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  • I want to ask you all to do me a favor if you don't mind. Before I begin I'd like us

  • all to call into our minds a child or children who we love. It can be a daughter, a son,

  • it can be a godchild, it can be a niece or nephew, a brother or sister. Just picture

  • in your mind's eye who that kid is and I will be picturing this one. Yeah, I think she's

  • kind of cute. That's my daughter Ida. That was on her 2nd birthday. One of her friends

  • gave her that tiara that she insisted on wearing for the whole rest of the party. So I'll be

  • thinking of Ida. And when Ida was 2, right around this age, she fell in love. Deeply,

  • madly in love. Her name was Dora. And Dora was pretty cool. She was adventurous, she

  • even spoke Spanish, she was pretty cool. She also sold band-aids. And if you're a parent

  • out there you might have had some experience with the Dora band-aid. But if you have you

  • would know what I mean when I say my child became obsessed with these band-aids. It was

  • the kind of obsession that had her faking injuries just so she could wear them. And

  • I got completely sucked in to supporting her habit. I'd like to tell you that that desperate

  • woman hunting down the Dora band-aids late at night at Rite-aid wasn't me. It was. Of

  • course, cute, charismatic cartoons like Dora aren't just selling band-aids. The food industry

  • has figured out how to use cartoon characters to get kids hooked on their products too.

  • So you may have seen Spongebob on pop-tarts or Shrek on Twinkies. Like this one here,

  • and it does say somewhere on there, ogre green creamy filling, same great taste. You may

  • have seen some of these packages, you may have seen Dora on cupcakes, crackers, popsicles,

  • ice cream. And it's not just cute cartoon characters that the food industry uses to

  • get kids hooked on their products. It's lots of other things that they're doing. In fact

  • the food industry itself says that they spend about $2 billion every year - $2 billion every

  • year - in marketing directly to children and teenagers. And of course the industry is spending

  • many billions more than that in marketing that kids are seeing anyway. And the way that

  • the food industry is now targeting young people, I have found, as I've kind of dug into what

  • they're doing, I found to be quite alarming. When you think about it in the context of

  • the fact that diet-related illnesses among young people are on the rise. We all know

  • that. And we think about this omnipresent marketing I think it isn't an exaggeration

  • to say that it has become downright dangerous. So the food industry knows that marketing

  • to kids works. What does it do for them? It builds brand loyalty which can sometimes last

  • a lifetime. So you target young people, you get them hooked on your brands early, that's

  • a lifetime of brand loyalty. It also generates what the industry calls 'pester power.' So

  • some of you out there, you might be parents, you might be familiar with what pester power

  • is. It doesn't feel too good but it works. 75% of parents say they have bought a product

  • for the first time because their child asked them for it. Or the speak in industry terms,

  • their child pestered them for it. The more I learned about the ways that children and

  • teens are being bombarded with food marketing, the more outraged I have become. And you might

  • be too as you learn what I'm about to share with you today. If a child watches a typical

  • amount of television every year, they will now be seeing 4,600 ads for food and drink.

  • Most of those ads will be for foods and drinks that are high in fat, sugar, and salt. so

  • 4,600 ads every single year. And what we know about seeing those ads is we know it gets

  • kids to prefer certain brands. We also know it gets all of us to just eat more, period.

  • So you might think, well ok ,so the answer's simple. They're being bombarded on television,

  • so just turn off the TV. Just don't expose kids to TV. Well it's not that simple. You

  • see, junk food marketing to children and teens has now become nearly impossible to avoid.

  • Because so much of it is happening outside of a parent's control and beyond our reach.

  • So there are now, I was particularly shocked when I discovered this, there are now classroom

  • curricula sponsored by Oreo cookies. This is the Oreo cookie counting book. There are

  • also the M&M counting book. There is the 'spark creativity with fruit loops' activity book

  • for preschoolers. And the list goes on and on and on and on. You can now find corporate

  • logos on school gymnasiums, and community centers and school hallways and yearbooks.

  • They're even trying to get on school buses. There's also this kind of new wave of marketing

  • where you have junk food companies and fast food companies trying to partner with trusted

  • public institutions to help build that brand loyalty. So a few years back there was a partnership

  • between McDonald's and Big Macs and Unicef. And I just don't really think Big Mac and

  • Unicef should really be in the same sentence. So you're having that kind of marketing. And

  • you're also starting to see some marketing posed as charity. So you have initiatives

  • like Pepsi Refresh or My Coke Rewards, which is billed by Coca-Cola as this great fundraising

  • tool for schools. Some of you may have heard of My Coke Rewards - the concept is you buy

  • Coke products, you get reward points and then you can redeem them for a whole range of different

  • prizes, including those you can get for your school. So we looked into it a little bit

  • and we found that to get this physical activity pack, there's some whistles in there, some

  • jumpropes, some balls, do you know how many cans of Coke you need to buy to get enough

  • reward points for your school to earn this? 55,000 cans of Coca-Cola. 55,000 cans of Coca-Cola.

  • It doesn't really seem like such a deal to me. So what I have found actually particularly

  • upsetting about how the food industry is marketing to children and teens is that when you dig

  • into the research about it, what you find is that young people of color are bearing

  • the brunt of this marketing. African-American teens, for instance, are barraged with 80%

  • more ads for sugary drinks than white teenagers. And this is especially upsetting because African-American

  • children and teenagers are already among the hardest hit from diet-related illnesses. And

  • that inequality is made even worse by race-based target marketing. So what is the food industry

  • say about of this? They're saying, well, we're marketing to kids less, we're doing it less.

  • But the truth is that they're just changing where and how they're doing it. So they're

  • no dummies. They know where young people are these days. Probably all of us know where

  • young people are these days. Online. Right? 73% of teenagers are now on some social media

  • site. YouTube, Facebook, Twitter. The food industry is on all of these platforms. And

  • what are they doing on them? They're pushing promotions, and prizes, and contests, and

  • coupons, all to get kids coming back often and sharing with their friends. There are

  • now dozens of websites out there designed for kids by food companies with free games,

  • and contests. There are sites like Ronald.com, which is McDonald's site just for preschoolers.

  • And on these sites what you find again and again and again is that you have to enter

  • to play these games and to get all these freebies and prizes, you have to enter your personal

  • information. So your birthday, your cell phone number, personal information that is then

  • used to sell to you more. So if you're a teenager today and you're walking by a McDonald's you

  • might just get a text message promotion for a Big Mac because they have your cell phone

  • number and your GPS information. I was telling a friend about this, I was telling a friend

  • who works for the New York City Dept of Public Health. And I was telling her about just this

  • level of data that is now being collected on young people and that's being used to figure

  • out how to market to kids. And she said, Anna, can you imagine if we had those resources

  • to do that kind of specific marketing? She said, can you imagine how incredible our marketing

  • campaigns could be for health food? She said we could send text promotions for farmers

  • markets. But the Public Health Dept. doesn't have that level of resources or that level

  • of data. The food industry does. And what I find so disturbing about the power that

  • the junk food industry now holds to reach our kids, to reach young people today, is

  • that what children and teenagers are enticed to consume has life and death consequences.

  • And when I say life and death, I am not exaggerating. Life and death consequences. In the past 30

  • years the prevalence of obesity among children and teens has tripled. Today, a child born

  • in this country has a 1 in 3 chance of developing diabetes at some point in their lifetime.

  • For African-American and Latino kids that is a 1 in 2 chance. 1 in 2. It's not just

  • diabetes, it's also heart disease and high blood pressure, asthma, even certain cancers.

  • It's diet-related illnesses that are having many doctors see conditions in their practice

  • that they have never seen before. Like the pediatrician I met in Maine who was telling

  • me that young people in their 20's are coming in to get dentures because they have been

  • drinking soda their entire lives. In their 20's. It has people like the pediatrician

  • I met from Chicago who was telling me that he now has to fit young people with leg braces

  • because their growing bones and joints can no longer support their weight. It's tragic,

  • and it's so tragic because this is all totally preventable. It doesn't have to be this way.

  • And you don't have to be a parent to have your heart break hearing these stories, right?

  • We all have children in our lives who we love, and we're all paying the price for this crisis

  • in mounting healthcare costs. But I am not just here to tell you how bad things are.

  • I'm not just here to tell you how upset as a parent I am. I'm also here to talk about

  • what we can do about it. And here is where there is some incredible good news because

  • all over the country there are people putting pressure on policy makers and on companies

  • to protect kids from these dangerous marketing tactics. I'm here to tell you about the state

  • of Maine that was the first to pass a statewide ban on marketing junk food in schools. I'm

  • here to tell you about the people of Los Angeles who finally said enough and put a moratorium

  • on opening new fast food franchises in certain neighborhoods. I'm here to tell you about

  • the campaign for commercial-free childhood, which stopped McDonald's from advertising

  • on report card envelopes that would have promised elementary school students free happy meals

  • for good school performance. I'm here to tell you that all over the country people are passing

  • policies and winning lawsuits changing school norms all to protect our kids and promote

  • health eating. And the good news is this works. We know that when you teach kids about why

  • food matters, give them access to it, that they go for it. And I'm seeing proof of that

  • everywhere I go. Like the teenager I met who before working on this urban farm program

  • said the only vegetable she'd ever eaten were those that came between two hamburger buns.

  • And told me that now, thanks to working on this farm, she'd become a salad fanatic. So

  • we can raise healthy kids who love food that's good for their bodies. We can but not in this

  • food environment. What we're talking about doing is huge. We're talking about changing

  • social norms. But we've done it before and we can do it again. And we can do it by standing

  • up stronger, standing up taller, speaking up louder, joining with campaigns that are

  • happening across the country like those from Corporate Accountability International with

  • their campaign to suggest it might be time for Ronald to retire down to Florida. The

  • Campaign for Commercial-free Childhood which has successfully stopped logos going on school

  • buses everywhere they have tried to do that. Groups like the Center for Science in the

  • Public Interest and my group, the Food Mythbusters. Food companies say that it's up to parents

  • to raise health kids. That's what they say. And I agree. Absolutely. That's why I say

  • to those corporations, then leave parenting to us. Right? Don't tell children what's good

  • to put into their bodies. I have 2 daughters now. That's Ida and her baby sister Rosa.

  • And to the junk food industry I say this. My children - all of our children - are none

  • of your business.

I want to ask you all to do me a favor if you don't mind. Before I begin I'd like us

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TEDx】向兒童推銷食品。Anna Lappe在TEDxManhattan的演講 (【TEDx】Marketing Food to Children: Anna Lappe at TEDxManhattan)

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    孫子文 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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