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  • - This is probably the beginning

  • of a really long, challenging time

  • for both Uber, Lyft, Postmates, DoorDash,

  • and a lot of companies in the sharing economy space.

  • - It almost seems to me like they're digging

  • their heels into a business model

  • that is, in and of itself, never going to work.

  • - You're alone (chuckles) in your car,

  • and this massive technological operation

  • is just sucking the revenue out of you and leaves you

  • to deal with all the rest of it by yourself.

  • - This notion of, "I wanna be paid really high salaries,

  • "I wanna be guaranteed all of my income,

  • "whether the demand is there or not,"

  • that's not how capitalism works!

  • (cars honking)

  • - [Narrator] The gig economy, the sharing economy,

  • the future of work, whatever you call it,

  • contract work may be changing, for both the workers

  • and the tech companies that rely on it.

  • California just passed Assembly Bill 5,

  • a law that could completely abandon the gig economy

  • by reclassifying many independent contractors as employees,

  • a huge step towards a new labor model across the country.

  • Hundreds of thousands of contract workers

  • in California are set to become employees,

  • threatening the business models of ride-hailing companies

  • like Uber and Lyft, and a host of other companies.

  • Veena Dubal is a labor law professor

  • at the University of California, Hastings

  • who's studied the taxi industry

  • and the gig economy for over a decade.

  • - In the first years of the gig economy,

  • things were okay, but over the last five years,

  • they've lowered income for drivers.

  • These companies unilaterally set prices,

  • and they unilaterally drop prices,

  • and they unilaterally decide that drivers are gonna

  • make even less of the fare that they were before.

  • - [Narrator] Under the new law, drivers could be entitled

  • to benefits like a minimum hourly wage

  • and workers' compensation,

  • but the question for workers is,

  • will those benefits come at the cost of flexibility?

  • Will part-time jobbers be forced to become employees

  • and start working scheduled shifts?

  • While some Uber and Lyft drivers fear

  • they could lose flexibility as an employee,

  • others like Edan Alva welcome the protections.

  • Alva moved to the U.S. from Israel almost 20 years ago

  • and worked as a corporate security manager in the Bay Area.

  • He started driving for Lyft part time 4 1/2 years ago

  • to make a little extra money on his long commute.

  • Then he lost his job and was forced to start driving

  • full time to support himself and his son.

  • He currently drives for Lyft and Zum, a rideshare

  • specifically to take children to and from school.

  • - My rates today are about half

  • of what they were when I started four years ago.

  • Every day feels like a Russian roulette, (chuckles)

  • because the chances of something happening,

  • maybe something small and annoying, like another flat tire,

  • maybe something bigger like a car accident,

  • maybe something devastating like getting injured,

  • in a way that I cannot work, it's all there.

  • And if that happens, I have no safety network!

  • - [Narrator] AB5 will require companies that want to treat

  • a worker as a contractor to prove three things,

  • that the worker isn't controlled by the company,

  • that the work isn't part of the company's core business,

  • and that the worker has their own independent enterprise.

  • Uber and Lyft told us this could force them

  • to raise costs and wait times for riders

  • and significantly reduce the amount of drivers they employ.

  • Lyft also told drivers in a message

  • that they may soon be required to drive

  • specific shifts, stick to specific areas,

  • and drive for only a single platform.

  • Uber said it plans a legal challenge,

  • arguing that drivers are not part of their core business.

  • Bradley Tusk was an early investor

  • and consultant for Uber who helped the company

  • successfully oppose the minimum pay

  • and other ride-hailing rules in New York.

  • - When I was investing in and working with Uber

  • back in the early days, it was envisioned

  • as something that people would do

  • in their spare time to make a few extra bucks,

  • not as their full-time living.

  • There are a subset of drivers in some really big cities

  • where it very much is their full-time job,

  • and so it's problematic 'cause it's expensive,

  • it's problematic because fundamentally,

  • the business wasn't designed for that.

  • - [Narrator] The two companies say they have more

  • than half a million combined drivers in California,

  • and that the majority of them drive

  • less than 20 hours a week.

  • They say that drivers take home more than 70% of fares,

  • but economists have estimated,

  • Uber and Lyft drivers earn on average between nine

  • and $16 an hour, after accounting for gas, maintenance,

  • and other expenses the contractors are responsible for.

  • Many part-time drivers fear AB5 could make it worse,

  • and by forcing them to drive scheduled shifts,

  • it would wipe out the flexibility they need.

  • Alva recently started organizing Lyft and Uber drivers,

  • has been active at demonstrations in support of AB5.

  • He often talks to drivers while waiting for rides

  • in the parking lots at the airport.

  • - Currently, in the San Francisco Airport,

  • there are 216 drivers who are just waiting

  • in their car for a ride.

  • All these drivers are waiting here.

  • Nobody is paying them for their time, and they will wait

  • until they will get a ride from the airport.

  • Sometimes it can take 15 minutes,

  • sometimes it can take 30, an hour, or more.

  • - [Narrator] It's unclear how the bill will be enforced

  • once it's enacted in January, but Uber, Lyft,

  • and DoorDash have already pledged to combine $90 million

  • for a ballot measure campaign to alter the law.

  • - Just a few months from now, in January 2020,

  • most state legislative sessions will begin again,

  • and it will be hard to not see 10 to 15 states

  • take this issue up, so it's a domino effect,

  • and one thing Uber and Lyft and the others

  • really need to do is try to overturn

  • the California legislation as quickly as possible.

  • - The reason that it's so incredibly important

  • is because if we hadn't put the brakes

  • on this business model,

  • what is to have prevented all other service work

  • from going down this road?

  • - When you look at the broader picture,

  • any industry can be put on an app,

  • and the question is,

  • is that a real reason

  • for people to not have workers' rights?

  • (subdued music)

- This is probably the beginning

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Uber、Lyft和其他公司如何被加州的新法律吊銷執照? (How Uber, Lyft and Others Could Be Upended By California's New Law | WSJ)

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    王語萱 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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