Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • Sea turtles are miraculous.

    海龜是奇蹟般的動物

  • First, they've been around since the late Jurassic,

    第一,牠們自侏羅紀末就出現在這個世界

  • roughly 150 million years ago.

    大約 1 億 5000 萬年前

  • Cohorts of the dinosaurs, sea turtles have survived through the challenges of eons,

    身為恐龍的同伴,海龜倖存下來,並存活了長達億年

  • existing still today, where many others have ended their evolutionary run.

    存活至今日,反觀牠的同伴卻結束了演化的旅程

  • Second, throughout the centuries and up til today,

    第二,在過去幾個世紀直到今天

  • every living adult sea turtle has overcome the odds,

    每隻成功存活的成年海龜都克服了難關

  • existing as a consequence of chance,

    牠們的存活總歸機運、技能、及能力

  • skill and capability.

    牠們的存活總歸機運、技能、及能力

  • The gauntlet each sea turtle faces in the course of its lifetime goes thus:

    每隻海龜在牠一生中面臨的挑戰有:

  • First, deposited as a clutch of leathery, ping pong ball-sized eggs

    首先,海龜媽媽於海灘高處挖出的窩裡

  • into a nesting pit dug by its mother high on the beach,

    產下一窩革質、乒乓球大小的蛋

  • Of the 50 to 200 eggs laid,

    一窩 50-200 蛋中

  • roughly 20 percent will never hatch.

    大約 20%不會孵化

  • Roughly a month and a half after having been laid,

    產卵後過了一個半月

  • the surviving eggs hatch

    還存活的蛋孵化

  • and the young turtles, each small enough to fit in the palm of your hand,

    成為小海龜,每隻比你的手掌要來得小

  • Squirm to the surface, emerging from the sand en masse

    一群新生命爬上地表

  • and making their desperate dash for the sea.

    然後開始猛烈地衝向海洋

  • Along the way, debris, pitfalls, crabs,

    一路走來,碎片、 坑洞、 螃蟹、

  • gulls, raccoons and other threats

    海鷗、 浣熊和其他威脅

  • will claim roughly 50 percent of those

    會奪走大約 50% 從沙裡爬出的小海龜的生命

  • who rose from the sand.

    會奪走大約 50% 從沙裡爬出的小海龜的生命

  • For those that actually reach the surf,

    對於那些成功抵達浪潮的

  • they trade one set of threats for another,

    牠們將面臨新的威脅

  • as they first face the repelling force of the waves,

    牠們第一次面對海浪的衝擊

  • and then find a whole new host of predators awaiting them.

    然後發現新的獵食者正等待著他們

  • various fish, dolphins, sharks and sea birds,

    各種魚類、 海豚、 鯊魚

  • as the young turtles come to the surface for air.

    還有當他們浮出水面呼吸所遇上的海鳥

  • For their first few days of life,

    牠們生命的前幾天

  • should they count themselves amongst the living,

    若牠們僥倖活存

  • the vulnerable turtles swim frantically forward.

    脆弱的海龜會瘋狂地向前游

  • Ultimately, they will often look to settle in a patch of flotsam.

    最後,牠們往往會在一團漂浮物下定居

  • preferably a patch of floating seaweed.

    最好是在浮在水面的海草

  • Now, for the next several months, they will seek to avoid those that would eat them.

    接下來幾個月,牠們會設法避開天敵

  • find that which they might eat themselves,

    尋找獵物

  • and not fall to the pressures of challenging weather or unfortunate currents.

    並不被惡劣的天氣或海洋的亂流所擊倒

  • In this phase, roughly 50 percent of those who reach the surf

    在此階段,大約 50% 進入海洋的海龜會死亡

  • will perish.

    在此階段,大約 50%進入海洋的海龜會死亡

  • Ultimately, with the passage of years,

    最後,經過了幾年

  • the survivors will increase in size,

    存活下來的海龜將會慢慢長大

  • from that of a dinner plate at year one to that of a dinner table,

    體型從第一年的盤子大小,變成餐桌大小

  • in the case of one species at least, the Leatherback,

    舉棱皮龜為例,過程可能需要十年以上

  • a decade or so later.

    舉棱皮龜為例,過程可能需要十年以上

  • With size comes some measure of protection.

    體型變大會帶來一些保護的功用

  • The only truly worrisome predators now are some of the larger shark species --

    現在唯一令牠擔憂的掠食者是一些較大的鯊魚:

  • bulls, tigers and whites --

    牛鯊、 虎鯊、大白鯊

  • and the occasional killer whale.

    和偶爾碰到的殺人鯨

  • At approximately two decades of age,

    到了約二十歲時

  • the survivors will be old enough themselves to breed,

    存活下來的海龜將成熟到有繁殖能力

  • and continue the cycle which their very existence heralds.

    繁衍下一代,見證生命週期的循環

  • Of those that began as eggs on a distant beach,

    在那些沙灘上的龜卵之中

  • now less than 10 percent remain,

    能活到繁殖年齡的不到一成

  • at least, those were the odds prior to significant human interference.

    至少那是於人類破壞之前的機率

  • Over the past century, and in particular in the last several decades,

    在過去這世紀,特別是在過去的幾十年裡

  • Human endeavors, from beach development

    人類的活動,如開發海灘

  • to plastic refuse to poaching, long lines, nets,

    塑膠垃圾、盜獵、延繩釣、網捕、

  • and even noxious chemicals, including oil,

    甚至有毒化學品(包括石油)

  • have upped the ante for sea turtles,

    讓海龜存活下來的困難性增加

  • causing their survival rate to drop to around one percent or less

    導致每一代新生海龜的存活率下降到

  • from each nesting cycle.

    百分之一左右或更少

  • It is this added human pressure which has pushed each of the eight sea turtle species

    人類所施加的生存壓力讓世界上的八種海龜

  • to either a threatened or endangered state.

    都處於受威脅甚至瀕臨絕種的狀態

  • For while they have evolved to overcome a host of obstacles,

    雖然演化天擇使牠們能夠克服種種障礙

  • the most recent has arisen so quickly

    但最近的障礙急速增加

  • and at such scale that the species find themselves

    速度如此之快讓海龜無法應變

  • overwhelmed.

    速度如此之快讓海龜無法應變

  • So let's quickly recap this cycle of odds.

    現在,讓我們快速回顧海龜在一生中存活的機率

  • using a hypothetical nesting season,

    我們利用一個產卵季節來計算

  • for females may nest multiple times in a single year,

    因為母龜可以在一年中多次產卵

  • of 1,000 eggs, for sake of ease.

    為了方便假設牠一次產下 1,000 顆卵

  • One thousand eggs laid.

    1,000 顆卵之中

  • Eight hundred hatch.

    800 顆會孵化

  • Four hundred make it to the water.

    400 隻成功進入海洋

  • Two hundred progress toward adulthood.

    200 隻逐步長大至成年

  • Twenty survive to breeding age -- that is, without human interference.

    20 隻活到繁殖年齡──這是沒有人為干預的結果

  • Two survive to breeding age with human interference.

    在人為干擾下,只有兩隻會活到繁殖年齡

  • So a breeding adult sea turtle is the very embodiment

    所以成年海龜是一系列

  • of a longshot. It is the exception, not the rule.

    不可能事件的化身。牠是個例外,不是常態

  • A jackpot. It is, in a very real sense,

    就像頭獎一樣,牠真的是一個奇蹟

  • a miracle.

    就像頭獎一樣,牠真的是一個奇蹟

(Music)

(音樂)

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 海龜 存活 繁殖 海洋 孵化

【TED-Ed】海龜的生存之道 (The survival of the sea turtle - Scott Gass)

  • 3734 265
    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 03 月 21 日
影片單字