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  • For some people, a simple peanut or a bite of a shrimp can cause the body's immune system to wildly overreact.

    對某些人來說,吃簡單的花生或吃一口蝦就會導致身體的免疫系統反應過度。

  • In some cases, the results can be deadly.

    某些情況下,結果可能會致死。

  • But what exactly is happening in the body for it to confuse nuts or shellfish with a true threat?

    但究竟身體發生了什麼事,把花生或甲殼類與真正的威脅混為一談?

  • By definition, a reaction to a food is only considered an actual allergy if the immune system is involved.

    根據定義,如果涉及免疫系統,對食物的反應僅僅認為是一般過敏。

  • And if the response is caused by immune cells called IgE antibodies, which we'll get more into later.

    如果反應是由 IgE 抗體的免疫細胞所引起,這個我們接下來會深入討論。

  • But it's important to distinguish an allergy from a sensitivity or an intolerance, which

    但重要的是在敏感或不耐症間區分過敏,

  • involve uncomfortable symptoms as a reaction to food, but don't cause an immune response.

    其中一些不舒服的症狀涉及食物反應,但不會引起免疫反應。

  • So if you're lactose intolerant,

    因此,如果你有乳糖不耐症,

  • you're not allergic to milk.

    你並不是對牛奶過敏。

  • Hi. My name is Tina Sindher.

    嗨,我是提娜.辛德。

  • I'm a Clinical Assistant Professor in allergy and immunology at Stanford University.

    我是史丹佛大學過敏和免疫學的臨床助理教授。

  • And I see patients in my clinic with, eczema, with asthma, food allergies, with environmental allergies.

    我在診所看到患有濕疹、氣喘、食物過敏和環境過敏的患者。

  • And my main focus lies in food allergy research.

    我專攻的是食物過敏研究。

  • In order to understand food allergies, we need to know how the body evaluates food in the first place.

    要了解食物過敏,我們需要先知道身體如何評估食物。

  • In a typical immune system, your body is constantly evaluating different antigens to deem them

    在典型的免疫系統中,身體會不斷評估不同的抗原,

  • either benign or dangerous, in this case, the proteins on the food particles.

    在這種情況下,食物顆粒上的蛋白質,會被判斷是良性或危險的。

  • When they eat a peanut for the first time, their body kind of tells your immune system,

    他們第一次吃花生時,身體會告訴你的免疫系統,

  • like, look at this, this is a peanut, do not fight this in the future.

    像是,看看這個,這是花生,以後絕不要和它打起來。

  • So that every time they eat a peanut, their immune system does not react to it at all.

    所以他們每次吃花生時,免疫系統完全不會對花生有所反應。

  • The immune system is basically building up a tolerance for the next time peanuts are around.

    免疫系統基本上建立了下次對花生的耐受性。

  • But in the allergy afflicted, by the time they eat something like a peanut, their body

    但受過敏困擾的同時,當他們吃花生之類的東西,身體

  • is already primed for an immune response.

    已經準備好進行免疫反應。

  • Our immune system is kind of like a seesaw, it needs balance.

    免疫系統有點像蹺蹺板一樣需要平衡。

  • So, on one side of the seesaw is your T regulatory cells.

    所以,蹺蹺板的一邊是調節性 T 細胞。

  • And they are kind of your brakes.

    它們就像是你的煞車。

  • They're the cells that tell your immune system, calm down, slow down, do not fight this.

    它們是一種細胞,負責告訴免疫系統,冷靜、減速,不要攻擊這個東西。

  • And then the Th2 is your allergic cells.

    而 Th2 是你的過敏細胞。

  • And they are ready to go, and revved up.

    它們準備好了,而且加速好了。

  • And they will bring in all other inflammatory cells to fight what they perceive as danger.

    它們會帶入所有的發炎細胞,為了對抗它們認為危險的東西。

  • In most people, the T regulatory cells hold more weight in determining what's problematic and what's harmless.

    在大多數人中,調節性 T 細胞在決定哪些東西有問題和無害時,扮演很重要的角色。

  • But in people with a more Th2-skewed system, their cells sound the alarm much more easily

    但對那些 Th2 偏斜的人來說,他們的細胞更容易發出警報

  • and have a high sensitivity to the harmless proteins on foods, most commonly milk, eggs,

    對食物上無害的蛋白質有高敏感性,最常見的是牛奶、雞蛋

  • wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, or shellfish.

    小麥、大豆、花生、堅果、魚或貝類。

  • But having a skewed immune system isn't enough, there has to be a trigger point to

    但對免疫系統偏斜的人來說是不夠的,那就必須有個觸發點

  • developing a specific allergy, and that's still not completely known.

    來發展特定的過敏症,而這一點還不完全清楚。

  • One of the proposed thoughts on how allergy begins has to do with the allergen entering the body the wrong way, through the skin.

    過敏症如何開始的其中一個提議,與過敏原透過皮膚以錯誤的方式進入身體有關。

  • Minuscule food particles floating in the air can enter the body through the skin if there

    如果是由於濕疹造成皮膚屏障功能失調,

  • is dysfunction in the skin barrier due to something like eczema.

    漂浮在空氣中的微小食物顆粒可以透過皮膚進入身體。

  • We're talking about nanoparticles of peanuts.

    我們講的是花生的奈米顆粒。

  • So it can be in your bedding, it can be in the air.

    可能會在你的寢具或空氣中。

  • You might be getting exposed to it without any knowledge of it.

    你可能在不知情的情況下接觸到。

  • It's that it's entering our, it's interacting with our immune system in a way that it's not meant to.

    它就是這樣進入我們體內,它不該與我們的免疫系統相互作用。

  • We're not supposed to get food allergens to come in through our skin. Or environmental.

    我們不該讓食物過敏原透過皮膚、或環境因素,進入我們體內。

  • So really the initial process is the barrier breakdown that we're seeing.

    所以真正的第一步是打破看到的障礙。

  • So, in some people, when immune cells in the skin encounter these antigens, they recognize

    因此,在某些人中,當皮膚的免疫細胞遇到這些抗原,它們會認為

  • that they are foreign and in the wrong place.

    抗原是不相干的人,而且還跑錯地方。

  • This ultimately signals the immune system to produce antibodies called immunoglobin

    免疫系統產生抗體的最終信號是免疫球蛋白E

  • E or IgEs to fight against the food proteins.

    簡稱 IgEs,來對抗食物蛋白。

  • Now, when this same food is finally ingested the right way through the mouth, the body's

    當同樣的食物最後以正確的方式透過嘴巴吃下去,身體的

  • IgE's will recognize it as a threat and respond in full force, leading to an allergic reaction.

    IgE 會視其為威脅並全力反應,導致出過敏反應。

  • And the way this looks is basically, when your mast cells and basophils open up, they

    基本上看起來這樣,你的肥大細胞和嗜鹼性球打開時,它們

  • contain histamine and tryptase, and a bunch of other inflammatory mediators.

    含有組織胺和類胰蛋白酶,還有其他發炎介質。

  • And those are what drives the reaction.

    那些都是會引起反應的因素。

  • This inflammatory response mirrors the body's reaction to a parasitic infection.

    這種發炎反應反映出身體對寄生蟲感染的反應。

  • But, skin exposure is not dangerous for those with food allergy already.

    但是,皮膚暴露對已經有食物敏感的人並不危險。

  • Our body shouldn't be responding like that, right, to food, and that's what we're hoping

    我們的身體不該像那樣對食物做出反應,而這正是我們希望弄清楚,

  • to figure out, and that's what we're hoping to prevent.

    也是我們希望阻止的。

  • We know that our immune system has developed this kind of response, but we don't know the why.

    我們知道免疫系統已發展出這樣的反應,但我們不清楚其中的原因。

  • There is a genetic component to who has allergies and who doesn't.

    遺傳成分會導致小孩有沒有過敏。

  • Children whose parents have allergies are more likely to have allergies themselves.

    父母有過敏的話,子女很可能也會過敏。

  • But there are other environmental factors at play that mess with the balance of the

    但還有其他環境因素影響

  • seesaw of an individual's immune system.

    個體免疫系統中蹺蹺板的平衡。

  • So it's not one thing, it's multifactorial.

    所以,不是一種因素而已,是多重因素。

  • And it's our diet, it's our lifestyle, it's modern conveniences that may push us kind

    我們的飲食、我們的生活方式,現代生活的便利可能讓部分人,

  • of over the edge for some, not all, but some.

    而不是所有人佔盡優勢。

  • The thing is, we might just be too clean.

    問題是,我們可能太乾淨了。

  • This is what's known as the hygiene hypothesis which says that a lack of exposure to germs

    這是眾所周知的衛生假說,就是在生命早期缺乏與細菌接觸,

  • early in life can trigger the immune system to mistake a food protein as an invading germ.

    會引起免疫系統將食物蛋白質誤以為是細菌入侵。

  • So for fewer allergies, maybe...

    所以對於較少見的過敏反應,也許......

  • Get a dog, roll around in dirt, don't wash your clothes, and play in the sun.

    可以養隻狗、在泥土裡滾來滾去、別洗衣服,以及在陽光下玩耍。

For some people, a simple peanut or a bite of a shrimp can cause the body's immune system to wildly overreact.

對某些人來說,吃簡單的花生或吃一口蝦就會導致身體的免疫系統反應過度。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 免疫 花生 反應 食物 細胞 身體

食物過敏的原因是什麼? (What Causes Food Allergies?)

  • 188 16
    Jerry Liu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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