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  • Radiation sickness might sound like something

    輻射病可能聽起來是

  • out of a post-apocalyptic horror film.

    恐怖電影的劫後之事。

  • And it often is.

    通常也是這樣。

  • It's been portrayed in movies and television for more than 50 years.

    輻射病已經描述在電影和電視中超過五十年。

  • And those portrayals vary a lot.

    而那些描述都大不相同。

  • I mean, the fate-worse-than-death described

    我是說,這種極為難受的病描述在

  • in 1959's On the Beach is very different

    在 1959 年的《海濱》與

  • than the 'based on a true story' version

    2019 年「基於真實故事」的

  • depicted in the 2019 miniseries Chernobyl.

    迷你劇《車諾比》的版本大相逕庭。

  • But if there's one thing pretty much all

    但如果這些所有描述

  • these portrayals have in common, it's that

    都有一個共同點,那就是

  • they get radiation sickness wrongat least somewhat.

    他們對輻射病有些誤解,至少有些錯誤。

  • Like, people don't just start oozing blood

    像是,患者不只是從腿上

  • out of their legs, and you can't get the

    冒出血來,而且你不會

  • illness from hugging a hospitalized loved one.

    因為抱著住院的愛人而得到輻射病。

  • To start off, technically, radiation sickness

    首先,嚴格來說,輻射病

  • is called Acute Radiation Syndrome or ARS.

    叫急性輻射症候群,或是 ARS。

  • And it's not one thing, but rather, a bunch

    這不是單一一件事,而是

  • of different syndromes that result from being

    因為暴露在高劑量的游離輻射

  • exposed to large doses of ionizing radiation.

    所產生一系列不同的症候群。

  • That's the kind of radiation that carries

    這種輻射攜帶足夠的能量

  • enough energy to knock electrons off of atoms.

    將原子中的電子偷走。

  • And it's a problem for your cells,

    對細胞來說是個大問題,

  • because all that energy can break chemical bonds and

    因為那些能量可以破壞化學鍵

  • therefore mess with essential molecules like DNA.

    因而擾亂關鍵的分子,如 DNA。

  • Your cells have ways of fixing broken molecules,

    你的細胞有辦法修復破損的分子,

  • of course, especially breaks to DNA.

    當然,特別是 DNA 的破損。

  • But they aren't perfect, so ionizing radiation

    但它們不是完美的,游離輻射

  • often leads to mutations.

    經常導致突變

  • And let's be clear: cells don't become better from these mutations.

    清楚來說:細胞不會因為這些突變而變好。

  • The more radiation-induced mutations

    細胞有越多輻射誘發的突變

  • a cell has, the more likely it is that it will die or become cancerous.

    死亡或癌變的可能性就越大。

  • So although radiation can change your DNA,

    所以說,雖然輻射會改變你的 DNA,

  • it isn't going to turn you into a walking,

    但也不會把你變成行屍走肉、

  • roaring, city destroyer a la Godzilla,

    大聲咆哮的城市破壞者哥吉拉

  • or give you superpowers.

    也不會給你超能力。

  • I'd hope that radiation myth was pretty

    我希望那種輻射迷思很淺顯易懂,

  • obvious, but not all of them are so easy to spot.

    但不是所有迷思都可以輕易點出。

  • For example, let's say a person walks into

    例如,如果一個人走進

  • the exact wrong room and is exposed to a lot of radiation.

    完全錯誤的房間,而且暴露在大量輻射中。

  • And by a lot, I mean enough that this person

    大量的意思是,一個人

  • gets more than 0.7 grays of radiation exposure

    待在房間五分鐘,

  • from spending five minutes in that room.

    會得到 0.7 戈雷的輻射暴露。

  • A gray is a measure of how much energy is absorbed

    戈雷是測量物體或人體

  • by an object or person per kilogram of weight.

    體重每公斤能吸收多少能量

  • And though it might not sound like much,

    雖然聽起來沒有很多,

  • 0.7 grays is a lot.

    但 0.7 戈雷很多

  • For comparison, when you get a chest x-ray,

    比較一下,你在做胸部 X 光檢查時

  • you absorb about 0.0001 grays, and a full-on

    會吸收到約 0.0001 戈雷,而全身

  • CT scan exposes you to just 0.01 grays.

    電腦斷層掃描只有 0.01 戈雷。

  • So, yeah, 0.7 grays is a lot of radiation,

    所以說,0.7 戈雷是很大量的輻射,

  • and this person has just been exposed to it.

    而這個人才剛接觸到而已。

  • What happens next?

    接下來會怎樣?

  • Based on Hollywood, you might think their

    根據好萊塢的電影,可能認為他們的

  • skin will instantly blister or they'll start

    皮膚會立刻起水泡,或是

  • bleeding from everywhere.

    身體到處開始流血。

  • But that's not how radiation sickness works.

    但那不是輻射病的症狀。

  • They might have no symptoms for a while.

    他們可能短時間內不會有任何症狀。

  • Depending on the exposure, it could take minutes

    根據暴露程度,可能需要數分鐘

  • to hours before they enter what's called

    到數小時,才會進入

  • the prodromal stage of ARS.

    ARS 的前驅期。

  • At this point, they might feel nauseous or vomit,

    此時,他們可能會感到噁心或嘔吐,

  • or have a fever, headache, or diarrhea.

    或者發燒、頭痛、腹瀉。

  • Symptoms like these can happen on and off for a few days.

    像這些症狀會斷斷續續出現好幾天。

  • And we're not entirely sure why that happens.

    而我們不太清楚為何會有那些症狀。

  • The best explanation we have is that radiation

    最好的解釋是,輻射

  • somehow activates cells in the gastrointestinal

    以某種方法刺激腸道的細胞,

  • tract to release the neurotransmitter serotonin,

    來釋放出神經傳導物質——血清素,

  • and that triggers the brain's vomit center.

    而這引發了大腦的嘔吐中樞。

  • A similar thing can happen when people get chemotherapy.

    類似的事也發生在做化療時。

  • What's weird about ARS, though, is that

    但 ARS 的奇特之處是,

  • after this period of queasiness, people often feel a lot better.

    過完這段噁心的時期後,患者通常覺得好多了。

  • This is what's known as the latent stage.

    這就是俗稱的潛伏期。

  • And as the name implies, during this phase,

    正如其名,在這期間,

  • it might not seem like there's a lot going on.

    似乎不會發生太多事。

  • A person who's been exposed can feel generally

    暴露在輻射的人通常會感覺

  • healthybut they're not.

    很健康… 但其實不然。

  • Oddly enough, this is the stage where cells are actually dying.

    奇怪的是,這是細胞實際在死亡的階段。

  • You see, the cells that die from radiation

    要知道,細胞因輻射死亡

  • generally don't die right away.

    通常不是馬上就會死。

  • DNA damage mostly becomes a problem when cells

    當細胞分裂並意識到它們不能分裂時,

  • go to divide and realize they can't, because

    DNA 的破損就成了一個問題,因為

  • the DNA has breaks in it or

    DNA 已經斷裂,

  • the coding sequence is wrong.

    或編碼序列是錯的。

  • So the length of the latent period

    因此,潛伏期的長度

  • partially depends on where the

    部分取決於

  • radiation damage occurred

    輻射傷害在哪發生

  • and how often the affected cells divide.

    以及受影響的細胞分裂頻率。

  • That's why, when symptoms start to show

    這是為什麼症狀開始發生時,

  • up, they often appear in places like the intestines,

    通常出現在腸道

  • bone marrow, or skin, because those tissues

    骨髓、皮膚等地方,因為那些組織

  • contain cells that divide the most often.

    包含的細胞分裂最頻繁。

  • Of course, how long the latent period lasts also depends

    當然,潛伏期的長度也取決於

  • how strong the dose of radiation was.

    輻射劑量的強度。

  • Higher doses over a shorter period of time

    短時間內越高劑量的話

  • mean more damage, faster.

    就代表傷害越多、越快。

  • Now, the latent period might sound similar

    潛伏期聽起來可能類似於

  • to the incubation period of other illnesses

    其他疾病的潛伏期,

  • where a person doesn't show symptoms,

    即使一個人沒有出現症狀,

  • but they can transmit the disease to someone else.

    但是可以將疾病傳播給其他人。

  • But, unlike TV shows would have you think,

    但不像電視劇那樣讓你這麼認為,

  • people with ARS aren't dangerously radioactive.

    患有 ARS 的人其實沒有危險的放射性。

  • Their radiation sickness isn't contagious.

    他們的輻射病不具傳染性。

  • You could, say, sit by the bedside of your

    可以說,在將死的夥伴旁,

  • dying partner for days or even weeks, and

    坐上幾天甚至幾週,

  • you wouldn't develop ARS yourself.

    你自己也不會得到 ARS。

  • Now, it is possible for a person to be emitting

    一個人是有可能釋放出

  • dangerous amounts of radiation right after

    造成危險的輻射量,

  • they've left the exposure site, because

    在離開受到輻射暴露的地方後,因為

  • radioactive material can stick to their skin and clothes.

    放射性物質可以附著在他們的皮膚和衣服上。

  • But once those clothes are removed and

    不過一旦把那些衣服處理掉

  • their skin is thoroughly washed, the danger is gone

    以及將皮膚完全洗乾淨後,危險就解除了

  • even if there's still radioactive material inside them.

    即是他們體內仍有放射性物質。

  • If they inhaled or swallowed bits of ash,

    例如,如果他們吸入或吞入少量的灰,

  • for example, they might have stuff emitting

    他們體內的物質

  • ionizing radiation inside their body.

    可能會釋放出游離輻射。

  • But, even though any radioactive material

    但是,即使放射性物質

  • inside them will continue to give off radiation

    仍會在他們體內繼續釋放輻射,

  • until it fully decays, that radiation is lost so quickly to nearby cells that the person

    直到輻射完全衰減,輻射才迅速失散到附近的細胞,而那個人

  • doesn't pose a danger to others.

    就不會對他人造成危險。

  • Basically, it's just hurting them.

    基本上,輻射只會傷害他們。

  • So, technically, you could go ahead and hug a loved one who's been hospitalized with ARS.

    嚴格來說,你可以繼續擁抱已經接受在接受 ARS 治療的愛人。

  • But it might not be a good idea to do thatfor their sake.

    但為了他們好,最好不要那麼做。

  • You see, the radiation may have killed off a lot of the stem cells in bone marrow that make white blood cells.

    因為輻射可能會殺死骨髓中大量產生白血球的幹細胞。

  • And those white blood cells are the immune system's army, so without them, the immune

    而那些白血球是免疫系統的軍隊.因此要是沒有它們,

  • system is weakened and the person is vulnerable to infection.

    免疫系統會很薄弱,人就容易受到感染。

  • Plus, damage done to other tissueslike connective tissue and blood vesselscan

    此外,對結締組織和血管的損害

  • eventually cut off the bone marrow's blood supply.

    最後可能會切斷骨髓的血液供應。

  • And without blood, the bone marrow keeps dying even after the radiation threat has passed.

    沒了血液,即使輻射威脅已經消去,骨髓仍會繼續衰弱。

  • Eventually, the body can't compensate for the cell damage anymore.

    最終,人體無法再補償細胞損傷。

  • And that that point, the person enters the manifest illness stage.

    到了那時,患者就會進入到發病期。

  • This stage lasts anywhere from a few hours to several months, and looks different depending

    這個階段會持續數小時到數個月不等,

  • on the kinds of tissues that were damaged.

    視受損組織的種類而定。

  • Some forms of radiation syndrome show up in the skin, which can get dry, red, or itchy,

    某些形式的輻射症候症會出現在皮膚上,可能會變得乾燥、發紅或發癢

  • or in severe cases can start to blister.

    嚴重的話會開始長水泡。

  • Basically, it's the same idea as a sunburnthough, potentially, a lot worse.

    基本上,這和曬傷是一樣的概念,但可能會更慘。

  • Other forms, triggered by smaller doses of radiation, mostly affect the bone marrow,

    其他形式由較小劑量的輻射所引起,大多數會影響骨髓

  • resulting in internal bleeding, a drop in white blood cells, and anemia.

    導致體內出血、白血球減少和貧血。

  • But if a person is exposed to more than 10 grays of radiation, advanced phases can also

    但如果一個人暴露在超過 10 戈雷的輻射下,下一步階段也會對

  • have gastrointestinal effects, like severe diarrhea, vomiting, or becoming unable to

    腸胃造成影響,像是嚴重的腹瀉、嘔吐、或是無法

  • absorb the nutrients in food.

    吸收食物的營養。

  • And if the exposure was more than 50 grays, the patient could move really quickly through

    如果暴露程度超過 50 戈雷,患者的早期階段

  • all the earlier stages to reach the manifest illness stage in a matter of hours.

    會進行得非常快,大約幾小時就能到發病期。

  • And in cases like these, damage occurs to the central nervous and cardiovascular systems,

    像這樣的情況,會對中樞神經和心血管系統造成傷害

  • resulting in convulsions or comas.

    導致抽搐或昏迷。

  • Andthere isn't really any chance of survival.

    而且…這樣沒有機會救活。

  • But, the good news is, in most of those lower-dose scenarios, a person can recoverespecially

    但好消息是,大多數低劑量的情況,患者都可以康復,尤其是

  • if they receive prompt treatment.

    如果他們有接受立即治療。

  • Though, there is no silver bullet.

    但是沒有萬靈丹。

  • Hollywood seems to think all you have to do to survive a nearby nuclear disaster is pop some iodine tablets.

    好萊塢似乎認為,要在附近的核災中生存,你必須要快速吃下碘片。

  • Don't get me wrong, iodine tablets are great.

    別誤導我,碘片很有用。

  • And it's true these pills are recommended as soon radiation exposure is suspected.

    確實,一旦懷疑有輻射暴露,就建議吃下這些藥。

  • But they're not a cure-all.

    但碘片並不是解藥。

  • In fact, they don't so much treat ARS as prevent the person from absorbing too much

    事實上,碘片對於 ARS 沒有太多治療效果,因為它會阻止人在甲狀腺中

  • radiation in their thyroidthat walnut-sized, H-shaped organ in your neck.

    吸收過多的輻射,甲狀腺是脖子內核桃大小的 H 形器官。

  • See, the thyroid's job is to take iodine and use it to make thyroid hormones, which

    記住,甲狀腺的工作就是攝取碘,並用它製造甲狀腺激素

  • help regulate your metabolism, among other things.

    別的先不提,這有助於調節新陳代謝。

  • Most of the time, that's totally fine.

    大多時候,這完全沒問題。

  • But if you've been in a fallout zone, you might have radioactive forms of iodine in

    但是,如果你一直處在輻射區,你體內的碘可能具有放射性

  • your bodylike iodine 131, which is one of the radioactive elements made in a nuclear reactor.

    例如碘 131,它是核子反應爐製作的一種放射型元素。

  • And if a bunch of that gets into your thyroid, it can cause a lot of DNA damage and even

    如果有不少碘 131 進入到甲狀腺中,就會導致大量 DNA 受損,甚至

  • lead to thyroid cancer.

    造成甲狀腺癌。

  • Iodine pills contain potassium iodide, a stable form of iodine.

    碘片中含有碘化鉀,其為碘的穩定形式。

  • The hope is that your thyroid absorbs it instead of the radioactive stuff.

    希望你的甲狀腺是吸收它,而不是放射性物質。

  • And for that reason, they do helpbut they only really protect the thyroid, because it's

    基於這個原因,它們確實有幫助,但只能真正保護甲狀腺,因為

  • the body part that sucks up most of the iodine in your body.

    它是人體的一部分,吸收體內大部分的碘。

  • And they don't help your body deal with any other radioactive elements.

    它們不會幫助身體處理其他放射性元素。

  • Plus, they don't actually do anything to the radioactive material.

    另外,它們其實對放射性物質沒有任何作用。

  • And if a person has radioactive stuff inside themwhat doctors call internal contaminationgetting

    如果一個人體內有放射性物質,也就是醫生所稱的「體內汙染」,

  • rid of it will help minimize the total damage done, so that's an important part of treating ARS patients.

    擺脫汙染有助於減低總傷害,因此這是治療 ARS 患者的重要部分。

  • Radioactive elements do eventually stop emitting radiation on their own, of course.

    當然,放射性元素最後的確會自己停止釋放輻射。

  • Radioactive iodine, for example, has a half life of about eight daysso even if it's

    例如,放射性碘的半衰期約為 8 天,因此,即使

  • still in a person's body, after 8 days, it's lost half of its radioactivity.

    8 天後仍在人體內,也會失去其一半的輻射。

  • But it takes almost two months for it to lose 99% of its radioactivity, and other radioactive

    但這幾乎要兩個月才能讓 99% 的輻射消失,而其他放射性元素

  • elements have much longer half-lives.

    有更長的半衰期。

  • And remember, they're emitting cell-damaging radiation that whole time.

    記住,它們會一直釋放傷害細胞的輻射。

  • So it's not ideal to just wait things out.

    所以最好不要只是坐以待斃。

  • That's why, to speed things along, doctors might give a patient substances like radiogardase

    這就是為什麼,為了加快速度,醫生會提供病患像是 radiogardase 或

  • or DTPA, which bind to radioactive metals to stop them from entering cells and block them from emitting radiation.

    DTPA 等物質,它們會與放射性金屬結合,阻止它們進入細胞及發射輻射。

  • Once bound, they'll leave the body in urine or feces.

    一旦被束縛,它們會透過尿液或糞便離開人體。

  • Even then, though, the whole process of totally removing radioactive material from a person's

    即使如此,一個人完全清除體內放射性物質的整個過程

  • body can take several weeks or even years.

    可能需要好幾週,甚至是好幾年。

  • And it doesn't treat the damage already done.

    而且它不會處理已經造成的傷害。

  • Actual treatments for ARS might include transfusions

    ARS 的實際治療方法可能包括輸血

  • to replace the blood cells that were damaged or destroyed by radiation, and cytokine therapy

    來替換受到輻射傷害或摧毀的紅血球,以及細胞介質療法

  • to stimulate the bone marrow to make more white blood cells.

    來刺激骨髓製造更多紅血球。

  • Many patients are also given antivirals and antifungals to prevent infections while their immune systems are weakened.

    當患者的免疫系統衰弱時,許多患者還會接受抗病毒劑和抗真菌劑以防止感染。

  • And hopefully, with enough medical support, the person will reach the final stage: recovery,

    希望說,有了足夠的醫療支援,患者能進入到最終階段:復原

  • where things pretty much go back to normal.

    身體幾乎會回到正常狀態。

  • So yeah, radiation sickness can be really bad, but even without iodine tablets, people can recover.

    沒錯,放射病確實很可怕,但即使沒有碘片,患者也可以復原。

  • That's different from a lot of what you see in movies or TV shows, where basically

    這和你在電影或電視劇看到的差異很大,在電影或電視劇中,基本上

  • anyone exposed to radiation dieseven if they only left the bunker for a minute, or

    任何人暴露在輻射下都會死亡,即使他們只離開地堡一分鐘,或者

  • were miles away on a bridge watching the fallout.

    在好幾英哩外的橋上看著輻射。

  • In fact, actual cases of ARS are really rare.

    事實上, ARS 的實際案例非常罕見。

  • And that's in part because the events that lead up to them, like nuclear bomb blasts

    造成這種情況的部分原因是,它們發生的原因,如核彈爆炸

  • or reactor meltdowns, are thankfully rare.

    或反應爐熔毀,所幸都非常罕見。

  • But it's also because you have to be pretty close to the action to get ARS.

    但也是因為你必須非常靠近才會得到 ARS。

  • For example, as awful as the Chernobyl accident was, cases of ARS were limited to people who

    例如,和車諾比核事故一樣可怕,ARS 的病例僅限於

  • worked in the plant or who went on-scene as emergency responders, and most of them actually didn't get ARS.

    在反應爐工作或到場的急救人員,而大多數人其實沒有得到 ARS。

  • There were no confirmed cases in the residents of the closest town.

    附近城鎮的居民中沒有確診病例。

  • Of course, the rareness of ARS is part of why we didn't really know a lot about radiation

    當然,ARS 的稀有性一部分是因為我們對輻射病沒有很了解

  • sickness or how to treat it when some of the most inaccurate movies or shows were filmed.

    或是在拍攝一些不準確的電影或影集時,不知道如何治療。

  • So they really may have thought that people with ARS were emitting tons of radiation,

    例如,他們確實可能認為患有 ARS 的人會發出大量的輻射,

  • for example, though we now know better.

    但我們現在知道的更多了。

  • And even today, myths from the past can persist because we don't really see ARS cases in our everyday lives.

    甚至在現代,過去的迷思仍然存在,因為我們在日常生活中沒有實際見過 ARS 的病例。

  • Also, some things are just a whole lot less entertaining if they're portrayed accurately.

    而且,如果如實描繪出一些東西,那麼娛樂性就會大大降低。

  • Like, we wouldn't have superhero movies if we let reality get in the way of a good origin story.

    就像,如果我們讓現實妨礙好的原創故事,我們就不會有超級英雄的電影。

  • So maybe we can forgive our favorite filmmakers for not getting all the details 100 percent right.

    因此,我們也許可以原諒最愛的電影人,沒有將所有細節原汁原味地正確呈現。

  • Maybe.

    也許。

  • Of course, science fiction doesn't always get things wrong.

    當然,科幻作品並不是永遠在誤導事情。

  • And if you liked learning about the scientific realities behind these TV tropes, you might

    如果你想了解這些電視轉義背後的科學現實,你可能會

  • like our episode on 5 Sci-Fi Futures We Actually Should Worry About.

    喜歡我們這部影片:「五個我們真的該擔心的科幻未來」。

Radiation sickness might sound like something

輻射病可能聽起來是

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 輻射 放射性 細胞 甲狀腺 患者 骨髓

電影和電視是如何搞錯輻射病的? (How Movies and TV Get Radiation Sickness Wrong)

  • 95 3
    Jerry Liu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字