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  • When we watch a film or a play,

    電影中或舞台劇的

  • we know that the actors

    演員應該

  • probably learned their lines from a script,

    都有熟讀劇本

  • which essentially tells them

    因為劇本會告訴演員

  • what to say

    劇中的台詞

  • and when to say it.

    還有講台詞的時機

  • A piece of written music

    一首曲子的樂譜

  • operates on exactly the same principle.

    類似劇本

  • In a very basic sense,

    簡單來說

  • it tells a performer what to play

    樂譜告訴音樂家要彈奏什麼

  • and when to play it.

    還有彈奏的時間點

  • Aesthetically speaking, there's a world of difference

    雖然每個音樂家的風格不同

  • between, say, Beethoven

    比如說,貝多芬

  • and Justin Bieber,

    和小賈斯汀

  • but both artists have used

    但兩位音樂家

  • the same building blocks to create their music:

    都用了同樣的基本單位創造音樂:

  • notes.

    音符

  • And although the end result

    雖然最後的曲子

  • can sound quite complicated,

    聽起來很複雜

  • the logic behind musical notes

    但音符的基礎邏輯

  • is actually pretty straightforward.

    其實是簡單易懂的

  • Let's take a look

    讓我們一起了解

  • at the foundational elements to music notation

    樂譜最基本的要素

  • and how they interact to create a work of art.

    還有如何做曲

  • Music is written on five parallel lines

    曲子是寫在五條平行線上的

  • that go across the page.

    五條線橫跨整個頁面

  • These five lines are called a staff,

    也就是五線譜

  • and a staff operates on two axes:

    五線譜分兩個軸向

  • up and down

    上跟下

  • and left to right.

    左跟右

  • The up-and-down axis tells the performer

    上下軸告訴音樂家

  • the pitch of the note

    樂譜的音調

  • or what note to play,

    或是音符

  • and the left-to-right axis tells the performer

    左右軸告訴音樂家

  • the rhythm of the note

    音樂的節奏韻律

  • or when to play it.

    還有彈奏的時間點

  • Let's start with pitch.

    首先來看音調

  • To help us out, we're going to use a piano,

    用鋼琴來做解釋吧

  • but this system works for pretty much

    不過鋼琴樂譜的原理

  • any instrument you can think of.

    也可以類推到別的樂器上

  • In the Western music tradition,

    傳統西方音樂裡的

  • pitches are named after

    音調

  • the first seven letters of the alphabet,

    是用七個英文字母命名

  • A,

    A

  • B,

    B

  • C,

    C

  • D,

    D

  • E,

    E

  • F,

    F

  • and G.

    還有G

  • After that, the cycle repeats itself:

    同樣模式不斷重複

  • A,

    A

  • B,

    B

  • C,

    C

  • D,

    D

  • E,

    E

  • F,

    F

  • G,

    G

  • A,

    A

  • B,

    B

  • C,

    C

  • D,

    D

  • E,

    E

  • F,

    F

  • G,

    G

  • and so on.

    以此類推

  • But how do these pitches get their names?

    但音調的名字是怎麼來的?

  • Well, for example, if you played an F

    舉例來說,如果你彈F

  • and then played another F

    再彈另一個F

  • higher or lower on the piano,

    只是高低音不同

  • you'd notice that they sound pretty similar

    其實聽起來差不多

  • compared to, say, a B.

    跟B相比就不同了

  • Going back to the staff,

    再回到五線譜

  • every line and every space between two lines

    每條線,還有線與線間的空格

  • represents a separate pitch.

    都代表一個音調

  • If we put a note on one of these lines

    如果在線上畫上一個音符

  • or one of these spaces,

    或在線與線之間譜上音符

  • we're telling a performer to play that pitch.

    演奏者就知道要彈什麼音調

  • The higher up on the staff a note is placed,

    五線譜上音符越高

  • the higher the pitch.

    表示音調越高

  • But there are obviously many, many more pitches

    但音樂有數之不盡的音調

  • than the nine that these lines and spaces gives us.

    不只限於九條線與間的音調

  • A grand piano, for example, can play

    以演奏式鋼琴為例

  • 88 separate notes.

    可以彈奏88個音調

  • So how do we condense 88 notes onto a single staff?

    怎麼把88個音調塞進五線譜呢?

  • We use something called a clef.

    這就要用譜號來表示

  • A clef is a weird looking figure

    譜號是個怪異的圖形

  • placed at the beginning of the staff

    寫在五線譜的前端

  • and it acts like a reference point,

    譜號標示某特定音調

  • telling you that a particular line or space

    告訴你線與間的音符

  • corresponds to a specific note on your instrument.

    代表的是鍵盤上哪個音

  • If we want to play notes that aren't on the staff,

    要彈奏五線譜上沒有的音符

  • we kind of cheat and draw extra little lines

    可以偷偷在譜上多加短線

  • called ledger lines

    也就是加線

  • and place the notes on them.

    然後再譜上音符

  • If we have to draw so many ledger lines

    但如果要畫很多加線

  • that it gets confusing,

    樂譜會讓人眼花撩亂

  • then we need to change to a different clef.

    這時就要變換譜號

  • As for telling a performer when to play the notes,

    演奏者要知道彈奏的時間點

  • two main elements control this:

    會看兩個地方

  • the beat

    拍子

  • and the rhythm.

    還有節奏

  • The beat of a piece of music is,

    一首曲子的拍子

  • by itself, kind of boring.

    有點單調無聊

  • It sounds like this.

    聽起來像這樣

  • Notice that it doesn't change,

    並沒有什麼變化

  • it just plugs along quite happily.

    就這麼周而復始的下去

  • It can go slow

    可以放慢

  • or fast

    也可以加快

  • or whatever you like, really.

    隨便你怎麼變化

  • The point is that just like the second hand on a clock

    拍子就像時鐘的秒針

  • divides one minute into sixty seconds,

    將一分鐘分為60秒

  • with each second just as long as every other second,

    每一秒長度都一樣

  • the beat divides a piece of music

    拍子將一首曲子

  • into little fragments of time

    分成很多個小段落

  • that are all the same length,

    每一段長度相同

  • beats.

    就是拍子

  • With a steady beat as a foundation,

    拍子抓準後

  • we can start adding rhythm to our pitches,

    接下來是節奏

  • and that's when music really starts to happen.

    音樂是從節奏開始的

  • This is a quarter note.

    這是四分音符

  • It's the most basic unit of rhythm,

    節奏最基本單位

  • and it's worth one beat.

    等於一拍

  • This is a half note, and it's worth two beats.

    二分音符是兩拍

  • This whole note here is worth four beats,

    全音符是四拍

  • and these little guys are eighth notes,

    這幾個小蝌蚪是八分音符

  • worth half a beat each.

    每個音符是半拍

  • "Great," you say, "what does that mean?"

    太棒了!但他們代表什麼啊?

  • You might have noticed

    你應該有注意到

  • that across the length of a staff,

    五線譜上有幾條小線

  • there are little lines dividing it into small sections.

    將樂譜分成幾個小段落

  • These are bar lines

    這是小節線

  • and we refer to each section as a bar.

    每個段落是一個小節

  • At the beginning of a piece of music,

    樂譜一開始

  • just after the clef,

    在譜號後

  • is something called the time signature,

    會有個拍號

  • which tells a performer how many beats are in each bar.

    告訴演奏者一小節有幾拍

  • This says there are two beats in each bar,

    這個拍號表示一小節有兩拍

  • this says there are three,

    這是三拍

  • this one four,

    四拍

  • and so on.

    以此類推

  • The bottom number tells us what kind of note

    下面的數字告訴我們

  • is to be used as the basic unit for the beat.

    要用什麼音符當作一拍

  • One corresponds to a whole note,

    一是全音符

  • two to a half note,

    二是二分音符

  • four to a quarter note,

    四是四分音符

  • and eight to an eighth note,

    八是八分音符

  • and so on.

    以此類推

  • So this time signature here

    樂譜上的拍號

  • tells us that there are four quarter notes in each bar,

    告訴演奏者一小節有四拍

  • one,

  • two,

  • three,

  • four;

  • one,

  • two,

  • three,

  • four,

  • and so on.

    以此類推

  • But like I said before,

    但就像之前說的

  • if we just stick to the beat,

    如果只注意拍子

  • it gets kind of boring,

    會很無趣

  • so we'll replace some quarter notes

    可以把幾個四分音符

  • with different rhythms.

    換成別的節奏

  • Notice that even though the number of notes

    注意,雖然音符的數目變了

  • in each bar has changed,

    每個小節不一樣

  • the total number of beats in each bar hasn't.

    但總拍數維持不變

  • So what does our musical creation sound like?

    這首曲子聽起來如何

  • Eh, sounds okay, but maybe a bit thin, right?

    還可以,但有些單調

  • Let's add another instrument

    加入另一個樂器呢

  • with its own pitch and rhythm.

    配上不同音調與節奏

  • Now it's sounding like music.

    聽起來更像音樂了

  • Sure, it takes some practice

    讀譜是須要練習的

  • to get used to reading it quickly

    才能一邊讀譜

  • and playing what we see on our instrument,

    一邊彈奏音樂

  • but, with a bit of time and patience,

    但只要花點時間跟耐心

  • you could be the next Beethoven

    你有可能是下一個貝多芬

  • or

    或者

  • Justin Bieber.

    小賈斯汀

When we watch a film or a play,

電影中或舞台劇的

字幕與單字
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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 TED-Ed 音符 拍子 彈奏 曲子 節奏

【TED-Ed】教你如何讀譜 (How to read music - Tim Hansen)

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    Zenn 發佈於 2013 年 11 月 22 日
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