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  • Hi I'm John Green and this is Crash Course European History.


  • So, when we left off last time, the Renaissance was a very big deal, provided you were part of the elite in approximately this part of the world.


  • Today, we're going to follow the spread of the Renaissance to France, England, Spain, the Low Countries, the seventy two bajillion ministates of central Europe.

    今天,我們要來追隨文藝復興傳播的腳步,到法國、英國、西班牙、低地國,以及歐洲中部 72 個零零總總的小國。

  • Also, suddenly there are a lot more books to read.


  • The Renaissance was shaped and promoted by the discovery in the mid-15th century of moveable type printing.

    15 世紀中發明的活板鉛字印刷形塑並且促進了文藝復興的發展。

  • The credit goes mostly to the German goldsmith and tinkerer Johannes Gutenberg, whose printing press from the 1440s produced the famous Gutenberg Bible and fueled the spread of printed books.

    這多半都要歸功於德國工匠古騰堡,他在 1440 年代生產的印刷術帶來著名的古騰堡聖經,並助長印刷書本的傳播。

  • Now, printing techniques, including movable type, had been used in China for many centuries.


  • But printing could be quicker in Europe because the Latin alphabet only contained twenty-six characters.

    不過在歐洲印刷會更快,因為拉丁字母只有 26 個。

  • And also innovations made the letters easy to eject and reset to form new words, pamphlets, and newsletters, and then entire books.


  • In fact, there are books in the Center of the World today!


  • It's my favorite center of the world yet!


  • I love books.


  • It's really hard to exaggerate just how big a deal printing was.


  • Like, before our friend Gutenberg, most books in Europe were copied from other books by hand.


  • This was time-consuming and expensive, and it introduced errors.


  • And it also meant that books were not part of most people's lives.


  • Like, if you were among the around 80% of people in England and France who worked in agriculture at the time, it's not just that you didn't need to learn to read to do your job; there was generally nothing you could read.


  • But printing changed all of that incredibly quickly.


  • The first printing press arrived in Venice in 1469.

    在 1496 年威尼斯出現了第一家印刷廠。

  • By 1500, there were 417 printing presses in the city.

    到了 1500 年,城市裡已經有 417 家印刷廠。

  • In the first fifty years after printing came to Europe, over 20 million volumes of books were printed.

    在印刷術於歐洲問世後的頭 50 年,總計印刷超過了 2000 萬本書。

  • This included the great works from the classical world that the Renaissance was rediscovering, but also many legal works.


  • And as jurists worked to decipher the meaning of every Latin word of the corpus of Roman law, the western legal tradition was born.


  • More copies of the Bible were available to read, and argue about.


  • And new stories and poems could be shared more widely.


  • Think of it this way: Whether you were interested in science or literature or law or mathematics, printing meant that more people had the opportunity to encounter far more voices from across time and space.


  • And as Renaissance ideas spread north fueled in part by printing, it followed that writers and scholars would see the ideas of humanism through the lens of local concerns.


  • Also, of course, northern European thinkers downplayed the movement's Italian origins.


  • One of the great rules of history is that whenever Italy has an idea, northern Europe will be like, "Yeah, no."


  • "We totally already had that idea like eight times."


  • "Our version is so much different and better."


  • "Wait till you see how we do the black death slash ballet slash fascism slash automatic weapons slash pizza slash defensive-minded football."


  • Anyway, Pieter Brueghel's "Dutch Proverbs" is one example of how different northern Renaissance art was from its Italian counterparts.


  • Breughel is still interested in the ideas of humanism in this painting--it's secular, focused on people, set in the natural world.

    在這幅畫中,布勒哲爾展現他對人文主義的興趣 —— 它背景設定自然,聚焦在人物上、呈現世俗的一面。

  • But you can see that Breughel's painting of scruffy rural villagers acting out ridiculous common wisdom has none of the lyricism or elegance of, say, Botticelli's Birth of Venus.


  • Then again, in many respects, the Northern renaissance wasn't so unique--the touchstone was still the classical world and its art and writing.

    而且就許多層面說來,北方文藝復興其實並不獨特 —— 它的試金石依舊是經典藝術及著作。

  • Florentines had made much of the Roman legal tradition that empowered the paterfamilias, or the male head of the family, and this was very much embraced in the north as well.

    佛羅倫斯人著重於羅馬法傳統中的父權體制 (或指一個家庭最年長的男性),這點基本上也被北方廣為接受。

  • The idea was that all social and political order stemmed from the exercise of the father's authority over the family unit.


  • From the father's secure position, the well-being of the family flowed.


  • And more than that, the well-being of the larger state depended on the good order of all the families it encompassed, just as the successes of Rome had rested on familial underpinnings.


  • And if humanism was opening the door to rethinking current values, some sort of anchor was need to prevent chaos, and people to the north and south agreed that security was going to rest in the classic tradition of the father's legal dominance.


  • In both North and South, humanism also went radical.


  • Some humanists began regularly teachingnot just discussingits principles and its main subject matter: rhetoric, which may not seem like a big deal to you.

    一些人文主義家開始定期教授 —— 不只有討論 —— 其基本原則及主要的內容:修辭學,在你看來或許沒什麼。

  • But it means that at least in the radical fringe of the Renaissance world, ancient Latin and Greek were being taught, not just the medieval versions of those languages--which would eventually contribute to a rethinking of what certain texts actually said, perhaps most notably The Bible.

    但這意味著在文藝復興的世界,人們教授古拉丁文與古希臘文,而不局限於現代版本 —— 最終帶領人們重新思考文本的本質,其中最有名的或許就是《聖經》。

  • Also, girls sometimes joined their brothers in being tutored, a radical idea indeed, although one that could also trace itself back to the Old Light--in justifying the education of girls, scholars cited ancient women who'd received tutoring, including Sappho, Aspasia, and Cornelia, the daughter of the Roman general Scipio.

    再者,女孩有時會和他們的兄弟一起上課,聽來挺激進的,不過這其實可以追溯回古代 —— 論及合理化女子教育,學者可以引用那些接受教育的古代女子,如莎孚、阿斯帕齊婭及柯妮莉亞,羅馬將軍大西庇阿的女兒。

  • And as humanism grew, so did the number of universities.


  • European universities had long taught a system of theology and philosophy known as "scholasticism" that focused on early church teaching and Aristotelian logic.


  • But now they began to embrace humanism, spending less time studying religious texts and more time investigating the human condition and thinking about how to organize human societies, including how to establish and enforce laws.


  • And amid these developments, Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, also known as the "Prince of the Humanists," became the commanding figure in the Northern Renaissance.

    在這期間,鹿特丹的德西德里烏斯.伊拉斯謨 (別名人文主義王子) 成為了北方文藝復興的領頭人物。

  • Let's go to the Thought Bubble.


  • Erasmus contributed to taking humanism along its twisted path from ideas of the study of "humans" and the "active life" into politics.


  • In 1595, he went to study at the University of Paris and began publishing his opinions on public affairs, including the responsibilities of a ruler.

    在 1595 年,他前往巴黎大學就讀,開始出版他對於公共事務的看法,其中包含領導人的職責。

  • A prince, he declared in "The Education of a Christian Prince", needed to study the classics and the deeds of worthy ancient leaders.


  • And in these examples he would discover the means by which great leaders achieved the public good and keep the peace even in troubled times.


  • He also emphasized the importance of reading the Bible and the leading Christian authors.


  • It was for this that he came to be known as advocating for a "middle road" between the pagan ancients and the more recent Christian thinkers.


  • But he was also at times very critical of the Catholic Church.


  • Erasmus was also a central figure in the rising "Republic of Letters," a growing international community of humanists in Europe.

    伊拉斯謨也是「信件共和國」—— 一個成長中的歐洲跨國人文主義家社群 —— 的要角。

  • In fact, he corresponded with some five hundred people around Europe, including everyone from Sir Thomas More to Martin Luther to Pope Leo X.

    事實上,他和歐洲各地五百多人都有信件來往,包含湯瑪斯.摩爾、馬丁.路德和 教皇利奥十世。

  • Aside from his work on Biblical translations, he also edited, translated, and published ancient pagan texts, like Cicero's, and the works of many pivotal religious authors, especially Saint Jerome.


  • He was astonishingly prolific, hiring editors, proofreaders, and even ghostwriters to help him produce mountains of humanistic texts and fashion himself as the quintessential figure of the Northern Renaissance before dying suddenly of dysentery at the age of 69 because, you know, it was the sixteenth century.

    他的產出驚人地多,他不止聘請編輯和校稿者,甚至聘用寫手幫他生產無數的人文主義典籍,讓自己成為北方文藝復興一位關鍵人物,不過卻在 69 歲時因痢疾猝然離世,因為你知道的,那是 16 世紀。

  • Thanks Thought Bubble.


  • Before he died, Erasmus saw the rise of the Protestant reformation.


  • He disagreed with much of Luther's teachings, and remained loyal to the Catholic Church.


  • But Erasmus's emphasis on inner spirituality over ritual did in some ways presage Protestantism.


  • Some felt that "Erasmus had laid the egg, and Luther had hatched it," but Erasmus dismissed that, saying that "Luther hatched a different bird entirely."


  • Also, for the record neither Erasmus nor Martin Luther could lay eggs, because they were mammals.


  • But now we're into biology, and getting a bit ahead of ourselves with the Reformation.


  • Before we start debating how many angels can fit on the head of a pin, we should acknowledge the other great Renaissance thinker who shaped what we now call political science--Niccolo Machiavelli, who was like the Erasmus living in the Upside Down.


  • Machiavelli had been a faithful supporter of Florence's republican traditions.


  • After the death of Lorenzo Medici in 1492, Machiavelli served the republic in several positions.

    羅倫索.麥第奇於 1492 年辭世後,馬基維利在共和國中擔任多職。

  • But after Spanish, papal, and other forces defeated the republic in 1512, Machiavelli was imprisoned and tortured (he was hung by his wrists until his shoulders were dislocated).

    但在西班牙、羅馬教皇以及其他外力於 1512 年擊垮該共和後,馬基維利遭到囚禁及折磨 (他的手腕被吊著,直到他肩膀脫臼)。

  • He was eventually released after three weeks in prison and then set out to write his masterwork "The Prince", which was only published in 1532, five years after his death.

    他在被關了三個禮拜後獲得釋放,開始著手書寫他的傑作《君王論》,該書於他死後五年、也就是 1532 年時出版。

  • "The Prince" was very different from the work of other humanists, especially from the political ideals of Christian humanism found in Erasmus's essays and letters.


  • Machiavelli imagined a grounding in the classics for an aspiring leader of his day.


  • But he believed the attitudes necessary for leaders were vastly different from what the ancients had counseled.


  • His most quoted advice focused on whether a ruler should aim to be loved or feared: "One should wish to be both, but, because it is difficult to unite them in one person, it is much safer to be feared than loved."


  • Machiavelli took a so-called realist views of politics--he focused on how a prince could retain power, and maintain order.

    馬基維利的政治思想正是所謂的現實主義 —— 他著重於君王如何維護政權並維持秩序。

  • And he was much more interested in what was effective than what was, like, noble.


  • And unlike many humanists' focus on maintaining peace, Machiavelli believed war was necessary--in fact, he wrote a book about it, called Art of War.

    還有不同於大多數人文主義家在乎維持和平,馬基維利相信戰爭是必須的 —— 事實上他還寫了一本書叫做《戰爭的藝術》。

  • He argued that rulers needed to prepare for war by studying great military leaders of the past.


  • And he believed that effective military leadership was vital to effective political leadership, because those who win wars get to gain peace on their terms.


  • But there were also idealists among Renaissance humanists, like the Englishman Thomas More, who was one of Erasmus's five billion friends.


  • And a close one in fact.


  • More wrote the classic book Utopia, which imagines a society without private property, where reason and cooperation have replaced struggles for glory and power.


  • It's an odd book--More was a devout Catholic, and in fact would eventually be executed for opposing King Henry VIII's turn toward Protestantism, and yet the seemingly enlightened Utopia is very much not Catholic.

    這是一本奇特的書 —— 摩爾是一位虔誠的天主教徒,事實上最後還是因為反對國王亨利八世的新教教義而遭處決,不過這個看似覺悟的烏托邦卻非常不天主教。

  • Like, the Utopians have married priests, for instance, and also they can get divorced.


  • But regardless, More believed that humanistic analysis could lead to widespread peace and prosperity--which by the way I would argue turned out to be sort of correct, even though it would take a while for humanism's benefits to be felt, and...

    無論如何,摩爾相信人文主義的見解能帶來普世的和平與繁榮 —— 說到這呢,我覺得部分是正確的,雖然人文主義的益處要好一陣子才顯現,還有 ……

  • More did not get to enjoy them, on account of being separated from his head in 1535.

    摩爾並沒來得及親眼見到,因為他在 1535 年就和頭分家了。

  • A century before More's Utopia, another book that imagined an ideal citystate, "Book of the City of Ladies", was written by Christine de Pizan.


  • De Pizan was born in Venice but moved to France as a kid when her dad got a job as the French king's astrologer.


  • As you do.


  • She married and had three children, but then her husband died of the plague, and thereafter she earned her living writing.


  • In "Book of the City of Ladies", de Pizan gathered up all the great and good women of history and placed them in a city where the Virgin Mary is queen.


  • The book argues that women can be virtuous leaders, and rational beings, and that leadership by virtuous women could beget virtuous communities--a stark contrast to Machiavelli's worldview.

    書中寫道,女人能夠成為有品德的領導者、理性思考,由品德高尚的女子來領導,社會也將變得有品德 —— 這和馬基維利的世界觀完全不同。

  • So at this point, it's common to ask students to think about the relative merits of idealism and realism--is a prince or princess, or for that matter a student at a high school, better off being loved or feared?

    這時學生應該思考理想主義和現實主義彼此的益處 —— 君王或皇后,或說一位高中學生,應該是被愛戴還是被畏懼比較好?

  • Is it more important for a community to be fair or stable?


  • Should leaders prioritize virtue or effectiveness?


  • These are big, interesting questions, and I think they're worth considering.


  • But I'd also ask you to look at the lens through which you're approaching those questions.


  • Machiavelli's life was marked by endless wars and shifting alliances.


  • He saw many short-lived governments fail to achieve stability.


  • Christine de Pizan saw the intense oppression of women and the dismissal of their talents and intellect.


  • Erasmus didn't exactly have an easy life--he was born out of wedlock and both his parents died of plague when he was a teenager.


  • But he saw a very different world in northern Europe than Machiavelli saw in Italy, or than Christine de Pizan saw.


  • Where do you sit in the world, and how might that shape what kind of community you wish to see?


  • Thanks for watching.


Hi I'm John Green and this is Crash Course European History.



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北方文藝復興。歐洲歷史速成班#3 (The Northern Renaissance: Crash Course European History #3)

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