字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 Hello. I'm Gill at engVid, and today's lesson is on idioms and sayings which are based on references to food and drink. Okay? So, these are sayings that are sort of metaphorical, meaning they're not literally true, but they mean something in a different kind of context. So, you'll see what I mean when we look at the examples. Okay? So, the first one is this, which is actually true literally, as well as metaphorically perhaps, but it's: "There's no point crying over spilt milk." So, if you spill... "To spill". If you drop the milk and it goes all over the floor, you've lost it; you can't use it, and milk is... Well, milk costs money; it's inconvenient to lose some milk when you need it for your... To put in your coffee or whatever. So, if you spill some milk, it's... You know, I... if it happens to me, I feel annoyed and upset because I've wasted some milk which I needed, really, and you have to then go out and buy some more. And it makes a mess; you have to clean it up. If you don't clean it up properly, it goes bad and it starts to smell. So, there are all those things to think about. So... But then this saying is: "There's no point crying over spilt milk." The idea is once it's spilt, you can't do anything about it - that's it, you just have to get on, clean it up, carry on, go and buy some more or do without it; don't bother getting any more, have your... Drink your tea without any milk in it - whatever it is. So, this is what people say sometimes if someone's complaining and they're upset about something, people say that just to say: "Well, there's no point being upset about it. That doesn't achieve anything. You've just got to move on and be positive; carry on and don't just be negative all the time, saying: 'Oh, dear. Oh, dear, isn't this terrible?'" The main thing is to do something positive about it, and not just cry... Crying when you spill the milk. There's no point. Okay, that's that one. Then the next one, if you say: "That's not my cup of tea" or "That's not really my cup of tea", it doesn't mean literally: "That's not my cup of tea; that's somebody else's cup of tea." What it means is that's not my taste. Okay. If somebody invites you to go to a film at the cinema, and maybe it's a horror film, and if you don't really like horror films, you probably don't want to go. So, you say: "Oh, that's a horror film, isn't it? That's not really my cup of tea. I don't think so. Tell me when there's a different kind of film on, and I might go to that with you, but horror film - no, not my cup of tea." So it's just a saying that we have. "It's not my cup of tea. It's not my taste; I don't enjoy that sort of thing." Okay. Right. So, next one, if someone is on the gravy train... If someone said: "Oh, she's on the gravy train", it may be that someone has got a job, or maybe it's like a politician sometimes - they get the kind of job where they earn a lot of money, they have the opportunity to go out for meals in restaurants quite a lot, and it's all paid for on their work expenses and so on. So, if you're on the gravy train... The "gravy" is the kind of sauce that you put on your food. In English cooking, it's a kind of brown sauce; it could have beef flavour in it or chicken flavour, but it's hot liquid, quite thick. It's a bit like a soup, and you pour it on your meal with... If you have a meat and vegetable meal, you can pour gravy onto it to give you a kind of sauce to add to your food. So, it's the idea of sort of rich food and something nice to eat. So, if someone is on the gravy train, it means they're in a position where they can have a really nice time and lots of nice things to eat, and generally not have to worry about money and so on. So, that's that one. Okay, next one: "He knows which side his bread is buttered." Okay. So, if you think of a slice of bread... There's a slice of bread. And if you put butter on your bread... You... I think you only put it on one side usually, don't you? If you put butter on both sides, it would get very messy because you'd be putting the butter down onto the plate, it would stick to the plate - you know, not a good idea. So, usually you put butter on one side of your bread, there. Okay? So, one side is buttered; has butter on it, and the other side is not buttered. So, I think we all know if we have butter on our bread, we can see which side is buttered; there's no difficulty there. But this is not literal; this is metaphorical. So, if somebody knows which side his bread is buttered, that means he knows... If he has a job in an organization, he knows who the important people are, and he knows who the less important people are, and he won't waste any time with the less important people. He just wants to spend time with the more important people because they have more power and influence, so this is someone who is rather calculating, you could call it. If someone is calculating, they work out in an organization: "Who is the best person to socialize with?" for example. And who... who... "Some people I wouldn't waste my time with because they don't have any power in the organization." It's not a very nice attitude, but there are people like that. So, that kind of person who is calculating about who they're nice to and who they don't have time for - they are the people who know which side their bread is buttered. They know who to, you know... who to talk to, who to spend time with for their advantage. Okay. Right. So, and then another bread and butter one, but this is quite different. If you say: "This job is my bread and butter", it means this job is what I rely on for my money. My food... bread and butter is sort of basic food. Well, bread is basic food; butter is a bit of a luxury, but I suppose it's meant to mean that. Bread is the basic stuff; butter is a bit more luxury. If you have a bit of extra money, you will buy some butter. So, you have your job to earn your money to buy your food and all your needs; it's to do with survival. So, survival. Having... Having enough money to live on. So, if you have a job which gives you money to live on, to survive. So, that's what people say: "This job is my bread and butter. I need it." Okay. Okay, so now we've had the bread and the butter, now we've got the jam. So, if someone says, like with a question mark and with an exclamation mark as well, it looks rather extreme, but this is said in a sort of sarcastic way. Okay. So, if someone is asking for something and you give them what they want, and then they want something more and you give them that, and then they still want more, it's as if they are never satisfied. Some people are never satisfied, and they... You give them one thing and they want another. Sometimes that's good; it depends whether it's convenient for you or not, but you can say sarcastically to someone like that: "Do you want jam on it?!" or "Do you want jam on it, too?!" You know, meaning: "You know, how much more are you going to want? It's enough to have bread and butter without adding jam as well." Jam is sort of a lot extra. You know, so: "Do you want jam on it?!" or "Do you want jam on it, too?!" said in a sarcastic way. Or you... Or someone might say: "You want jam on it, too, don't you!? You want jam on it, too!" You're the sort of person who always wants more. Okay, so that's that one. And then, finally for this first half of the lesson, if: "They're cherry picking examples to support their argument", if people are cherry picking examples, if they're trying to argue about maybe climate change or something to do with finance, banking, any big sort of political issue, really - people have to use examples to support their argument. But the idea is they should really find a lot of different examples to get a wide picture of the situation. But sometimes people find an example which doesn't fit their argument; it doesn't fit and it doesn't support their argument. So, what do they do sometimes? They decide: "I'm not going to use that example because it doesn't help; it might go the opposite way." So... But then they find all the examples they can to support their argument, but if they find a few that don't support it, they will leave those out; not mention them at all. So, that's called "cherry picking" because cherries are these little red fruits that grow on trees. Cherries. So, cherry picking is just taking a small piece of fruit, like that. So, it's selective. It's being selective. So, if you want to give a balanced view of something, you might find examples from both sides to show, you know, for and against climate change, for example.