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  • So we live in what I think of as a CSI age

    所以我們活在我所認為的 CSI 時代

  • where we take for granted

    在這個時代我們想當然爾

  • that scientists are going to work together with the police,

    認為科學家會與警察合作

  • help them solve crimes,

    幫助他們破案

  • map fingerprints,

    採集指紋

  • analyze poisons,

    分析毒藥

  • but in fact, this is really a very new idea.

    但事實是,這是很新的概念

  • We only actually started training scientists and forensics

    我們真正訓練科學家及法醫專家

  • in this country in the 1930s.

    在這個國家也不過是在 1930 年代才開始

  • So as a writer interested in chemistry,

    所以身為對化學感興趣的作家

  • what I wondered was,

    我想知道的是

  • "What was it like before scientists knew

    「它是什麼樣子呢?在科學家知道

  • how to tease a poison out of a corpse,

    如何從一具屍體中測試毒藥前,

  • before you could actually catch a killer that way?"

    在你真的能以這種方法逮捕兇手前?」

  • And it won't surprise you to learn

    而你不會驚訝得知

  • that the answer is pretty dangerous.

    答案是還挺危險

  • And in fact, in 1918, New York City issued a report

    其實在 1918 年,紐約市出了份報告

  • admitting that smart poisoners could operate

    承認聰明的犯人可能

  • with impunity in the city.

    在這個城市逍遙法外

  • This is a 1918 crime scene photo from Brooklyn,

    這是一張1918 年[br]布魯克林犯罪現場的照片

  • and at this time, the coroner system was so corrupt

    在那段時間,驗屍官系統是如此腐敗

  • that you could literally buy your cause of death.

    你真的可以買通你自己的死因

  • Often coroners didn't even show up at crime scenes.

    常常驗屍官甚至不在犯罪現場出現

  • And if you go back and you look at the death certificates of the time,

    如果你回溯去看看[br]那時候的死亡證明書

  • I found one that read,

    我發現有一張是這麼寫的

  • "Could be an auto accident or possibly diabetes."

    「可能是車禍,也有可能是糖尿病。」

  • And another, which involved a man who shot himself in the head,

    而另一張,涉及一個男人[br]開槍射擊自己的頭部

  • said, "ruptured aneurysm".

    寫著:「動脈瘤破裂。」

  • So you find, not surprisingly, the police saying,

    所以你會發現這一點都不奇怪[br]警察會這麼說

  • "We're going to look a lot smarter

    「我們會看起來聰明很多,

  • if we stay away from the science side of the story."

    如果我們不看這個故事的科學面。」

  • But, in 1918 New York City appointed

    但在 1918 年紐約市指派了

  • the first trained medical examiner it ever had.

    有始以來第一位受過訓的法醫

  • That's the gentleman sitting down there.

    就是那位坐在那兒的紳士

  • And he hired the first forensic toxicologist ever

    而且他聘了史上[br]第一位法醫毒理學家

  • attached to an American city.

    附屬在一個美國市府下

  • And together, these two men,

    而這兩人合作

  • Charles Norris, the medical examiner,

    查爾斯·諾里斯,這位法醫

  • and Alexander Gettler, the chemist sitting next to him,

    及亞歷山大·蓋特勒[br]坐在他旁邊的這位化學家

  • rewrote the rules of crime detection in this country.

    重新改寫了這個國家犯罪偵查的規則

  • And that wasn't easy because poisons were everywhere.

    而那並不容易,因為毒藥無所不在

  • If we take this one, arsenic trioxide,

    如果我們拿這個為例[br]三氧化二砷(砒霜)

  • arsenic trioxide's probably the most famous homicidal poison in history

    三氧化二砷大概是[br]史上最有名的自殺毒藥

  • and it was in every home.

    而且每一個家庭都有

  • Anyone could go to the grocery store or the pharmacy and buy it.

    任何人都可以去雜貨店或藥房買它

  • It was in every kitchen because,

    每個廚房裡都有,因為

  • believe it or not, it was used to color food.

    信不信由你,它用於食物染色

  • It was in medicines

    它用於醫藥

  • and it was in cosmetics

    它也用於化妝品

  • in ways that prevented people from really understanding

    使用如此廣泛,阻礙了人們去真正瞭解

  • how dangerous these poisons were

    這些毒藥的危險性

  • or how they worked.

    或它們如何致毒

  • Now, scientists had in the 19th century

    那麼,科學家自 19 世紀起

  • begun developing tests to look for poisons in corpses.

    就開始研發測試法[br]以找出屍體內的毒藥

  • But as this cartoon shows you of the first test for arsenic,

    但就如這張第一次砷測試的漫畫所示

  • these were very primitive tests,

    這些是非常原始的測試法

  • so, that our heroes really have to figure this out

    所以,我們的英雄真的得把它搞清楚

  • as they go in the 1920s.

    在他們於 1920 年代開始工作時

  • Gettler, for instance, was the first person in the world

    舉個例,蓋特勒是世上第一位

  • to know how to tell if someone was drunk at time of death.

    知道如何分辨某人[br]在死亡時間是否酒醉

  • He figured that out right about 1930

    他大約就在 1930 把這件事弄清楚

  • and he said later it took him 6,000 brains from the morgue

    而他後來說這大概花了他[br]六千顆停屍間的腦袋

  • to get to the point that he could get to that answer.

    才讓他找到答案的重點所在

  • And to give you a sense of what this is like,

    而為了讓你對這有點概念

  • I'm going to ask you for a moment

    我要請大家暫時

  • to become 1920s forensic detectives.

    變成 1920 年代的法醫偵探

  • This is a case based on one solved by Alexander Gettler in 1923,

    這是根據一件在 1923 年[br]由蓋特勒所解決的案件

  • and as you can probably tell,

    而你大概可以猜到

  • it's a case that begins in a tenement building.

    這個案件從一棟移民公寓開始

  • This particular one was on the Lower East Side of Manhattan.

    這間公寓位於曼哈頓下東城

  • And these buildings were very crowded

    這些公寓都非常擁擠

  • with families who had very little money.

    住著沒有什麼錢的家庭

  • And the rooms were very poor.

    而且房子都很破舊

  • This is actually an abandoned room

    這實際上是一間廢棄屋

  • at the Tenement House Museum

    陳設在移民公寓博物館

  • that is in Lower Manhattan today.

    位於今天的曼哈頓下城

  • These rooms often had no electricity,

    這些房子通常沒有電

  • they had no hot water,

    沒有熱水

  • and people who lived this way

    而以這種方式過活的人

  • depended on gas to fuel everything

    依賴瓦斯為燃料

  • from their stove to their electric lights.

    從爐臺到電燈皆是

  • And this gas was called illuminating gas,

    而這種瓦斯稱作煤氣

  • and it was both a toxic and explosive mixture

    它是由毒性爆炸性兩者兼具的

  • of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

    一氧化碳及氫氣的混合物

  • So you, the forensic scientist, are called

    所以你這位法醫科學家,被傳喚到

  • to a crime scene in a tenement house.

    位在移民公寓的犯罪現場

  • This is actually a police photo from the time in question,

    這實際上是一張時間未明的警察存證照片

  • but the story that I'm going to tell you

    但我要告訴你的這個故事

  • is a little more complicated than this.

    比時間考證還要稍微複雜一點

  • Nevertheless, you're going to go into this building,

    儘管如此,你要進到這棟建築物

  • you're going to walk down this hall,

    你要走過這個大廳

  • you're going to go through the door,

    你要穿過這扇門

  • and you're going to find yourself

    而你將發現你自己

  • in a very shabby apartment.

    位於一間非常簡陋的公寓

  • The floors are splintered,

    地板裂開了

  • the walls are peeling,

    牆壁剝落

  • there's only gas lighting,

    這裡只有瓦斯燈

  • and in this case,

    而在這個案件

  • you go into the back bedroom.

    你要進到後面的臥室

  • There's clearly been a gas leak,

    很明顯是有瓦斯漏氣

  • there's a broken fitting on the wall.

    牆上是有個壞掉的管線接頭

  • The police are opening the windows,

    警察正打開窗戶

  • and in the bed there's the body of young woman

    而在床上有一具年輕女人的屍體

  • who's clearly been dead for some time

    很明顯她已經死亡多時

  • because she's cold

    因為她的身體冷了

  • and she's stiff

    而且她很僵硬

  • and she's pale.

    而且她很死白

  • And you turn to the police and you say,

    你轉向警察,你說

  • "No, this is not an illuminating gas death

    「不對,這不是煤氣致死事件

  • because...."

    因為⋯」

  • Because if you're killed by carbon monoxide,

    因為如果你是因一氧化碳中毒而死

  • there is such a powerful chemical reaction in your blood

    你的血液會有一種非常強勁的化學反應

  • as the oxygen is muscled out of the blood stream

    就是氧氣會被擠出血液

  • that the blood cells are turned a bright, cherry red.

    血球細胞會轉變成鮮明的櫻桃紅色

  • And this red is so strong that it flushes the skin

    而這種紅色是如此強烈,它會使皮膚泛紅

  • of the corpse a cherry pink.

    讓屍體呈現櫻桃般粉色

  • In fact, people who see bodies

    事實上,看過屍體的人

  • after someone has died of a carbon monoxide death,

    在看過因一氧化碳而死的屍體後

  • they'll often talk about how healthy they look.

    他們常會說這些屍體看起來有多健康

  • So your poor, pale corpse could not have been killed by this gas.

    所以你那具可憐蒼白的屍體[br]不可能死於這種氣體

  • You take the body back to the morgue,

    你把屍體帶回停屍間

  • you run more blood tests,

    你又做了幾項測試

  • and you find another gas at extremely high levels,

    然後你發現另一種氣體的含量非常高

  • carbon dioxide.

    二氧化碳

  • And what does that tell you?

    那這告訴你了什麼?

  • If you think about the way we breath,

    如果你想想我們呼吸的方式

  • we inhale oxygen,

    我們吸進氧氣

  • we exhale carbon dioxide,

    我們呼出二氧化碳

  • but what if you can't exhale?

    但如果你不能呼氣會怎樣?

  • What if that gas can't get out?

    如果那種氣體不能釋出會怎樣?

  • It backs up into your lungs,

    它會累積在你的肺裡

  • and the number one clue of a suffocation or a strangulation

    而窒息或勒死的第一線索

  • is elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.

    就是血液裡升高的二氧化碳量

  • And in fact, what they found

    事實上,他們發現

  • when they took a closer look at the body

    當他們仔細檢查那具屍體

  • were the bruise marks left by her husband's fingers

    有她的丈夫所留下的瘀青指痕

  • as he had held her down and suffocated her.

    在他把她壓住並勒死她的時後

  • And it turned out that he had

    原來他之前

  • taken out an insurance policy on her life,

    買了她的人壽保險

  • suffocated her,

    勒死她

  • broken the gas fitting to try to stage an accident scene,

    弄壞瓦斯管線,試著佈置成一起意外事件

  • and it turned out that it was chemistry

    結果是化學

  • that sent him to prison.

    把他送進了監牢

  • There are so many good poison and murder stories

    有太多很棒的毒殺及謀殺故事

  • from this time period that I would love to tell you.

    發生在這段時間,我真想說給你們聽

  • It's one of my favorite subjects obviously.

    很明顯這是我很喜歡的題目

  • But I want to leave you with this thought.

    但我想留給你這個想法

  • Two things.

    兩件事

  • One is that case that I just described to you

    第一是我剛剛才描述給你們聽的案件

  • is one of my favorites

    是我最喜歡的

  • because it's the beginning of a series of investigations

    因為這是一系列調查的開始

  • that persuade the New York police

    其說服了紐約警察

  • that they do need to work with scientists

    他們的確需要與科學家合作

  • and it lays the foundation for, in fact,

    而這其實也

  • our CSI-era age,

    為我們的 CSI 時代立下了基礎

  • and, because it's such a good story of two very determined people,

    而且,因為這是個有關[br]兩個非常堅決的人的好故事

  • in this case two city scientists,

    在這個例子是兩個市府科學家

  • who were able to change the world around them.

    能夠改變他們周圍的世界

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

So we live in what I think of as a CSI age

所以我們活在我所認為的 CSI 時代

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 屍體 法醫 毒藥 公寓 瓦斯

【TED-Ed】早期法醫與破案化學家--德博拉-布盧姆 (【TED-Ed】Early forensics and crime-solving chemists - Deborah Blum)

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    wikiHuang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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