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  • When desert locusts are well fed, they're solitary creatures.

    當沙漠蝗蟲食物充足時, 牠們是各自行動的生物

  • But when food becomes scarce,

    但當食物短缺時

  • hungry, desperate locusts crowd onto small patches of land

    飢餓絕望的蝗蟲便成群結隊

  • where they can still find something to eat.

    群聚在還能找到食物的地方

  • Contact between different locusts' hind legs set off a slew of reactions

    蝗蟲的後腿相互接觸聯絡 形成連鎖反應

  • that change their appearance and behavior.

    使蝗蟲們的外表和行為改變

  • Now, instead of shunning their peers, they seek each other out.

    牠們不再離群索居,而是團體行動

  • The locusts eventually start marching and then fly away in large numbers

    最後集結成千萬大軍飛走

  • seeking a better habitat.

    去尋找更好的居住地

  • These gigantic swarms can host millions of insects

    這類大型的群聚行為 甚可包含上百萬隻昆蟲

  • and travel thousands of miles,

    橫越數千英哩

  • devastating vegetation and crops.

    侵略蔬果和作物

  • They stay close to each other, but not too close,

    牠們彼此緊密靠近, 但也維持必須的距離

  • or they might get eaten by their hungry neighbors.

    否則可能被飢餓的同類吃掉

  • When many individual organisms, like locusts,

    當許多獨立的生物個體,例如蝗蟲、

  • bacteria,

    細菌、

  • anchovies,

    鯷魚、

  • or bats,

    或蝙蝠

  • come together and move as one coordinated entity,

    集結群聚並形成 一個和諧的整體來移動時

  • that's a swarm.

    那就是群聚

  • From a handful of birds to billions of insects,

    從一小群鳥乃至於數十億隻昆蟲

  • swarms can be almost any size.

    群聚可以有各種不同大小

  • But what they have in common is that there's no leader.

    這些群聚的共同點是 牠們都沒有領導者

  • Members of the swarm interact only with their nearest neighbors

    群聚內的成員 僅與其左右鄰居互動交流

  • or through indirect cues.

    或是透過間接暗示

  • Each individual follows simple rules:

    每個個體都遵守簡單的規則:

  • Travel in the same direction as those around you,

    跟著旁邊的同類同方向一起走、

  • stay close,

    跟緊一點、

  • and avoid collisions.

    但不要相撞

  • There are many benefits to traveling in a group like this.

    這種移動方法有許多好處

  • Small prey may fool predators by assembling into a swarm

    體型較小的獵物可藉群聚移動 來呼嚨大型掠食者

  • that looks like a much bigger organism.

    讓牠們看起來像是更大的生物

  • And congregating in a large group

    並聚集在一個超大團體裡

  • reduces the chance that any single individual will be captured.

    減少了個體被掠食的機會

  • Moving in the same direction as your neighbors

    和你的近鄰朝同一個方向移動

  • saves energy by sharing the effort of fighting wind or water resistance.

    可共同對抗風阻或水阻以節省體力

  • It may even be easier to find a mate in a swarm.

    在團體中找對象似乎也較容易

  • Swarming can also allow groups of animals

    群聚的動物們

  • to accomplish tasks they couldn't do individually.

    也能完成一些無法獨自完成的任務

  • When hundreds or millions or organisms follow the same simple rules,

    當數百或上百萬的生物 遵從相同且簡單的規則時

  • sophisticated behavior called swarm intelligence may arise.

    便可產生一種稱為 「群聚智力」的複雜行為

  • A single ant can't do much on its own,

    一隻螞蟻沒辦法僅靠自己做多少事

  • but an ant colony can solve complex problems,

    但一個蟻群可以解決很複雜的問題

  • like building a nest

    例如建造一個巢穴

  • and finding the shortest path to a food source.

    和尋找離食物最近的路徑

  • But sometimes, things can go wrong.

    但有時也會出錯

  • In a crowd, diseases spread more easily,

    在群聚中,疾病傳播容易多了

  • and some swarming organisms may start eating each other if food is scarce.

    還有,當食物短缺時, 群聚的個體可能會吃了彼此

  • Even some of the benefits of swarms, like more efficient navigation,

    即使群聚的優勢,像是較佳的導航力

  • can have catastrophic consequences.

    有時也可能造成悲劇

  • Army ants are one example.

    行軍蟻就是個例子

  • They lay down chemicals called pheromones

    牠們會分泌一種化學物質, 稱為費洛蒙

  • which signal their neighbors to follow the trail.

    這能讓其他行軍蟻追蹤蹤跡

  • This is good if the head of the group is marching towards a food source.

    如果為首的行軍蟻朝著 食物的方向前進就好

  • But occasionally the ants in the front can veer off course.

    但偶爾帶頭的行軍蟻會誤入歧途

  • The whole swarm can get caught in a loop following the pheromone trail

    那麼跟在後面的行軍蟻 可能因此而落入無限迴圈

  • until they die of exhaustion.

    直到體力耗竭而死

  • Humans are notoriously individualistic, though social, animals.

    人類是惡名昭彰的個體主義者, 雖然也是社會的動物

  • But is there anything we can learn from collective swarm-based organization?

    但我們能否從這樣的生物群聚行為中 學習到什麼呢?

  • When it comes to technology, the answer is definitely yes.

    若是有關科技方面, 答案絕對是肯定的

  • Bats can teach drones how to navigate confined spaces without colliding,

    運用蝙蝠的飛行技術可讓無人機 順利導航通過狹小的空間

  • fish can help design software for safer driving,

    魚群行為可以用來 設計較安全的駕駛軟體

  • and insects are inspiring robot teams that can assist search and rescue missions.

    昆蟲構造幫助設計 協尋和搜救的機器人團隊

  • For swarms of humans, it's perhaps more complicated

    而就人類的群聚來說, 這也許又更複雜了

  • and depends on the motives and leadership.

    而且會因動機和領導不同而異

  • Swarm behavior in human populations can sometimes manifest as a destructive mob.

    人類的群聚行為 有時會變成具破壞性的暴民

  • But collective action can also produce a crowd-sourced scientific breakthrough

    但集體行動也可以產生 科學上的突破、

  • an artistic expression,

    藝術的表現、

  • or a peaceful global revolution.

    或一場和平的全球革命

When desert locusts are well fed, they're solitary creatures.

當沙漠蝗蟲食物充足時, 牠們是各自行動的生物

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 蝗蟲 個體 行為 生物 食物

為什麼動物會形成群落?- Maria R. D'Orsogna (Why do animals form swarms? - Maria R. D'Orsogna)

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    ktyvr258 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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