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  • 9th of January, 2007

    2007年的一月九日,

  • Joshua Bell, one of the greatest violinist in the world,

    約夏‧貝爾,一位堪稱世界上最偉大的小提琴家,

  • played to a packed audience

    在可容納千人、

  • at Boston's stately Symphony Hall of 1,000 people

    宏偉的波士頓音樂廳,對著爆滿的聽眾演奏,

  • where most seats went for more than $100.

    且每個位子票價都高過一百元美金。

  • He was used to full, sell-out shows.

    他很習慣於座無虛席、票售一空的演出。

  • He was at the peak of his abilities and fame.

    那是他能力與名聲的高峰。

  • Three days later,

    三天之後,

  • Joshua Bell played to an audience of

    約夏‧貝爾在平凡群眾中演奏!

  • nobody!

    約夏‧貝爾在平凡群眾中演奏!

  • Well, maybe six people paused for a moment,

    好吧,也許有六個人停下來注意了一下,

  • and one child stopped for a while looking,

    還有一個小孩停下來認真注視著,

  • as if he understood that something special was happening.

    彷彿他了解這是一件不尋常的事。

  • Joshua said of the experience,

    約夏談到這段經歷:

  • "It was a strange feeling that people were actually ignoring me."

    「這是種奇怪的感覺,人們完全忽略我了。」

  • Joshua Bell was playing violin in a subway station.

    約夏‧貝爾是在一個地下鐵車站 演奏小提琴。

  • "At a music hall, I'll get upset if someone coughs

    「在音樂廳,如果有人咳嗽,或是有人手機響了,我會很生氣,

  • or if someone's cell phone goes off,

    「在音樂廳,如果有人咳嗽,或是有人手機響了,我會很生氣,

  • but here my expectations quickly diminished.

    但在這兒我的期待很快地降低了。

  • I was oddly grateful when somebody threw in a dollar."

    當有人丟入一塊錢,我就異常地感動。」

  • What changed?

    是什麼變了?

  • Same music,

    同樣的音樂、

  • on the same violin,

    同樣的小提琴,

  • played with the same passion

    用同樣的熱情

  • and by the same man.

    並由同一個人演奏。

  • Why did people listen and then not listen?

    為什麼人們願意聽?又為什麼不屑一顧?

  • Aristotle would be able to explain.

    亞里斯多德可以提出解釋。

  • What does it take to persuade people?

    究竟是什麼才可以說服人們?

  • 2,300 years ago,

    2300年前,

  • Aristotle wrote the single most important work on persuasion,

    亞里斯多德寫下了關於說服 最舉足輕重的一篇著作

  • Rhetoric,

    《修辭學》,

  • the 3 means of persuasion:

    其中描述了說服別人的三種方法:

  • logos,

    喻理、

  • ethos,

    喻德、

  • and pathos.

    以及喻情。

  • Logos is that the idea makes sense from the audience's point of view.

    喻理是指,這個想法可以讓聽眾 用他們的觀點去理解。

  • This is usually different from the speaker's point of view,

    他們的觀點通常與演說者的觀點不同,

  • so work needs to be done

    所以演說內容必須和世界觀點相結合,

  • to make the idea relevant to the world view,

    所以演說內容必須和世界觀點相結合,

  • the pains and the challenges of the listeners.

    也包含了聽眾的自身面臨的痛楚及挑戰。

  • A good argument is like good music.

    好的說詞就如同好的音樂。

  • Good music follows some rules of composition;

    好的音樂遵循著某些作曲的規則;

  • good arguments follow some rules of logic.

    而好的說詞則遵循著某些邏輯的規則。

  • It makes sense to the audience.

    這樣才能讓聽眾理解。

  • Ethos is reputation, what are you known for;

    喻德是指:名聲──大家有多認識你;

  • credibility, do you look and act professional;

    專業度──你的行為與外表看起來是否專業;

  • trustworthy, are your motives clear,

    以及可信度──你的動機是否單純,

  • do you show the listener that you care about them as much as yourself?

    你是否讓聽眾感到你在乎他們 跟在乎你自己一樣?

  • Authority is confidence plus a concise message,

    權威是自信再加簡潔的句子、 以及一個簡單且強烈的語氣。

  • a clear, strong voice.

    權威是自信再加簡潔的句子、 以及一個簡單且強烈的語氣。

  • Pathos is the emotional connection.

    喻情是指情感的連結。

  • Stories are an effective human tool for creating an emotional connection.

    故事是人們建立情感連結上 一種有效的工具。

  • There are moments where an audience is not ready

    有時候聽眾尚未準備好

  • to hear the message.

    來聽你想傳遞的訊息。

  • A speaker must create the right emotional environment for their message.

    演說者為想表達的訊息 必須建立適當的情境。

  • What changed?

    是什麼變了?

  • Why did people travel for miles to hear him play one night,

    為什麼人們不遠千里來聽約夏這一晚的演奏?

  • and not even pause for moment to listen the next morning?

    而又為什麼隔一天後 連一刻也不願意停下來聆聽?

  • The answer is that ethos and pathos were missing.

    原因是喻德和喻情消失了。

  • Ethos

    喻德

  • The fact that the great concert hall hosts Joshua's concert

    一個雄偉的音樂廳舉行了約夏的音樂會,

  • transfers its trust to Joshua.

    這傳遞了對約夏的信任感。

  • We trust the institution, we now trust Joshua.

    我們相信音樂廳,所以我們相信約夏。

  • The subway does not have our trust for musical talent,

    我們並不相信地下鐵裡能夠有傑出的音樂,

  • we do not expect to find great art,

    我們也不期待遇間極佳的藝術、

  • great music,

    極佳的音樂、

  • or great ideas,

    或是極佳的想法,

  • so it confers no trust to Joshua.

    所以地下鐵並沒有為約夏傳遞信任感。

  • Pathos

    喻情

  • The concert hall is designed for an emotional bond

    音樂廳是特別設計的,

  • between an audience and an artist,

    好讓聽眾及演出者的情感得以聯結,

  • a subway platform is not.

    但地下鐵並不是。

  • The hustle and movement and stress is just not conducive

    匆忙、移動、及壓力對於

  • to the emotional connection needed between performer and listener.

    雙方的情感連結是沒有助益的。

  • Logos,

    喻理、

  • ethos,

    喻德、

  • pathos,

    喻情,

  • the idea is nothing without the rest.

    除此之外沒有別的了。

  • This is what Joshua Bell learned

    這是約夏‧貝爾在一個2007寒冷的一月裡 所學到的。

  • on that cold, January day in 2007.

    這是約夏‧貝爾在一個2007寒冷的一月裡 所學到的。

  • If you have a great idea,

    如果你有一個極佳的想法,

  • how do you build credibility and emotional connection?

    你該如何建立專業度及情度連結呢?

9th of January, 2007

2007年的一月九日,

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 貝爾 音樂廳 聽眾 演奏 亞里斯多德

【TED-Ed】關於說服,亞里斯多德及約夏‧貝爾可以教我們些什麼? What Aristotle and Joshua Bell can teach us about persuasion - Conor Neill

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