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  • I bring you greetings

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Bighead Ge

  • from the 52nd-freest nation on earth.

    我從地球上自由程度排名 第 52 的國家帶問候來給各位。

  • As an American, it irritates me that my nation keeps sinking

    身為美國人,我很受不了我的國家

  • in the annual rankings published by Freedom House.

    在自由之家所公佈的 年度排行榜中不斷下滑。

  • I'm the son of immigrants.

    我是移民者的孩子。

  • My parents were born in China during war and revolution,

    我的父母生在中國, 那是戰亂和革命的時代,

  • went to Taiwan and then came to the United States,

    他們先到台灣,接著又前往美國,

  • which means all my life,

    意思就是,我一生中,

  • I've been acutely aware just how fragile an inheritance freedom truly is.

    我其實一直都很清楚, 繼承來的自由有多麼脆弱。

  • That's why I spend my time teaching, preaching and practicing democracy.

    那就是為什麼,我把時間 花在教導、講授、實踐民主。

  • I have no illusions.

    我沒有幻想。

  • All around the world now,

    現在,世界各地,大家都在懷疑,

  • people are doubting whether democracy can deliver.

    民主是否能實現。

  • Autocrats and demagogues seem emboldened,

    獨裁者和煽動者似乎很大膽,

  • even cocky.

    甚至狂妄自大。

  • The free world feels leaderless.

    感覺像是沒有人在領導自由世界。

  • And yet, I remain hopeful.

    但,我仍然抱有希望。

  • I don't mean optimistic.

    我不是指樂觀。

  • Optimism is for spectators.

    旁觀者才會樂觀。

  • Hope implies agency.

    希望意味著能動性。

  • It says I have a hand in the outcome.

    意思是,我對於結果 有部分的責任。

  • Democratic hope requires faith

    民主的希望需要信念,

  • not in a strongman or a charismatic savior

    不是相信鐵腕人物 或有魅力的救星,

  • but in each other,

    而是相信彼此,

  • and it forces us to ask: How can we become worthy of such faith?

    它強迫我們去問這個問題:我們 要怎麼做,才能值得這種信念?

  • I believe we are at a moment of moral awakening,

    我相信,我們正處於 道德覺醒的時刻,

  • the kind that comes when old certainties collapse.

    在過去的肯定性崩壞時 會出現的那種覺醒。

  • At the heart of that awakening is what I call \"civic religion.\"

    覺醒的核心則是 我所謂的「公民宗教」。

  • And today, I want to talk about what civic religion is,

    今天,我想要談談 公民宗教是什麼,

  • how we practice it,

    我們要如何實踐它,

  • and why it matters now more than ever.

    以及為什麼它在此時特別重要。

  • Let me start with the what.

    讓我從「它是什麼」談起。

  • I define civic religion as a system of shared beliefs and collective practices

    我把公民宗教定義為一種體制, 共同信念及集體實踐的體制,

  • by which the members of a self-governing community

    透過這種體制,自治社區的成員

  • choose to live like citizens.

    選擇像公民一樣地過生活。

  • Now, when I say \"citizen\" here, I'm not referring to papers or passports.

    我這裡說的「公民」指的 並不是文件或護照。

  • I'm talking about a deeper, broader, ethical conception

    我在談的是更深、 更廣的倫理觀念:

  • of being a contributor to community, a member of the body.

    成為對社區有貢獻的人, 成為團體的成員。

  • To speak of civic religion as religion is not poetic license.

    把公民宗教當成宗教來講, 並不是詩意的特許。

  • That's because democracy

    那是因為,民主是最需要 信念支撐的人類活動之一。

  • is one of the most faith-fueled human activities there is.

    只有當有足夠的人相信 民主行得通時,民主才行得通。

  • Democracy works only when enough of us believe democracy works.

    它既是賭博又是奇蹟。

  • It is at once a gamble and a miracle.

    它的正當性不是來自 憲法規定的外框架,

  • Its legitimacy comes not from the outer frame of constitutional rules,

    而是來自公民精神的內在運作。

  • but from the inner workings of civic spirit.

    公民宗教和任何宗教一樣,

  • Civic religion, like any religion,

    都有神聖的教義、神聖的作為, 以及神聖的儀式。

  • contains a sacred creed, sacred deeds and sacred rituals.

    我的教義包含了這些文字: 「對法律的平等保護」

  • My creed includes words like \"equal protection of the laws\"

    及「我們人民」。

  • and \"we the people.\"

    我可以點出的神聖作為包括: 廢除黑奴制度、

  • My roll call of hallowed deeds includes abolition, women's suffrage,

    女性投票、民權運動,

  • the civil rights movement,

    同盟國部隊在諾曼第登陸,

  • the Allied landing at Normandy,

    拆除柏林圍牆。

  • the fall of the Berlin Wall.

    等一下我會告訴各位 一種新的公民儀式。

  • And I have a new civic ritual that I'll tell you about in a moment.

    不論你來自世界的何處,

  • Wherever on earth you're from,

    你都可以找到或創造一組 你自己的教義、作為,以及儀式。

  • you can find or make your own set of creed, deed and ritual.

    公民宗教的實踐, 重點不在於崇拜國家

  • The practice of civic religion is not about worship of the state

    或是順從主政的黨派。

  • or obedience to a ruling party.

    重點在於對彼此的承諾 以及我們共同的理想。

  • It is about commitment to one another

    而公民宗教的神聖,重點 並不是神性或超自然的東西。

  • and our common ideals.

    重點是讓一群不同的人,

  • And the sacredness of civic religion is not about divinity or the supernatural.

    透過談話表達 而找到我們的相似處,

  • It is about a group of unlike people

    成為群體。

  • speaking into being our alikeness,

    現在各位可能有點擔心 我是在試圖推銷某種宗教。

  • our groupness.

    放心,並不是。

  • Perhaps now you're getting a little worried

    我不需要推銷給你們。

  • that I'm trying to sell you on a cult.

    身為人類,你們一直 都在宗教的市場中,

  • Relax, I'm not.

    尋求一些宗教體驗的多樣性。

  • I don't need to sell you.

    我們天生就會尋找宇宙的解釋,

  • As a human, you are always in the market for a cult,

    讓那些用超然目的將我們 團結起來的信念能夠被神聖化。

  • for some variety of religious experience.

    人類會創造宗教, 是因為人類會創造團體。

  • We are wired to seek cosmological explanations,

    我們唯一的選擇,就是是否 要將這種群體性用在好的用途上。

  • to sacralize beliefs that unite us in transcendent purpose.

    如果你是虔誠的人, 你就知道這一點。

  • Humans make religion because humans make groups.

    如果你不是,

  • The only choice we have is whether to activate that groupness for good.

    如果你已經不再去禱告儀式 或從來沒有去過,

  • If you are a devout person, you know this.

    那,有可能你會說 瑜伽是你的宗教,

  • If you are not,

    或者英格蘭足球超級聯賽,

  • if you no longer go to prayer services

    或者編織,或者寫程式, 或者 TED 演說。

  • or never did,

    但,不論你相信神或是不相信有神,

  • then perhaps you'll say that yoga is your religion,

    公民宗教並不會要求你 要聲明放棄你的信念。

  • or Premier League football,

    它只要求你要以公民的身分出席。

  • or knitting, or coding or TED Talks.

    這就帶到了我的第二個主題:

  • But whether you believe in a God or in the absence of gods,

    我們要如何用很有生產力的 方式實踐公民宗教?

  • civic religion does not require you to renounce your beliefs.

    現在,讓我告訴各位 剛才提到的新公民儀式。

  • It requires you only to show up as a citizen.

    它叫做「公民星期六」,

  • And that brings me to my second topic:

    它遵循著信念聚會的軌跡。

  • how we can practice civic religion productively.

    我們一起唱歌,

  • Let me tell you now about that new civic ritual.

    我們轉向身邊的陌生人, 討論共同的問題,

  • It's called \"Civic Saturday,\"

    我們會聽詩歌和經文,

  • and it follows the arc of a faith gathering.

    會有布道,將那些文字 和我們這個時代的

  • We sing together,

    倫理選擇以及爭論連結起來,

  • we turn to the strangers next to us to discuss a common question,

    但那些歌曲、經文,和佈道

  • we hear poetry and scripture,

    並不是來自禮拜堂、 猶太教堂,或清真寺。

  • there's a sermon that ties those texts

    它們是公民的,

  • to the ethical choices and controversies of our time,

    源自我們共同的公民理想,

  • but the song and scripture and the sermon

    以及索求、爭取 那些理想的共同歷史。

  • are not from church or synagogue or mosque.

    之後,我們會圍成圓圈,

  • They are civic,

    來組織集會、登記投票者、

  • drawn from our shared civic ideals

    加入新社團、交新朋友。

  • and a shared history of claiming and contesting those ideals.

    2016 年,我和我同事在西雅圖

  • Afterwards, we form up in circles to organize rallies, register voters,

    開始組織「公民星期六」。

  • join new clubs, make new friends.

    從此之後,公民星期六 就散播整個大陸。

  • My colleagues and I started organizing Civic Saturdays

    有時,會有數百人出席, 有時則是幾十人。

  • in Seattle in 2016.

    舉辦的地點包括圖書館、 社區中心、共同工作的空間,

  • Since then, they have spread across the continent.

    在節慶的帳篷下,以及大會堂內。

  • Sometimes hundreds attend, sometimes dozens.

    這項社群技術並不用什麼高科技。

  • They happen in libraries and community centers

    它強調的是人類基本的渴望, 渴望面對面的交情。

  • and coworking spaces,

    它能吸引年輕人和老年人, 左派和右派,

  • under festive tents and inside great halls.

    貧窮人和有錢人, 上教堂和不上教堂的人,

  • There's nothing high-tech about this social technology.

    所有的種族。

  • It speaks to a basic human yearning for face-to-face fellowship.

    當你來到公民星期六, 你會被邀請討論問題,

  • It draws young and old, left and right,

    比如「你為誰負責?」

  • poor and rich, churched and unchurched,

    或「你願意為你的社區

  • of all races.

    冒什麼樣的風險或放棄什麼?」

  • When you come to a Civic Saturday and are invited to discuss a question

    這個狀況發生時,會有改變產生。

  • like \"Who are you responsible for?\"

    你會被感動。

  • or \"What are you willing to risk or to give up for your community?\"

    你會開始訴說你的故事。

  • When that happens, something moves.

    我們會真正開始看見彼此。

  • You are moved.

    你會了解到,無家可歸、 槍枝暴力、中產階級化、

  • You start telling your story.

    糟糕的交通、 不相信新來者、假新聞——

  • We start actually seeing one another.

    這些都不是別人的問題,

  • You realize that homelessness, gun violence, gentrification,

    它們是你自己的習慣 和疏忽的集成體。

  • terrible traffic, mistrust of newcomers, fake news --

    你的行為造成了社會現在的樣子。

  • these things aren't someone else's problem,

    從來沒有人要我們去反思,

  • they are the aggregation of your own habits and omissions.

    我們公民身分的內容是什麼?

  • Society becomes how you behave.

    我們大部分的人從來沒有被邀請

  • We are never asked to reflect on the content of our citizenship.

    去做更多、成為更多,

  • Most of us are never invited to do more or to be more,

    且大部分人並不知道我們 有多麼渴望得到那樣的邀請。

  • and most of us have no idea how much we crave that invitation.

    因此,我們創立了一間公民學院,

  • We've since created a civic seminary

    開始訓練來自各地的人, 讓他們在自己的鎮上,

  • to start training people from all over to lead Civic Saturday gatherings

    靠自己領導公民星期六的聚會。

  • on their own, in their own towns.

    在田納西州雅典市的社區中,

  • In the community of Athens, Tennessee,

    有位活躍的領導人 叫做惠妮金柏柯,

  • a feisty leader named Whitney Kimball Coe

    在一間藝術及錶框商店中 領導她的聚會,

  • leads hers in an art and framing shop

    還有一個青年合唱團 以及許多小旗幟。

  • with a youth choir and lots of little flags.

    一位年輕的激進分子柏托厄瓜尤

  • A young activist named Berto Aguayo

    在芝加哥「後院」社區中的一個街角

  • led his Civic Saturday on a street corner

    領導他的公民星期六。

  • in the Back of the Yards neighborhood of Chicago.

    柏托過去曾經和幫派有關係。

  • Berto was once involved with gangs.

    現在他在維護和平

  • Now, he's keeping the peace

    及組織政治活動。

  • and organizing political campaigns.

    檀香山的拉斐爾柏斯卓姆

  • In Honolulu, Rafael Bergstrom,

    過去曾是職業棒球選手,後來 成了攝影師與天然資源保護論者,

  • a former pro baseball player turned photographer and conservationist,

    他負責領導擁護公民的 「公民學很性感」。

  • leads his under the banner \"Civics IS Sexy.\"

    是很性感沒錯。

  • It is.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    有時我會被問,甚至被學院學生問:

  • Sometimes I'm asked, even by our seminarians:

    「用宗教語言不會很危險嗎?」

  • \"Isn't it dangerous to use religious language?

    這樣不會讓我們的政治顯得 更武斷且自以為是嗎?」

  • Won't that just make our politics even more dogmatic and self-righteous?\"

    但,這個觀點已經假設了 所有的宗教都是狂熱的基要主義。

  • But this view assumes that all religion is fanatical fundamentalism.

    並不是這樣的。

  • It is not.

    宗教也是道德的洞察、

  • Religion is also moral discernment,

    對懷疑的擁抱、

  • an embrace of doubt,

    承諾分離自我,去服務他人、

  • a commitment to detach from self and serve others,

    修復世界的挑戰。

  • a challenge to repair the world.

    就這種意義上來說, 政治是更像宗教一點,

  • In this sense, politics could stand to be a little more like religion,

    而非更不像。

  • not less.

    因此,今天我最後的主題是:

  • Thus, my final topic today:

    為什麼現在公民宗教很重要?

  • why civic religion matters now.

    我想要提出兩個理由。

  • I want to offer two reasons.

    第一,是要對抗 超級個人主義的文化。

  • One is to counter the culture of hyperindividualism.

    我們從每個螢幕 及現代商業界的表面

  • Every message we get from every screen and surface

    所取得的每個訊息

  • of the modern marketplace

    都指出我們每個人 都靠自己,都是自由人,

  • is that each of us is on our own,

    可以自由地管理我們自己的品牌,

  • a free agent,

    自由地住在橋底下,

  • free to manage our own brands,

    自由地打工,

  • free to live under bridges,

    自由地在沒有保險的 情況下孤獨死亡。

  • free to have side hustles,

    市場自由主義告訴我們, 我們是主人,不對誰有任何義務,

  • free to die alone without insurance.

    但接著,它奴役了我們,

  • Market liberalism tells us we are masters beholden to none,

    讓我們處在消費主義 和地位焦慮的嚴重孤立中。

  • but then it enslaves us

    (觀眾)是啊!

  • in the awful isolation of consumerism and status anxiety.

    我們數百萬人現在槓上了這個騙局。

  • (Audience) Yeah!

    現在,我們了解到

  • Millions of us are on to the con now.

    人人自由放任 並不等同大家都有自由。

  • We are realizing now

    (掌聲)

  • that a free-for-all is not the same as freedom for all.

    真正讓我們自由的, 是受到他人的束縛,

  • (Applause)

    有互相的支助和義務,

  • What truly makes us free is being bound to others

    必須要在我們的鄰里和鄉鎮中 盡我們所能解決問題,

  • in mutual aid and obligation,

    彷彿我們的命運交織在一起——

  • having to work things out the best we can in our neighborhoods and towns,

    因為確實如此——

  • as if our fates were entwined --

    彷彿我們不能夠脫離彼此,

  • because they are --

    因為,最終,我們的確不能。

  • as if we could not secede from one another,

    用這種方式束縛我們, 其實是解放了我們。

  • because, in the end, we cannot.

    它呈現出的是我們在尊嚴上的平等。

  • Binding ourselves this way actually liberates us.

    它提醒我們權利都有附帶的責任。

  • It reveals that we are equal in dignity.

    它提醒我們,事實上,

  • It reminds us that rights come with responsibilities.

    妥善了解的權利,就是責任。

  • It reminds us, in fact,

    現在公民宗教 很重要的第二個理由:

  • that rights properly understood are responsibilities.

    它提供的關於我們和他們的 故事,是最健康的。

  • The second reason why civic religion matters now

    現今,我們會談身分認同政治,

  • is that it offers the healthiest possible story of us and them.

    講得好像它是新東西一樣,

  • We talk about identity politics today as if it were something new,

    但並不是。

  • but it's not.

    所有的政治都是身分認同政治,

  • All politics is identity politics,

    永無止境的掙扎, 要定義出誰才是一分子。

  • a never-ending struggle to define who truly belongs.

    不用血統和出生地將一個人 永遠標記為外來者的不良迷思,

  • Instead of noxious myths of blood and soil that mark some as forever outsiders,

    公民宗教提供給每個人的, 是一條歸屬的道路,

  • civic religion offers everyone a path to belonging

    考量的只有通用的信條:

  • based only a universal creed of contribution, participation,

    貢獻、參與、包容。

  • inclusion.

    在公民宗教中,

  • In civic religion, the \"us\" is those who wish to serve,

    「我們」指的是想要服務大家的人,

  • volunteer, vote, listen, learn, empathize, argue better,

    想要自願參與、投票、傾聽、 學習、強調、做更好的立論、

  • circulate power rather than hoard it.

    讓權力循環,而不是聚藏它。

  • The \"them\" is those who don't.

    「他們」指的是不做這些事的人。

  • It is possible to judge the them harshly,

    的確是可以很嚴厲地評斷他們,

  • but it isn't necessary,

    但沒必要這麼做,

  • for at any time, one of them can become one of us,

    因為任何時候,他們之中的人 都有可能變成我們的一員,

  • simply by choosing to live like a citizen.

    只要他們選擇過著 像公民的生活即可。

  • So let's welcome them in.

    所以,讓我們歡迎他們進來。

  • Whitney and Berto and Rafael are gifted welcomers.

    惠妮、柏托,和拉斐爾 都是有才華的歡迎者。

  • Each has a distinctive, locally rooted way

    他們都有深根在當地的獨特方法

  • to make faith in democracy relatable to others.

    讓對民主的信念變成 是大家都可以連結的。

  • Their slang might be Appalachian or South Side or Hawaiian.

    他們可能說著阿巴拉契亞山脈的、 南邊的,或夏威夷的俚語。

  • Their message is the same:

    但他們的訊息是相同的:

  • civic love, civic spirit, civic responsibility.

    公民的愛、公民的精神、 公民的責任。

  • Now you might think that all this civic religion stuff

    現在,各位可能在想, 這些公民宗教的一切

  • is just for overzealous second-generation Americans like me.

    適用對象只是像我這種 過度熱心的第二代美國人。

  • But actually, it is for anyone, anywhere,

    但,事實上,對象是 任何地方的任何人,

  • who wants to kindle the bonds of trust,

    只要想要點燃信任的聯結、

  • affection and joint action

    感情,以及聯合行動,

  • needed to govern ourselves in freedom.

    都是在自由中 管理我們自己必備的。

  • Now maybe Civic Saturdays aren't for you.

    也許公民星期六並不適合你。

  • That's OK.

    那也沒關係。

  • Find your own ways to foster civic habits of the heart.

    找到你自己的方法, 去培養出真心的公民習慣

  • Many forms of beloved civic community are thriving now,

    現在,在這個覺醒的時代,

  • in this age of awakening.

    被深愛的公民社區 以許多形式在茁壯。

  • Groups like Community Organizing Japan,

    像是「日本社區組織」這樣的團體

  • which uses creative performative rituals of storytelling

    採用有創意、表演式的說故事儀式

  • to promote equality for women.

    來推動女性平權。

  • In Iceland, civil confirmations,

    在冰島有「公民堅振禮」儀式,

  • where young people are led by an elder

    一名長者會引領年輕人

  • to learn the history and civic traditions of their society,

    去學習他們社會的 歷史和公民傳統,

  • culminating in a rite-of-passage ceremony

    在類似教堂堅振禮的 人生大事及其慶祝儀式中

  • akin to church confirmation.

    達到最高點。

  • Ben Franklin Circles in the United States,

    在美國的班富蘭克林圈,

  • where friends meet monthly

    朋友每個月會聚會,

  • to discuss and reflect upon the virtues that Franklin codified

    討論和反思富蘭克林

  • in his autobiography,

    編纂在他的自傳中的美德,

  • like justice and gratitude and forgiveness.

    比如正義、感激,以及寬恕。

  • I know civic religion is not enough

    我知道公民宗教不足以

  • to remedy the radical inequities of our age.

    補救我們這個時代的極端不平等。

  • We need power for that.

    我們需要權力才能做到。

  • But power without character is a cure worse than the disease.

    但沒有高尚品德的權力, 是比疾病還要糟糕的解藥。

  • I know civic religion alone can't fix corrupt institutions,

    我知道單靠公民宗教 無法修補腐敗的體制,

  • but institutional reforms without new norms will not last.

    但沒有新規範的 制度改革不會持久。

  • Culture is upstream of law.

    文化是法律的上游。

  • Spirit is upstream of policy.

    精神是政策的上游。

  • The soul is upstream of the state.

    靈魂是國家的上游。

  • We cannot unpollute our politics if we clean only downstream.

    如果我們只清理下游, 無法消除政治中的污染。