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  • I've got something very exciting for you.

  • In this video, we're going to study English with movies!

  • Today it's a short scene from a new movie, On the Basis of Sex,

  • and we're going to do an in-depth pronunciation analysis to

  • boost your listening comprehension and help you sound more American.

  • It's amazing what we can discover by studying even a small bit of English conversation.

  • I call this kind of exercise a Ben Franklin exercise.

  • First we'll watch the scene, then you and I will study together to understand exactly how the

  • words are being pronounced.

  • You'll be amazed at what we're going to find after watching the scene.

  • First, the scene.

  • I apologize, okay?

  • I want to know where you were.

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • What?

  • Gloria Steinem. She's a writer. She just started her own magazine.

  • >> She testified in the Senate. >>Yeah, I know who Gloria Steinem is.

  • >> What if you got hurt, or, arrested? >> Mom, it's a rally, not a riot.

  • Jane, these things can get out of hand.

  • Okay, well I'm fifteen years old, and you don't need to control every minute of my life.

  • Yes I do. That is my job. And your job is to go to school and learn.

  • Now, the analysis.

  • I apologize.

  • I apologize.

  • I apologize.

  • A five-syllable thought group.

  • I apol--

  • And the middle syllable, the third syllable is the most stressed.

  • I apologize.

  • But the intonation is smooth. We don't have skips.

  • It scoops up, the voice scoops up and then it comes back down.

  • I apologize. I apologize.

  • I apologize. I apologize.

  • Linked together smoothly. We have a vowel to vowel link here, with a diphthong AI.

  • I uh-- linking right into the schwa of 'apologize'.

  • In a link like this, when it's an AI diphthong linking into another word that begins with a vowel or diphthong,

  • you can think of connecting them with a Y sound. I ya-- yapologize, yapologize.

  • I apologize. It can help smooth out that link.

  • I apologize.

  • I apologize.

  • I apologize, okay?

  • Okay? Okay? Pitch goes up at the end. Okay.

  • It's a yes/no question. However, it's, she's not really asking yes or no.

  • Her tone is pretty harsh, isn't it? I apologize.

  • It doesn't sound very apologetic at all.

  • I apologize, okay?

  • I apologize, okay?

  • I apologize, okay?

  • I apologize, okay?

  • I want to know where you were.

  • I want to know where you were.

  • One sentence, one thought group. What are the most stressed syllables there?

  • I want to know where you were.

  • I want to know where you were.

  • I want to know where you were.

  • I want to know where you were.

  • I think 'know' and 'were' are the most stressed words there.

  • Every word is linked together smoothly, the words 'want to'

  • linked together into a single reduction. Wanna.

  • I wanna, I want to know.

  • I wanna know where you were.

  • No gaps between the words, everything super smooth.

  • I wanna. AI diphthong right into the W constant sound,

  • schwa of 'wanna' uh, uh, right into the stressed word know. I want to know.

  • I want to know where you were.

  • I want to know where you were.

  • I want to know where you were.

  • I want to know where you were.

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • Then her daughter replies with a long thought group.

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • What do you hear as the most stressed words there?

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • Went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • So Denise is a little bit stressed, but

  • there's also, she's not putting a lot of energy in her voice there at the beginning,

  • Denise, Denise.

  • Denise and I went to a rally--

  • Denise and I went to a rally--

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • Speak is also a little bit longer.

  • Let's talk about her reductions.

  • Do you hear any reductions here?

  • A reduction is where a sound on a word is dropped or changed.

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • This first one, right here. Denise and I--

  • Denise and I--

  • The word 'and' is reduced, it's just an N sound, quick schwa N. Denise and, Denise and,

  • Denise and I.

  • I think this word sounds sort of like the word 'in' when it's reduced. Denise and I, Denise and I.

  • And it's really smoothly linked together, the ending S sound links into the schwa.

  • Denise and I.

  • And then the N sound links right into the AI diphthong.

  • Denise and I--

  • Denise and I--

  • Denise and I--

  • Denise and I--

  • Denise and I--

  • Denise and I went to a rally to hear Gloria Steinem speak.

  • Went to a -- Went to a --

  • We have two T's here, they're connected with just a single true T sound.

  • So you don't need to make two T's here, we link them together.

  • Went to a -- Went to a --

  • Went to a rally.

  • Went to a rally.

  • Went to a rally.

  • Went to a rally.

  • The word 'to', this word usually reduces.

  • Almost always the vowel changes to the schwa but

  • here, the next word is simply the schwa.

  • So if we changed the OO vowel to a schwa,

  • then we wouldn't have anything to let us know we're changing syllables here,

  • because it would be the same exact sound.

  • So in order to link smoothly, but have us know,

  • have us hear that as two separate words,

  • we don't reduce the vowel when it's followed by a schwa.

  • To a-- To a-- To a-- To a--

  • So even though it's not stressed, that would be 'to'

  • it's still said flatly and quickly. To, to, to.

  • It's not reduced.

  • Went to a-- Went to a-- Went to a--

  • Went to a rally.

  • Went to a rally.

  • Went to a rally.

  • Went to a rally.

  • Went to a rally.

  • Okay, now, look. Here, we have another word 'to',

  • another opportunity to study the word. How is it pronounced here?

  • Went to a rally to hear--

  • Went to a rally to hear--

  • Went to a rally to hear--

  • T's definitely not: to, to, to.

  • There's no true T and there's no OO vowel.

  • It's more of a flap T and then the vowel is the schwa. Rally to--

  • So we make it t a flap T when it comes between two vowels.

  • We don't usually do this at the beginning of words,

  • but words like today, tomorrow, two, together,

  • these words we do sometimes do this with, make the true T a flap T instead.

  • Rally to-- Rally to-- Rally to--

  • So we have two occurrences of the word 'to', both times they're unstressed but once it's not reduced at all,

  • none of the sounds are changed and the other time it's reduced a lot. Both sounds change flap T and schwa.

  • Rally to-- Rally to--

  • Rally to hear--

  • Rally to hear--

  • Rally to hear--

  • 'Hear', this is a verb and usually our content words are stressed, but in any sentence,

  • if we have a lot of different content words that is nouns, verbs, adjectives, or adverbs,

  • they won't all be equally stressed.

  • So here, went and hear, even though those are both verbs, to me feel less stressed than the others.

  • Then we have Gloria Steinem, a proper noun.

  • Now, any time we have a name, it's the last word in the name that's the most stressed.

  • So Gloria-- Glor--, the stressed syllable there is stressed but Steinem,

  • the stressed syllable there, to me, is even more stressed.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Da-da-da-DA-da. Steinem.

  • The stressed syllable of her last name would be the most stressed in the group of her name.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • And then one more stressed word, speak, at the end.

  • Gloria Steinem speak.

  • Gloria Steinem speak.

  • Gloria Steinem speak.

  • What?

  • What? What?

  • She does a light true T release at the end,

  • that's a little uncommon, it's more common to make a stop T at the end of a thought group. What?

  • What? But she does a light release. Notice the intonation goes up. What?

  • What? She's surprised. She can't believe what she's hearing.

  • Let's talk about the WH consonants here.

  • How does she pronounce these sounds?

  • What? What? What?

  • Just as a pure W sound. What? What?

  • It's become outdated, I would say, to pronounce the hh sound before the W.

  • What? What?

  • In WH words, you might hear some people say it that way.

  • My mom does it that way, what, white, for example,

  • but it's much more common these days to just do a clean W sound. What.

  • Not the W sound with the little escape of air H before. What?

  • What?

  • What?

  • What?

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Okay there's that name again.

  • And again, we have a little bit of stress on the stressed syllable of Gloria,

  • but then more stress on the stressed syllable, Steinem.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • There's no separation between these words they're linked smoothly together

  • because they're part of the same thought group.

  • Everything in English is really smoothly linked together within the same thought group.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • Gloria Steinem.

  • She's a writer.

  • She's a writer. She's a writer.

  • Again, linked together, really smoothly there's no break, the letter A, the article a here is the schwa.

  • She's a--, so the apostrophe S is a Z sound, it links right into the schwa.

  • The schwa links right into the beginning sound of the next word, which is an R.

  • The W is silent in this word.

  • She's a writer. She's a writer.

  • What's the most stressed syllable there?

  • She's a writer.

  • She's a writer.

  • She's a writer.

  • It's the stressed syllable of writer. So we have smoothly going up, she's a writer,

  • then the peak on wri--, and the pitch falls down. She's a writer.

  • Uuuhh--- Really smooth, no jumps or gaps in the pitch there. She's a writer.

  • And notice the T here is a flap T because it comes between two vowel sounds.

  • So it's not a true T, but rather a flap of the tongue.

  • She's a writer.

  • She's a writer.

  • She's a writer.

  • She's a writer. She just started her own magazine.

  • She just started her own magazine.

  • What are your most stressed words there?

  • She just started her own magazine.

  • She just started her own magazine.

  • She just started her own magazine.

  • Started her own magazine.

  • Star and mag the most stressed syllables there,

  • the other syllables said quickly. She just--

  • How is the word 'just' pronounced?

  • Focus especially on the ending cluster ST.

  • She just started-- She just started-- She just started--

  • Just started-- Just started-- She just started--

  • The T is dropped. This is really common with the ST cluster at the end

  • when the next word begins with a consonant,

  • we tend to drop the T.

  • Just started. So the two words linked together with a single S sound.

  • She just started. She and just, low in pitch, flatter, compared to star. She just star-- she just started.

  • She just started. She just started. She just started.

  • The T here in started, another flap. Why?

  • It comes after an R before a vowel, not between vowels. True,

  • but this same rule applies. A T becomes a flap T when it comes after an R before a vowel.

  • Started. Started.

  • So the vowel sound here is the IH as in sit vowel followed by the D consonant.

  • This is how we pronounce the ED ending. Started.

  • The ED ending is pronounced this way if the sound before is a T or a D. Started. Started.

  • The ED ending when it makes an extra syllable is always unstressed.

  • Star-- ted, ted, ted.

  • So it's said more quickly, it's flatter in pitch, less energy in the voice. Started.

  • She just started.

  • She just started. She just started.

  • She just started