hub of this huge empire to a standstill.
- Why didn't you tell me you were planning this? - There wasn't time.
Can I propose a vote to remove Octavius as Tribune?
Remove Octavius? On what grounds?
That he's an enemy of the people. He's deliberately going against their wishes.
In theory, yes. But, Tiberius, wait.
Just stop for a moment!
Think where all this is leading.
The balance between the Senate and the people is a delicate one.
Give them too much power and Rome will tip into anarchy.
Why don't you save your lecture for Octavius? He's the one stopping them vote.
These people need me. They speak through me.
And no one is going to stand in my way.
No one.
Mother.
What are you doing to poor Octavius?
Well, I'm afraid he's brought that on himself.
You grew up together. He's your friend.
Not if he goes against the will of the people.
Do you really believe all of that?
Will of the people?
Of course I do.
Or is it your own will you're really interested in?
Well?
I'm bringing justice to every citizen.
I'm doing what Father did. Isn't that what you want?
Not if it's going to destroy our own class, and the family's reputation.
You can't have heard what they're saying about me then.
I'm their hero.
You wanted to be known as the mother of Tiberius Gracchus.
Well, now you are.
Gracchus, Gracchus.
Tiberius won the vote to depose Octavius.
Without his veto, the land reform quickly became law.
He's won.
Not yet.
This is not about helping the poor. This is about power, absolute power.
And he's using the mob to seize it.
How far does he intend to go?
You mean does he want to rule Rome? Eh?
Does he want to be king?
I certainly believe that, and I think others will too.
Tiberius? King of Rome?
The people won't stand for it.
No, they won't, Octavius.
They won't.
And it's our duty... Our duty to help the people understand
that's exactly what Tiberius intends to do.
Have you had your lands back?
No!
No?
Well, maybe the tyrant Tiberius is keeping them for himself.
He has lied to you.
Lied!
He has been seen wearing royal robes. And a crown.
The royal crown he intends to wear as King of Rome.
We must stop Tiberius before he makes himself king,
and makes us all his slaves!
Yes! - Yes!
Yes! - Yes!
The attack against Tiberius could not have been more damaging.
Romans believed passionately that no individual should hold so much power.
In the Republic, there was no greater sin than wanting to be king.
Soon his time as Tribune runs out.
And when he is no longer protected by his office,
then I will prosecute him for treason.
Hear, hear.
And demand his execution.
This is your fault.
It's because they think you want to be king. Isn't that right, Matho?
Well?
That's what they're saying, madam.
And what do you think, Matho?
Matho! Come back!
Rome was on the brink of civil war.
On one side, Tiberius's supporters,
on the other, those who believed he was a tyrant in waiting.
- Where's Matho? - I don't know.
Claudia?
There you are.
Sit down.
Look at what they've done.
The Senate want your blood.
When your term as Tribune is over,
they want to put you on trial for crimes against the Republic.
They want the death sentence.
Then I'll run for a second term.
Tribunes are only allowed one year. You know that.
I can win them round. The people will see I'm still on their side.
Father, please.
- Tiberius, it's against the law. - There's so much more to do.
I'm planning new reforms.
You're tearing Rome apart!
The people will protect me.
Listen to them.
Can you win tomorrow?
Well, whether you win or lose, the Senate will never let you get away with it.
Why have you done this?
Not even my worst enemy has given me so much trouble, so much pain as you.
Have you really done this for the good of the people, or for yourself?
I've done it for you.
Citizens, order!
Today we vote on the re-election of Tiberius Gracchus
as Tribune of the People.
This election is illegal. Tiberius Gracchus is starting a revolution.
We must break up this election.
We don't have the right. We can't interfere.
No right? What right has he to overthrow us?
Matho, where have you been?
If I need you, I'll point to my head like this.
Like this.
I have the gravest news for you.
At this very moment,
Tiberius is proclaiming himself king.
He has indicated to his aides
to bring the royal crown.
Now is the time to act.
He wants to be king.
Kill him.
Kill him, kill him.
It is our duty to the gods, to the people.
We must protect the Republic.
Kill him!
Kill him, kill him.
Matho!
There was no funeral for Tiberius Gracchus,
no grand orations,
his body dumped in the river Tiber.
Nasica was forced to flee Rome and died in exile.
Aemilianus was recalled from Spain to restore order,
but was murdered by Tiberius's supporters.
Cornelia achieved her greatest wish.
She became known as the mother of Tiberius Gracchus,
and revered as the ideal of Roman motherhood.
But Tiberius had changed Rome forever.
His murder unleashed the power of the mob.
It would take 100 years to pull Roman society back together,
and a new type of leader, the Emperor.
Next on Ancient Rome...
Emperor Constantine.
A story of love, ambition and treachery.
After hundreds of years of peace, Rome collapsed into civil war,
but one man and a new religion would change not Just the empire,
but the Western world... forever.
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古羅馬帝國的盛衰 (part 1of 6 -Revolution- Critical moment 4/6 Ancient Rome The Rise and Fall of an Empire)

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阿多賓 發佈於 2014 年 1 月 15 日
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