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If a picture is worth 1,000 words,
video can be even more valuable.
While in the past, citizens couldn't be sure a politician
was telling the truth -- -Well, I am not a crook.
-- they could trust the words captured on camera
that were said to begin with.
-I did not have sexual relations with that woman.
But seeing isn't always believing anymore.
Glenn didn't just say that -- I did.
False and misleading videos are circulated online,
spread by politicians, advocacy groups, and others,
and they're often viewed millions of times.
As the technology to manipulate video advances,
there's even more urgency to understand
what's real and what's fake.
-"The Fact Checker's" set out to develop a universal language
to hold creators and sharers of misleading video accountable.
This guide is intended to start a conversation.
To equip you with a new awareness
and a set of skills to detect fake video.
-We've grouped manipulated videos
into three broad categories.
The first category is missing context.
The video is unaltered, but is presented in a way
that lacks or misstates the context
in which events occurred.
Misrepresentation is using incorrect framing of a video
that misleads the viewer.
For example, Trump campaign adviser Katrina Pierson
shared this video to represent rockets being fired in Gaza,
but it was really filmed in Belarus, 2,000 miles away.
Isolation is sharing a brief clip from a larger video,
creating a false narrative, like when conservatives shared
that snippet of Representative Ilhan Omar,
making it sound like she downplayed the 9/11 attacks.
-Far too long we have lived with the discomfort
of being a second-class citizen, and, frankly, I'm tired of it,
and every single Muslim in this country should be tired of it.
CAIR was founded after 9/11
because they recognized that some people did something
and that all of us were starting to lose access
to our civil liberties.
-If the quote or video isn't being reported
by multiple verified news outlets,
it might be missing some important context.
The second category is the deceptive edit.
That means a video has been edited or re-arranged.
Omission is editing out large portions of a video
to skew reality.
A liberal activist group shared this edited video of Senator
Dianne Feinstein speaking to children about climate change
that makes her look cool and dismissive.
-We have our own Green New Deal. -Some scientists have said
that we have 12 years to turn this around.
Well, it's not going to get turned around in 10 years.
What we can do -- -Senator --
Splicing is editing videos together
to fundamentally change the story,
like when this conservative news outlet
combined two different interviews of then Democratic
congressional candidate Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez,
changing the meaning behind her answers.
-Do you have any knowledge whatsoever
about how our political system works?
-Mnh. -Yikes!
-If there seem to be gaps
or unexplained transitions in a video,
it may have been intentionally edited.
The third category is malicious transformation.
The video has been manipulated to transform the footage itself.
Doctoring is altering the frames of a video, cropping,
or changing the speed, using Photoshop, dubbing audio,
or adding or deleting visual information
in order to deceive the viewer.
For example, this video of House Speaker Nancy Pelosi
was slowed down to make her look drunk.
-Fabrication is using artificial intelligence
to make high-quality fake images.
This includes deepfakes, like the video of Mark Zuckerberg
created using artificial intelligence
to make him say things that he never said.
Whoever controls the data controls the future.
Inconsistencies around someone's face,
like weird coloring or blurring,
as well as limited or no blinking,
could mean it's a deepfake video.
If someone's voice sounds a little low or their hands
are moving too quickly or their face just looks off,
the video might have been manipulated.
By labeling these types of video,
we hope to create awareness
that not all video shared online can be taken as a fact.
We expect this list will grow as new categories
of false video emerge.
Online users should show more skepticism
before believing that a viral video really happened.
And politicians and public figures have a responsibility
to be more careful about what they share
on their social-media feeds.
As technology develops, these videos will only become
more and more common and more convincing.
To speak on behalf of the American people
and to address their concerns, their hopes, and their dreams.
So, if you see something weird on your Twitter feed or Facebook
or Instagram, don't hesitate to e-mail us.
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載入中…

眼見不一定為憑!如何識破造假影片? (How to spot manipulated video | The Fact Checker)

273 分類 收藏
Jessieeee 發佈於 2019 年 6 月 26 日    陳明頤 翻譯    Evangeline 審核
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