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  • 100 years ago,

    譯者: Regina Chu 審譯者: Marssi Draw

  • there were 2,000 varieties of peaches,

    一百多年前,

  • nearly 2,000 different varieties of plums

    曾經有二千種桃子,

  • and almost 800 named varieties of apples growing in the United States.

    將近二千種不同的李子,

  • Today, only a fraction of those remain,

    及差不多八百種不同名字的 蘋果在美國生長。

  • and what is left is threatened by industrialization of agriculture,

    今天,只有一小部分留下,

  • disease and climate change.

    所剩無幾的那幾種還被工業化的農業、

  • Those varieties that are threatened include the Blood Cling,

    病害及氣候變遷威脅著。

  • a red-flesh peach brought by Spanish missionaries to the Americas,

    這些受威脅的品種包括鮮紅血桃,

  • then cultivated by Native Americans for centuries;

    這是一種紅肉的桃子, 由西班牙傳道士引進美洲,

  • an apricot that was brought by Chinese immigrants

    然後由美洲原著民栽種數百年之久;

  • who came to work on the Transcontinental Railroad;

    還有一種杏子,由中國移民引進,

  • and countless varieties of plums that originated in the Middle East

    他們來建造橫貫大陸鐵路;

  • and were then brought by Italian, French and German immigrants.

    還有數不清的李子品種, 原產於中東,

  • None of these varieties are indigenous.

    然後由義大利、 法國及德國的移民引進。

  • In fact, almost all of our fruit trees were brought here,

    這些都不是原生種。

  • including apples and peaches and cherries.

    事實上,我們的果樹 幾乎都是從外地引進的,

  • So more than just food,

    包括蘋果、桃子及櫻桃。

  • embedded within these fruit is our culture.

    所以它們不僅是食物,

  • It's the people who cared for and cultivated them,

    深植於這些水果中的 還有我們的文化。

  • who valued them so much that they brought them here with them

    就是因為照料及栽種這些水果的人

  • as a connection to their home,

    太喜歡它們了,才把它們帶到這裡,

  • and it's the way that they've passed them on and shared them.

    當作思鄉之物,

  • In many ways, these fruit are our story.

    也因為它們代代相傳,不斷分享。

  • And I was fortunate enough to learn about it

    從很多方面來看, 這些水果就是我們的故事。

  • through an artwork that I created entitled the "Tree of 40 Fruit."

    我有幸能透過我創造的藝術品 來學習這個故事,

  • The Tree of 40 Fruit is a single tree

    這個藝術品的標題為《四十果樹》。

  • that grows 40 different varieties of stone fruit.

    《四十果樹》是一棵樹,

  • So that's peaches, plums, apricots, nectarines and cherries

    上面結四十種不同種的核果。

  • all growing on one tree.

    所以就是桃子、李子、 杏子、油桃、櫻桃

  • It's designed to be a normal-looking tree throughout the majority of the year,

    通通長在一棵樹上。

  • until spring, when it blossoms in pink and white

    它被設計成在一年的大部分時間裡, 看起來都像棵正常的樹,

  • and then in summer, bears a multitude of different fruit.

    直到春天,會開粉紅及白色的花,

  • I began the project for purely artistic reasons:

    然後到夏天,會結出許多不同的果子。

  • I wanted to change the reality of the everyday,

    我會開始做這個作品, 純粹是出於藝術原因:

  • and to be honest,

    我想改變日常的現實,

  • create this startling moment when people would see this tree

    而且老實說,

  • blossom in all these different colors

    也想創造出令人目瞪口呆的時刻——

  • and bear all of these different fruit.

    當大家看到這棵樹 開這些不同顏色的花,

  • I created the Tree of 40 Fruit through the process of grafting.

    還結這些不同的果實。

  • I'll collect cuttings in winter, store them,

    我用嫁接法創作《四十果樹》。

  • and then graft them onto the ends of branches in spring.

    我在冬天時收集插條,保存好,

  • In fact, almost all fruit trees are grafted,

    然後在春天把它們嫁接到分枝的末端。

  • because the seed of a fruit tree is a genetic variant of the parent.

    事實上,幾乎所有的果樹都靠嫁接,

  • So when we find a variety that we really like,

    因為果樹的種子是親本的遺傳變異。

  • the way that we propagate it is by taking a cutting off of one tree

    所以當我們發現某種非常喜歡的品種,

  • and putting it onto another --

    我們繁殖它的方法就是把某棵樹砍下來

  • which is kind of crazy to think

    接到另一棵上——

  • that every single Macintosh apple came from one tree

    想起來就覺得有點瘋狂,

  • that's been grafted over and over from generation to generation.

    每一個旭蘋果都來自

  • But it also means that fruit trees can't be preserved by seed.

    一棵被嫁接無數次無數代的樹。

  • I've known about grafting as long as I can remember.

    但是這也意味著果樹 不能靠種子保留。

  • My great-grandfather made a living grafting peach orchards

    我從有記憶起就知道嫁接了。

  • in Southeastern Pennsylvania.

    我的曾祖父以嫁接桃子果園為生,

  • And although I never met him,

    他住在賓州東南部。

  • any time anyone would mention his name,

    雖然我從未見過他,

  • they were quick to note

    每當有人提到他的名字,

  • that he knew how to graft as if he had a magical or mystical capability.

    他們很快就會注意到

  • I decided on the number 40 for the Tree of 40 Fruit

    他對於嫁接的了解, 就好像他有什麼神奇超能力一樣。

  • because it's found throughout Western religion

    我決定用四十這個數字 在我的《四十果樹》上,

  • as not the quantifiable dozen and not the infinite

    因為我發現整個西方宗教

  • but a number that's beyond counting.

    既不把它當作可量化的「打」, 也不是無限,

  • It's a bounty or a multitude.

    而是一個代表數不清的數字。

  • But the problem was that when I started,

    它代表大量或很多。

  • I couldn't find 40 different varieties of these fruit,

    問題是在我開始創作時,

  • and this is despite the fact that I live in New York state,

    我找不到四十種不同的核果,

  • which, a century ago,

    儘管我其實是住在紐約州,

  • was one of the leading producers of these fruit.

    這裡在一世紀前

  • So as they were tearing out research orchards

    可是這些水果的領先生產者。

  • and old, vintage orchards,

    所以當他們拆掉研究園

  • I would collect branches off them

    以及古老的果園,

  • and graft them onto trees in my nursery.

    我可以從那邊收集插枝,

  • So this is what the Tree of 40 Fruit look like when they were first planted,

    並嫁接到我的苗圃裡的樹木上。

  • and this is what they look like six years later.

    這就是《四十果樹》 一開始種植的樣子,

  • This is definitely not a sport of immediate gratification --

    而這是六年後的樣子。

  • (Laughter)

    這絕對不是會給你立即滿足的娛樂,

  • It takes a year to know if a graft has succeeded;

    (笑聲)

  • it takes two to three years to know if it produces fruit;

    你要花一年才知道嫁接是否成功;

  • and it takes up to eight years to create just one of the trees.

    要花兩到三年才知道它會不會結果;

  • Each of the varieties grafted to the Tree of 40 Fruit

    還要花長達八年的時間 才能創造出一棵像這樣的樹。

  • has a slightly different form and a slightly different color.

    嫁接到《四十果樹》的每個品種,

  • And I realized that by creating a timeline of when all these blossomed

    形狀和顏色都略有不同。

  • in relationship to each other,

    我意識到藉著建立這些品種 何時開花的時間表,

  • I can essentially shape or design how the tree appears during spring.

    顯示彼此之間的關係,

  • And this is how they appear during summer.

    我基本上可以塑造或設計 這棵樹在春天的樣子。

  • They produce fruit from June through September.

    這是它們夏天的樣子。

  • First is cherries, then apricots,

    它們在六月到九月間結果。

  • Asian plums, nectarines and peaches,

    首先是櫻桃,然後杏子,

  • and I think I forgot one in there, somewhere ...

    亞洲李、油桃、桃子,

  • (Laughter)

    我想我忘了一個什麼,哪裡……

  • Although it's an artwork that exists outside of the gallery,

    (笑聲)

  • as the project continues,

    雖然這不是 展示在藝廊內的傳統作品,

  • it's been conservation by way of the art world.

    隨著這個作品持續下去,

  • As I've been asked to create these in different locations,

    它還是以藝術作品的形式保存著。

  • what I'll do is I'll research varieties

    當我受邀在不同的地方 創作同樣的樹作品時,

  • that originated or were historically grown in that area,

    我就會去研究

  • I'll source them locally and graft them to the tree

    當地的原生種, 或原本在當地種植的品種,

  • so that it becomes an agricultural history of the area where they're located.

    我會就地取材,並嫁接到那棵樹上,

  • And then the project got picked up online,

    所以那棵樹就變成當地的 農業歷史展。

  • which was horrifying and humbling.

    然後這個計畫變成網紅,

  • The horrifying part was all of the tattoos that I saw

    這讓我又驚恐又謙卑。

  • of images of the Tree of 40 Fruit.

    令人驚恐的部分是我看到 照著《四十果樹》刺的刺青圖。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Which I was like, "Why would you do that to your body?"

    我就想,你為什麼 要這樣折磨你的身體?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And the humbling part was all of the requests that I received

    令人謙卑的部分是我收到

  • from pastors, from rabbis and priests

    從牧師、拉比和祭司寄來的邀請函,

  • who asked to use the tree as a central part within their service.

    他們要用這棵樹當宗教儀式的中心。

  • And then it became a meme --

    然後它還變成網路迷因——

  • and the answer to that question is "I hope not?"

    那個問題的答案是「但願不會?」

  • [Is your marriage like the Tree of 40 Fruit?]

    [你的婚姻像《四十果樹》嗎?]

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Like all good memes,

    就像所有的好迷因一樣,

  • this has led to an interview on NPR's "Weekend Edition,"

    這讓我上了

  • and as a college professor, I thought I peaked --

    全國公共廣播電台的《周末新聞》,

  • like, that was the pinnacle of my career --

    我身為一名大學教授, 我以為我已經爬到頂了——

  • but you never know who's listening to NPR.

    我是說,這是我事業的高峰——

  • And several weeks after the NPR interview,

    不過你真的不知道 誰在聽公共廣播電台。

  • I received an email from the Department of Defense.

    廣播訪問幾週後,

  • The Defense Advanced Research Project Administration invited me

    我收到國防部寄來的一封電郵。

  • to come talk about innovation and creativity,

    國防高等研究計劃署的人邀請我

  • and it's a conversation that quickly shifted to a discussion of food security.

    去談談創新和創造力,

  • You see, our national security is dependent upon our food security.

    這場對談的話題 很快就轉成糧食安全。

  • Now that we've created these monocultures

    你知道,我們的國家安全 與糧食安全息息相關。

  • that only grow a few varieties of each crop,

    現在我們已經造成單一耕作,

  • if something happens to just one of those varieties,

    每種作物只種幾種品種,

  • it can have a dramatic impact upon our food supply.

    只要有一種品種發生什麼意外,

  • And the key to maintaining our food security

    就會嚴重影響我們的糧食供應。

  • is preserving our biodiversity.

    維持糧食安全的關鍵,

  • 100 years ago, this was done by everybody that had a garden

    就是保存我們的生物多樣化。

  • or a small stand of trees in their backyard,

    一百年前,這可以靠 每一個有花園的人

  • and grew varieties that were passed down through their family.

    或在後院有幾棵樹的人

  • These are plums from just one Tree of 40 Fruit in one week in August.

    種幾種家傳品種來做。

  • Several years into the project,

    這些是一棵《四十果樹》 在八月某星期內結的李子。

  • I was told that I have one of the largest collections of these fruit

    創作開始幾年後,

  • in the Eastern United States,

    有人對我說我收藏 這些水果的品種數量

  • which, as an artist, is absolutely terrifying.

    是美東數一數二的。

  • (Laughter)

    這從藝術家的眼光看,真的很恐怖。

  • But in many ways, I didn't know what I had.

    (笑聲)

  • I discovered that the majority of the varieties I had

    不過從很多方面來看, 我真的不懂我有什麼。

  • were heirloom varieties,

    我發現絕大宗我手上的品種,

  • so those that were grown before 1945,

    都是祖傳品種,

  • which is seen as the dawn of the industrialization of agriculture.

    也就是在 1945 年以前種植的,

  • Several of the varieties dated back thousands and thousands of years.

    那一年被視為農業工業化的開始。

  • And finding out how rare they were,

    有幾種品種可以追溯到數萬年前。

  • I became obsessed with trying to preserve them,

    我知道它們有多罕見後,

  • and the vehicle for this became art.

    就沉迷於要試圖保存它們,

  • I would go into old, vintage orchards before they were torn out

    而保存的工具就成了藝術。

  • and I would save the bowl or the trunk section

    我會去拆毀前的古老果園,

  • that possessed the original graft union.

    我會保存樹幹上面

  • I started doing pressings of flowers and the leaves

    有最初的移植聯合體的部分。

  • to create herbarium specimens.

    我開始壓花及葉子

  • I started to sequence the DNA.

    做植物標本。

  • But ultimately, I set out to preserve the story

    我開始定序 DNA。

  • through these copper-plate etchings and letterpress descriptions.

    但是最後,我還是踏上保存故事之旅,

  • To tell the story of the George IV peach,

    用這些銅板蝕刻及凸版印刷說明。

  • which took root between two buildings in New York City --

    來說說喬治四世桃子的故事,

  • someone walks by, tastes it,

    這桃樹根源於紐約市 兩棟建築物之間,

  • it becomes a major commercial variety in the 19th century

    有人走過嘗了一下,

  • because it tastes just that good.

    就此它就變成 十九世紀最大的商業品種,

  • Then all but vanishes,

    因為它就是那麼好吃!

  • because it doesn't ship well

    然後幾乎消失殆盡,

  • and it doesn't conform to modern agriculture.

    因為它不易運送,

  • But I realize that as a story, it needs to be told.

    不適合現代農業。

  • And in the telling of that story,

    但是我明白這是個該被傳誦的故事。

  • it has to include the experience of being able to touch,

    而且要訴說這個故事,

  • to smell and to taste those varieties.

    必須包括能夠觸摸、

  • So I set out to create an orchard

    聞到、嘗到這些品種的經驗。

  • to make these fruit available to the public,

    所以我開始栽種果園,

  • and have the aim of placing them in the highest density of people

    開放這些水果給大眾,

  • that I could possibly find.

    並打算將它們種在

  • Naturally, I started looking for an acre of land in New York City --

    我所知道人口密度最高的地方。

  • (Laughter)

    所以我很自然地 開始在紐約市找一畝地。

  • which, in retrospect, seemed, like, rather ambitious,

    (笑聲)

  • and probably the reason why nobody was returning my phone calls or emails --

    這件事回過頭來看, 似乎還挺有雄心的,

  • (Laughter)

    或許這就是為什麼 都沒有人回我的電話或電郵。

  • until eventually, four years later, I heard back from Governors Island.

    (笑聲)

  • So Governors Island is a former naval base

    直到四年後, 我終於聽到總督島的回音。

  • that was given to the City of New York in 2000.

    總督島的前身是座海軍基地,

  • And it opened up all of this land

    於 2000 年歸給紐約市管轄。

  • just a five-minute ferry ride from New York.

    而且整座島都開放,

  • And they invited me to create a project that we're calling the "Open Orchard"

    從紐約搭渡輪只要五分鐘。

  • that will bring back fruit varieties

    他們邀請我去做一個計畫, 我們稱之為「開放果園」,

  • that haven't been grown in New York for over a century.

    這個計畫要帶回

  • Currently in progress,

    超過一世紀沒有在紐約市 種植的水果品種。

  • The Open Orchard will be 50 multigrafted trees

    目前的進展是,

  • that possess 200 heirloom and antique fruit varieties.

    開放果園會有 50 棵多嫁接樹木,

  • So these are varieties that originated or were historically grown in the region.

    上面有 200 種祖傳 及古董級的水果品種。

  • Varieties like the Early Strawberry apple,

    所以這些品種都是當地的原生種, 或原本就種在當地的品種。

  • which originated on 13th Street and Third Avenue.

    像早生草莓蘋果這種品種,

  • Since a fruit tree can't be preserved by seed,

    原生於 13 街及第三大道。

  • The Open Orchard will act like a living gene bank,

    因為果樹不靠種子保存,

  • or an archive of these fruit.

    開放果園就像一座活的基因庫,

  • Like the Tree of 40 Fruit,

    或這些水果的存檔。

  • it will be experiential;

    就像《四十果樹》,

  • it will also be symbolic.

    它有經驗性,

  • Most importantly, it's going to invite people to participate in conservation

    它也有象徵意義。

  • and to learn more about their food.

    最重要的是,

  • Through the Tree of 40 Fruit,

    它會邀請民眾參與保育行動,

  • I've received thousands and thousands of emails from people,

    並更了解他們的食物。

  • asking basic questions about "How do you plant a tree?"

    因為《四十果樹》的關係,

  • With less than three percent of the population

    我收到成千上萬封電郵,

  • having any direct tie to agriculture,

    大家都問「你怎麼種樹?」 這種基本問題。

  • the Open Orchard is going to invite people

    不到 3% 的人

  • to come take part in public programming and to take part in workshops,

    跟農業有任何直接的關連,

  • to learn how to graft, to grow, to prune and to harvest a tree;

    開放果園將邀請大眾

  • to take part in fresh eating and blossom tours;

    來參加開放課程及工作坊,

  • to work with local chefs to learn how to use these fruit

    學習如何嫁接、種植、 修剪樹木及收成;

  • and to recreate centuries-old dishes

    參加嚐鮮及賞花之旅;

  • that many of these varieties were grown specifically for.

    與當地廚師一同學習 如何使用這些水果,

  • Extending beyond the physical site of the orchard,

    並重現有數百年歷史的美味佳餚,

  • it will be a cookbook that compiles all of those recipes.

    這些品種中有好多種 就是特別為這些佳餚而種的。

  • It will be a field guide

    超越果園的物理所在,

  • that talks about the characteristics and traits of those fruit,

    它將成為這些美味食譜的大集合。

  • their origin and their story.

    它將成為實地嚮導

  • Growing up on a farm, I thought I understood agriculture,

    訴說這些水果的特點及特質,

  • and I didn't want anything to do with it.

    它們的起源及故事。

  • So I became an artist --

    我在農場長大, 我認為自己了解農業,

  • (Laughter)

    但我一點也不想沾上邊。

  • But I have to admit that it's something within my own DNA.

    所以我成為藝術家——

  • And I don't think that I'm the only one.

    (笑聲)

  • 100 years ago, we were all much more closely tied to the culture,

    但是我得承認這還在我的 DNA 裡。

  • the cultivation and the story of our food,

    我想我也不是唯一的一個。

  • and we've been separated from that.

    一百年前,我們所有的人都與文化、

  • The Open Orchard creates the opportunity

    與耕作、與我們食物的故事 都有更密切的關係,

  • not just to reconnect to this unknown past,

    而我們漸行漸遠。

  • but a way for us to consider what the future of our food could be.

    開放果園創造的機會

  • Thank you.

    不只重新連結這未知的過去,

  • (Applause)

    更是能讓我們思考 未來食物走向的一種方式。

100 years ago,

譯者: Regina Chu 審譯者: Marssi Draw

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 品種 果樹 水果 桃子 保存

TED】Sam Van Aken:一棵樹如何長出40種不同的果實(一棵樹如何長出40種不同的果實|Sam Van Aken)。 (【TED】Sam Van Aken: How one tree grows 40 different kinds of fruit (How one tree grows 40 different kinds of fruit | Sam Van Aken))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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