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  • Deserts are not particularly welcoming environments,

    沙漠不是特別受歡迎的環境,

  • and yet at least hundred million people live in desert regions around the world, according to the UN.

    不過據聯合國聲稱,全世界至少有一億人生活在沙漠地區。

  • They have to make due with less than 25 cm of rainfall each year,

    他們必須善用每年少於 25 厘米的降雨,

  • and for many, even that miniscule water supply is under threat as climate change is making dry areas even drier.

    對於許多人來說,即使是極小量的供水也會受到威脅,因為氣候變遷的關係,使乾燥地區變得更乾。

  • So scientists at UC Berkeley have been experimenting with materials that can pull drinking water out of thin air.

    因此,柏克萊加州大學的科學家,不斷研究將飲用水從稀薄空氣抽取出來的材料。

  • The compound they've devised is one of a family of materials called Metal-Organic-Frameworks, or MOFs.

    他們設計的化合物是金屬有機框架,簡稱 MOFs 的材料家族。

  • MOFs are, well it's pretty much right in the name, frameworks of metal atoms

    MOFs 正如其名,就是金屬原子的框架

  • connected to each other with organic linkers.

    與有機連接體相互連接。

  • This structure makes them porous like a sponge,

    這種結構使它們像海綿一樣成多孔狀,

  • giving them incredible surface areas; a single gram of a MOF can have

    提供它們非常大的表面積,一公克的 MOF

  • the surface area of a football field.

    具有一個足球場的表面積。

  • And depending on the metal and organic molecules they're made of,

    而且,取決於製成的金屬和有機分子,

  • they can be tailored to capture different things in their pores.

    還可以特製它們,來捕捉毛孔中的不同東西。

  • MOFs have potential uses capturing CO2 and turning it into the fuel methanol,

    MOFs 具有潛在用途,可以用來捕捉二氧化碳並將其轉化為燃料甲醇,

  • or neutralizing nerve agents like sarin gas.

    或是中和神經毒劑,如沙林毒氣。

  • The function the Berkeley scientists tuned their MOF for was extracting water vapor that's present in the air.

    柏克萊的科學家將 MOF 的功能轉變成從現存空氣中提取水蒸氣。

  • The first one they made in 2014, called MOF-801, was zirconium based.

    他們在 2014 年做出第一例,叫做 MOF-801,是以鋯來製作。

  • When tested in a water harvester it worked entirely passively,

    在集水器進行測試時,過程完全是被動的,

  • absorbing and condensing water overnight and giving it up again when the sun warmed it up.

    一整晚都在吸收水和壓縮水,太陽變暖時將其再次排放。

  • So the concept worked, and used a lot less energy than the other way of extracting water from low humidity air,

    所以說,概念很有效,與其他從潮濕空氣提取水的方式相比,也使用較少的能量,

  • which involves cooling the air below freezing.

    而且它們還要將空氣冷卻至冰點以下。

  • But Zirconium is expensive, so the scientists set to developing MOF-303

    但鋯非常貴,所以科學家開始發展出 MOF-303

  • based on the much cheaper element aluminum.

    用便宜許多的鋁元素來製作。

  • Not only is the new MOF cheaper, it also performs much better.

    新的 MOF 不僅更便宜,而且性能也更好。

  • It can hold 30% more water and fill up and empty in just 20 minutes in the right conditions.

    它可以容納多 30% 的水,而且在適當的情況下,能在 20 分鐘填滿和清空。

  • And because the MOF was designed to leave no traces of organic or inorganic material in the water,

    因為 MOF 的設計目的是在水中不留下有機或無機物,

  • it's completely pure and drinkable right away.

    所以它是完全乾淨,可立即飲用。

  • Using the same passive technique in a harvester left overnight in the Arizona desert,

    在亞利桑那州的沙漠中,集水器整晚使用同樣被動的技術,

  • one kilogram of MOF-303 harvested 0.2 liters of water.

    MOF-303 一公斤收穫了 0.2 公升的水。

  • Now I know what you're thinking. That doesn't sound like a lot of water. And you're right.

    我知道你在想什麼。聽起來沒有很多水,沒錯。

  • But the good news is the aluminum based MOF's ability to fill and empty in minutes can be exploited.

    但好消息是,鋁製的 MOF 在幾分鐘內填充和清空的功能,可以好好利用一下。

  • The scientists changed up their design.

    科學家改變他們的設計。

  • Instead of passively relying on a day night cycle, their latest harvester relies on solar powered fans

    與其被動依賴晝夜週期,他們最新的集水器依靠太陽能風扇

  • and heaters to run dozens of cycles a day.

    和加熱器每天運行數十次循環。

  • Ideally it can make more than 1.3 liters of water per kilogram of MOF each day,

    理想情況下,MOF 每天每公斤可以產生 1.3 公升的水,

  • and the researchers hope to get that number as high as 8 or 10 liters per kilogram.

    而研究人員希望每公斤的數字可以提高到 8 或 10 公升。

  • The lead researcher behind this has started a private company called Water Harvesting.

    背後的首席研究員建立了一家名為 Water Harvesting 的私人公司。

  • The plan is to launch a microwaved sized device that can supply 2 adults with enough drinking water

    計劃是要推出一種微波爐大小的設備,可以為 2 位成年人提供足夠的飲用水,

  • for their daily hydration and cooking needs.

    以滿足他們日常的水合作用和烹飪需求。

  • Eventually they envision a harvester big enough to supply a small village.

    最後,他們預計做出足夠供給一個小村莊的集水器。

  • If the devices are affordable, safe, and reliable enough,

    如果設備價格合理、安全又可靠,

  • these metal-organic frameworks have the potential to turn even the driest deserts into oases.

    這些金屬有機框架甚至可能將最乾燥的沙漠變成綠洲。

  • Clean drinking water has always been a challenge for humanity, and sometimes we make mistakes.

    乾淨的飲用水對人類來說一直是個挑戰,而我們有時會犯錯。

  • Like when we decided lead pipes were a good idea.

    就像我們認為鉛管是個好主意一樣。

  • Thankfully, researchers are developing ways to render the poisonous pipes harmless.

    幸好,研究人員正在開發將有毒管路變無害的方法。

  • Amanda has more here.

    Amanda 在這裡告訴你更多內容。

  • If you liked this video let us know in the comments, and don't forget to subscribe.

    如果你喜歡這部影片的話,在下方留言讓我們知道,也別忘了訂閱。

  • Thanks for watching and I'll see you next time on Seeker.

    感謝觀看,我們下次在 Seeker 見。

Deserts are not particularly welcoming environments,

沙漠不是特別受歡迎的環境,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 飲用水 沙漠 空氣 金屬 框架 被動

將空氣轉化為純淨飲用水終於有可能了,以下是方法 (Transforming Air Into Pure Drinking Water Is Finally Possible, Here's How)

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    Jerry Liu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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