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  • Hi I'm John Green and this is Crash Course European History.

    嗨,我是約翰葛林,歡迎來到速成教室歐洲史。

  • So, when we left off last time, the Renaissance was a very big deal, provided you were part of the elite in approximately this part of the world.

    我們上次講到,文藝復興是一件不得了的事,前提是你是居住在這地方的菁英分子。

  • Today, we're going to follow the spread of the Renaissance to France, England, Spain, the Low Countries, the seventy two bajillion ministates of central Europe.

    今天,我們要來追隨文藝復興傳播的腳步,到法國、英國、西班牙、低地國,以及歐洲中部 72 個零零總總的小國。

  • Also, suddenly there are a lot more books to read.

    還有,突然有好多書可以讀了!

  • The Renaissance was shaped and promoted by the discovery in the mid-15th century of moveable type printing.

    15 世紀中發明的活板鉛字印刷形塑並且促進了文藝復興的發展。

  • The credit goes mostly to the German goldsmith and tinkerer Johannes Gutenberg, whose printing press from the 1440s produced the famous Gutenberg Bible and fueled the spread of printed books.

    這多半都要歸功於德國工匠古騰堡,他在 1440 年代生產的印刷術帶來著名的古騰堡聖經,並助長印刷書本的傳播。

  • Now, printing techniques, including movable type, had been used in China for many centuries.

    中國早已使用了幾世紀的印刷技術,包含活字版。

  • But printing could be quicker in Europe because the Latin alphabet only contained twenty-six characters.

    不過在歐洲印刷會更快,因為拉丁字母只有 26 個。

  • And also innovations made the letters easy to eject and reset to form new words, pamphlets, and newsletters, and then entire books.

    創新技術也使得字母更容易編排成新的字、小冊、時報,然後是一整本書。

  • In fact, there are books in the Center of the World today!

    事實上,今天世界的中心就放了幾本書!

  • It's my favorite center of the world yet!

    是我至今為止最愛的一次!

  • I love books.

    我愛書。

  • It's really hard to exaggerate just how big a deal printing was.

    印刷術真的再重要不過。

  • Like, before our friend Gutenberg, most books in Europe were copied from other books by hand.

    比如在古騰堡之前,歐洲大部分的書籍都是用人工抄寫。

  • This was time-consuming and expensive, and it introduced errors.

    很耗時而且價格昂貴,有時還有抄寫錯誤。

  • And it also meant that books were not part of most people's lives.

    這也意味著大部分人生活中都不會接觸到書。

  • Like, if you were among the around 80% of people in England and France who worked in agriculture at the time, it's not just that you didn't need to learn to read to do your job; there was generally nothing you could read.

    比如說,當時英國及法國人口近八成都是農人,如果你是他們的一員,你的工作根本用不到識字,基本上也沒什麼你能讀的。

  • But printing changed all of that incredibly quickly.

    但是印刷術以驚人的速度改變了這一切。

  • The first printing press arrived in Venice in 1469.

    在 1496 年威尼斯出現了第一家印刷廠。

  • By 1500, there were 417 printing presses in the city.

    到了 1500 年,城市裡已經有 417 家印刷廠。

  • In the first fifty years after printing came to Europe, over 20 million volumes of books were printed.

    在印刷術於歐洲問世後的頭 50 年,總計印刷超過了 2000 萬本書。

  • This included the great works from the classical world that the Renaissance was rediscovering, but also many legal works.

    其中包括文藝復興期間復甦的經典作品,也包含許多法學作品。

  • And as jurists worked to decipher the meaning of every Latin word of the corpus of Roman law, the western legal tradition was born.

    當法學家試圖搞懂羅馬法文集中的每一個拉丁字時,西方的法學傳統就此誕生。

  • More copies of the Bible were available to read, and argue about.

    有更多本《聖經》可供閱讀及爭論。

  • And new stories and poems could be shared more widely.

    新的故事及詩詞也能更快地散播。

  • Think of it this way: Whether you were interested in science or literature or law or mathematics, printing meant that more people had the opportunity to encounter far more voices from across time and space.

    試想看看,無論你對科學、文學、法學或是數學感興趣,印刷術意味著有更多的人有機會跨越時空的限制、接觸到更多的觀點。

  • And as Renaissance ideas spread north fueled in part by printing, it followed that writers and scholars would see the ideas of humanism through the lens of local concerns.

    隨著文藝復興的思想藉由印刷術北傳,作家和學者也開始透過在地觀點詮釋人文主義。

  • Also, of course, northern European thinkers downplayed the movement's Italian origins.

    而且理所當然的,歐洲北方的思想家們才不重視文藝復興的義大利「出生血統」。

  • One of the great rules of history is that whenever Italy has an idea, northern Europe will be like, "Yeah, no."

    歷史的一大定律就是,無論義大利有什麼想法,北歐肯定會覺得「哦是啦」。

  • "We totally already had that idea like eight times."

    「那種想法我們已經想過七八次了。」

  • "Our version is so much different and better."

    「我們的版本很不一樣而且好多了。」

  • "Wait till you see how we do the black death slash ballet slash fascism slash automatic weapons slash pizza slash defensive-minded football."

    「等著瞧我們怎麼大顯身手解決黑死病啦,發展芭蕾舞、法西斯主義、自動武器、披薩和著重防守的足球風格。」

  • Anyway, Pieter Brueghel's "Dutch Proverbs" is one example of how different northern Renaissance art was from its Italian counterparts.

    總而言之,彼得.布勒哲爾的《尼德蘭箴言》就是一個凸顯北方文藝復興多麼迥異於義大利文藝復興的例子。

  • Breughel is still interested in the ideas of humanism in this painting--it's secular, focused on people, set in the natural world.

    在這幅畫中,布勒哲爾展現他對人文主義的興趣 —— 它背景設定自然,聚焦在人物上、呈現世俗的一面。

  • But you can see that Breughel's painting of scruffy rural villagers acting out ridiculous common wisdom has none of the lyricism or elegance of, say, Botticelli's Birth of Venus.

    但布勒哲爾筆下不修邊幅的村民做出滑稽的舉動,實在和情懷或浪漫沾不上邊,和波提切利的《維納斯的誕生》做比較就知道。

  • Then again, in many respects, the Northern renaissance wasn't so unique--the touchstone was still the classical world and its art and writing.

    而且就許多層面說來,北方文藝復興其實並不獨特 —— 它的試金石依舊是經典藝術及著作。

  • Florentines had made much of the Roman legal tradition that empowered the paterfamilias, or the male head of the family, and this was very much embraced in the north as well.

    佛羅倫斯人著重於羅馬法傳統中的父權體制 (或指一個家庭最年長的男性),這點基本上也被北方廣為接受。

  • The idea was that all social and political order stemmed from the exercise of the father's authority over the family unit.

    它的意思基本就是,社會和政治秩序皆源自於父親在家中施展的權威。

  • From the father's secure position, the well-being of the family flowed.

    父親的職位確立了,一個家庭就能安穩。

  • And more than that, the well-being of the larger state depended on the good order of all the families it encompassed, just as the successes of Rome had rested on familial underpinnings.

    說得更廣:每個家庭都有秩序,一個社會才能安穩,就如同羅馬的成功有賴於各家的穩健。

  • And if humanism was opening the door to rethinking current values, some sort of anchor was need to prevent chaos, and people to the north and south agreed that security was going to rest in the classic tradition of the father's legal dominance.

    如果拿人文主義來重審當今價值,將會需要一些方法來防止動亂,而由南到北的人們都同意傳統的父權法制能帶來穩定。

  • In both North and South, humanism also went radical.

    在北方和南方,人文主義越趨激進。

  • Some humanists began regularly teachingnot just discussingits principles and its main subject matter: rhetoric, which may not seem like a big deal to you.

    一些人文主義家開始定期教授 —— 不只有討論 —— 其基本原則及主要的內容:修辭學,在你看來或許沒什麼。

  • But it means that at least in the radical fringe of the Renaissance world, ancient Latin and Greek were being taught, not just the medieval versions of those languages--which would eventually contribute to a rethinking of what certain texts actually said, perhaps most notably The Bible.

    但這意味著在文藝復興的世界,人們教授古拉丁文與古希臘文,而不局限於現代版本 —— 最終帶領人們重新思考文本的本質,其中最有名的或許就是《聖經》。

  • Also, girls sometimes joined their brothers in being tutored, a radical idea indeed, although one that could also trace itself back to the Old Light--in justifying the education of girls, scholars cited ancient women who'd received tutoring, including Sappho, Aspasia, and Cornelia, the daughter of the Roman general Scipio.

    再者,女孩有時會和他們的兄弟一起上課,聽來挺激進的,不過這其實可以追溯回古代 —— 論及合理化女子教育,學者可以引用那些接受教育的古代女子,如莎孚、阿斯帕齊婭及柯妮莉亞,羅馬將軍大西庇阿的女兒。

  • And as humanism grew, so did the number of universities.

    隨著人文主義發展,大學的數量也在增加。

  • European universities had long taught a system of theology and philosophy known as "scholasticism" that focused on early church teaching and Aristotelian logic.

    歐洲大學長期以來教授一種稱為「經院哲學」的神學及哲學系統,著重於早期教會教學及亞里士多德派邏輯。

  • But now they began to embrace humanism, spending less time studying religious texts and more time investigating the human condition and thinking about how to organize human societies, including how to establish and enforce laws.

    但現在他們開始接受人文主義,花在研究宗教經文上的時間變少,更多的在研究人類的本質以及思考如何組織人類社會,包含建立及實行法律。

  • And amid these developments, Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, also known as the "Prince of the Humanists," became the commanding figure in the Northern Renaissance.

    在這期間,鹿特丹的德西德里烏斯.伊拉斯謨 (別名人文主義王子) 成為了北方文藝復興的領頭人物。

  • Let's go to the Thought Bubble.

    有請思考泡泡。

  • Erasmus contributed to taking humanism along its twisted path from ideas of the study of "humans" and the "active life" into politics.

    伊拉斯謨的貢獻在於將文藝復興從「人本研究」領向政治。

  • In 1595, he went to study at the University of Paris and began publishing his opinions on public affairs, including the responsibilities of a ruler.

    在 1595 年,他前往巴黎大學就讀,開始出版他對於公共事務的看法,其中包含領導人的職責。

  • A prince, he declared in "The Education of a Christian Prince", needed to study the classics and the deeds of worthy ancient leaders.

    一位王子,他在《基督王子的教育》一書中如此寫道,必須研究經典以及古代明君的作為。

  • And in these examples he would discover the means by which great leaders achieved the public good and keep the peace even in troubled times.

    如此一來他將能知曉一位好的領導者如何達到公益,並在動亂時期維持安定。

  • He also emphasized the importance of reading the Bible and the leading Christian authors.

    他也強調閱讀《聖經》及基督教領導作家著作的重要性。

  • It was for this that he came to be known as advocating for a "middle road" between the pagan ancients and the more recent Christian thinkers.

    也因為如此,他以倡導在異教古人及近代基督教思想家之間採取中庸路線而為人所知。

  • But he was also at times very critical of the Catholic Church.

    不過他有時候也對天主教教會頗有意見。

  • Erasmus was also a central figure in the rising "Republic of Letters," a growing international community of humanists in Europe.

    伊拉斯謨也是「信件共和國」—— 一個成長中的歐洲跨國人文主義家社群 —— 的要角。

  • In fact, he corresponded with some five hundred people around Europe, including everyone from Sir Thomas More to Martin Luther to Pope Leo X.

    事實上,他和歐洲各地五百多人都有信件來往,包含湯瑪斯.摩爾、馬丁.路德和 教皇利奥十世。

  • Aside from his work on Biblical translations, he also edited, translated, and published ancient pagan texts, like Cicero's, and the works of many pivotal religious authors, especially Saint Jerome.

    除了翻譯《聖經》,他也編輯、翻譯並出版古代異教徒書籍,比如西塞祿,以及其他多位重要的宗教作家,特別是耶柔米。

  • He was astonishingly prolific, hiring editors, proofreaders, and even ghostwriters to help him produce mountains of humanistic texts and fashion himself as the quintessential figure of the Northern Renaissance before dying suddenly of dysentery at the age of 69 because, you know, it was the sixteenth century.

    他的產出驚人地多,他不止聘請編輯和校稿者,甚至聘用寫手幫他生產無數的人文主義典籍,讓自己成為北方文藝復興一位關鍵人物,不過卻在 69 歲時因痢疾猝然離世,因為你知道的,那是 16 世紀。

  • Thanks Thought Bubble.

    謝啦思考泡泡。

  • Before he died, Erasmus saw the rise of the Protestant reformation.

    在去世前,伊拉斯謨目睹了新教改革的崛起。

  • He disagreed with much of Luther's teachings, and remained loyal to the Catholic Church.

    他不同意路德大部分的說辭,忠於天主教會。

  • But Erasmus's emphasis on inner spirituality over ritual did in some ways presage Protestantism.

    不過伊拉斯謨強調內部精神覺察而非儀式,這點在某程度上為新教鋪路。

  • Some felt that "Erasmus had laid the egg, and Luther had hatched it," but Erasmus dismissed that, saying that "Luther hatched a different bird entirely."

    一些人認為「是伊拉斯謨下的蛋,路德則是在孵蛋」,不過伊拉斯謨可不這麼覺得,認為「路德孵出的根本是不同的鳥」。

  • Also, for the record neither Erasmus nor Martin Luther could lay eggs, because they were mammals.

    不過說來無論是伊拉斯謨還是路德都不能下蛋,因為他們是哺乳動物。

  • But now we're into biology, and getting a bit ahead of ourselves with the Reformation.

    不過這就是生物學領域了,而且超前說到宗教改革。

  • Before we start debating how many angels can fit on the head of a pin, we should acknowledge the other great Renaissance thinker who shaped what we now call political science--Niccolo Machiavelli, who was like the Erasmus living in the Upside Down.

    在開始爭論針頭上可以站多少天使前,我們應該先回來認識另一位偉大的文藝復興人物,他形塑了我們今日所知的政治學,那就是尼克羅.馬基維利,他就好像伊拉斯謨的顛倒版。

  • Machiavelli had been a faithful supporter of Florence's republican traditions.

    馬基維利一直是佛羅倫斯共和傳統的忠心擁護者。

  • After the death of Lorenzo Medici in 1492, Machiavelli served the republic in several positions.

    羅倫索.麥第奇於 1492 年辭世後,馬基維利在共和國中擔任多職。

  • But after Spanish, papal, and other forces defeated the republic in 1512, Machiavelli was imprisoned and tortured (he was hung by his wrists until his shoulders were dislocated).

    但在西班牙、羅馬教皇以及其他外力於 1512 年擊垮該共和後,馬基維利遭到囚禁及折磨 (他的手腕被吊著,直到他肩膀脫臼)。

  • He was eventually released after three weeks in prison and then set out to write his masterwork "The Prince", which was only published in 1532, five years after his death.

    他在被關了三個禮拜後獲得釋放,開始著手書寫他的傑作《君王論》,該書於他死後五年、也就是 1532 年時出版。

  • "The Prince" was very different from the work of other humanists, especially from the political ideals of Christian humanism found in Erasmus's essays and letters.

    《君王論》和其他人文主義學者的作品非常不同,尤其迥異於伊拉斯謨論文及信件中提及的基督教人文主義政治思想。

  • Machiavelli imagined a grounding in the classics for an aspiring leader of his day.

    馬基維利設想當代的領導者能夠從經典獲取知識、一展抱負。

  • But he believed the attitudes necessary for leaders were vastly different from what the ancients had counseled.

    但他認為領導者所應有的姿態卻大不同於先人的看法。

  • His most quoted advice focused on whether a ruler should aim to be loved or feared: "One should wish to be both, but, because it is difficult to unite them in one person, it is much safer to be feared than loved."

    針對統治者應該被愛戴還是被畏懼,他最常被引用的說法是:「領導人應該要能做到兩者,但由於難以實現,被畏懼還是比被愛戴來得安全。」

  • Machiavelli took a so-called realist views of politics--he focused on how a prince could retain power, and maintain order.

    馬基維利的政治思想正是所謂的現實主義 —— 他著重於君王如何維護政權並維持秩序。

  • And he was much more interested in what was effective than what was, like, noble.

    他比較感興趣的是如何有效地行事,而非如何高貴行事。

  • And unlike many humanists' focus on maintaining peace, Machiavelli believed war was necessary--in fact, he wrote a book about it, called Art of War.

    還有不同於大多數人文主義家在乎維持和平,馬基維利相信戰爭是必須的 —— 事實上他還寫了一本書叫做《戰爭的藝術》。

  • He argued that rulers needed to prepare for war by studying great military leaders of the past.

    他表示統治者必須研讀歷史上偉大的軍事將領,為戰爭做準備。

  • And he believed that effective military leadership was vital to effective political leadership, because those who win wars get to gain peace on their terms.

    他也相信:有力的軍事領導對有力的政治統領而言至關重要,因為贏家能夠獲得自己所謂的和平。

  • But there were also idealists among Renaissance humanists, like the Englishman Thomas More, who was one of Erasmus's five billion friends.

    不過文藝復興人文主義家之中同樣有理想主義者,比如英國人湯瑪斯.摩爾,他也是伊拉斯謨廣大朋友群中的其中一個。

  • And a close one in fact.

    事實上算是摯友。

  • More wrote the classic book Utopia, which imagines a society without private property, where reason and cooperation have replaced struggles for glory and power.

    摩爾寫了經典作《烏托邦》,假想一個沒有私有財的社會,理性及互助取代了對於榮耀及權勢的追逐。

  • It's an odd book--More was a devout Catholic, and in fact would eventually be executed for opposing King Henry VIII's turn toward Protestantism, and yet the seemingly enlightened Utopia is very much not Catholic.

    這是一本奇特的書 —— 摩爾是一位虔誠的天主教徒,事實上最後還是因為反對國王亨利八世的新教教義而遭處決,不過這個看似覺悟的烏托邦卻非常不天主教。

  • Like, the Utopians have married priests, for instance, and also they can get divorced.

    比如說,烏托邦有已婚的牧師,而且還可以離婚。

  • But regardless, More believed that humanistic analysis could lead to widespread peace and prosperity--which by the way I would argue turned out to be sort of correct, even though it would take a while for humanism's benefits to be felt, and...

    無論如何,摩爾相信人文主義的見解能帶來普世的和平與繁榮 —— 說到這呢,我覺得部分是正確的,雖然人文主義的益處要好一陣子才顯現,還有 ……

  • More did not get to enjoy them, on account of being separated from his head in 1535.

    摩爾並沒來得及親眼見到,因為他在 1535 年就和頭分家了。

  • A century before More's Utopia, another book that imagined an ideal citystate, "Book of the City of Ladies", was written by Christine de Pizan.

    比摩爾的《烏托邦》早一個世紀前,克里斯蒂娜.德.皮桑寫了《婦女城》,假想一個理想的城邦。

  • De Pizan was born in Venice but moved to France as a kid when her dad got a job as the French king's astrologer.

    德.皮桑出生於威尼斯,不過幼時隨著父親任職法國國王的占星家,於是搬到法國。

  • As you do.

    就這麼一回事。

  • She married and had three children, but then her husband died of the plague, and thereafter she earned her living writing.

    她結婚然後生下了三個小孩,不過接著丈夫死於瘟疫,她因此開始靠寫作維生。

  • In "Book of the City of Ladies", de Pizan gathered up all the great and good women of history and placed them in a city where the Virgin Mary is queen.

    在《婦女城》一書中,德.皮桑集結了歷史上所有著名的好女子,然後將她們安置在一個城市裡,皇后則是聖母瑪利亞。

  • The book argues that women can be virtuous leaders, and rational beings, and that leadership by virtuous women could beget virtuous communities--a stark contrast to Machiavelli's worldview.

    書中寫道,女人能夠成為有品德的領導者、理性思考,由品德高尚的女子來領導,社會也將變得有品德 —— 這和馬基維利的世界觀完全不同。

  • So at this point, it's common to ask students to think about the relative merits of idealism and realism--is a prince or princess, or for that matter a student at a high school, better off being loved or feared?

    這時學生應該思考理想主義和現實主義彼此的益處 —— 君王或皇后,或說一位高中學生,應該是被愛戴還是被畏懼比較好?

  • Is it more important for a community to be fair or stable?

    對一個社會而言,是公義比較重要,還是時局安穩比較重要?

  • Should leaders prioritize virtue or effectiveness?

    領導人應該優先看重品德還是效益?

  • These are big, interesting questions, and I think they're worth considering.

    這些都是有趣的大問題,值得大家思考。

  • But I'd also ask you to look at the lens through which you're approaching those questions.

    但我也希望你在思考這些問題的同時轉換視角。

  • Machiavelli's life was marked by endless wars and shifting alliances.

    馬基維利的一生中遭逢多次戰爭及游移不定的陣營。

  • He saw many short-lived governments fail to achieve stability.

    他目睹了無數個維持不久即垮臺的政府。

  • Christine de Pizan saw the intense oppression of women and the dismissal of their talents and intellect.

    克里斯蒂娜.德.皮桑看見了婦女面臨的強烈壓迫,以及社會枉顧她們的才能與聰慧。

  • Erasmus didn't exactly have an easy life--he was born out of wedlock and both his parents died of plague when he was a teenager.

    伊拉斯謨的生活也不容易,他是名未婚生子,父母在他十幾歲時就死於瘟疫。

  • But he saw a very different world in northern Europe than Machiavelli saw in Italy, or than Christine de Pizan saw.

    但他在北歐看到的世界和馬基維利在義大利,或是克里斯蒂娜.德.皮桑看見的世界,都非常不一樣。

  • Where do you sit in the world, and how might that shape what kind of community you wish to see?

    你在這個世界所處的位置會如何影響你看待整個社會的方式?

  • Thanks for watching.

    感謝收看。

Hi I'm John Green and this is Crash Course European History.

嗨,我是約翰葛林,歡迎來到速成教室歐洲史。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 CrashCourse 文藝復興 主義 摩爾 路德 歐洲

北方文藝復興。歐洲歷史速成班#3 (The Northern Renaissance: Crash Course European History #3)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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