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  • Have you ever tried to understand a teenager?

    你曾試著理解青少年嗎?

  • It's exhausting, right?

    很累人,對吧?

  • You must be puzzled by the fact that some teens do well in school,

    你一定感到令人費解吧!有些青少年在校表現傑出,

  • lead clubs and teams

    帶領社團和團隊,

  • and volunteer in their communities,

    並且在自家社區當義工,

  • but they eat Tide Pods for an online challenge,

    但另一方面,卻參加網路瘋傳的吞食汰漬洗衣膠囊挑戰,

  • speed and text while driving,

    開車時邊催油門邊傳訊息,

  • binge drink and experiment with illicit drugs.

    嘗試瘋狂飲酒和禁藥試驗。

  • How can so many teens be so smart, skilled and responsible --

    怎麼會有這麼多青少年如此聰明、品學兼優又有責任心,

  • and careless risk-takers at the same time?

    同時卻也是個不顧後果的冒險青年呢?

  • When I was 16,

    我 16 歲時,

  • while frequently observing my peers in person

    經常親自觀察我的同學,

  • as well as on social media,

    在社群媒體上也是,

  • I began to wonder why so many teens took such crazy risks.

    我開始猜想為何有這麼多的青少年
冒著如此瘋狂的風險,

  • It seems like getting a certificate from DARE class in the fifth grade

    這樣的行為看起來就像是在 5 年級的大膽課得到認證一樣,

  • can't stop them.

    沒人阻止得了他們。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • What was even more alarming to me

    更讓我感到擔憂的是

  • was that the more they exposed themselves to these harmful risks,

    他們越是嘗試這些傷害性的冒險,

  • the easier it became for them to continue taking risks.

    他們就越是容易不斷地冒險。

  • Now this confused me,

    這件事讓我覺得困惑,

  • but it also made me incredibly curious.

    但我也對此感到無比好奇。

  • So, as someone with a name

    所以就如同我的名字,

  • that literally means "to explore knowledge,"

    字面的意思是「開拓知識」,

  • I started searching for a scientific explanation.

    我開始為此尋找一個科學解釋。

  • Now, it's no secret that teens ages 13 to 18

    大家都知道 13 到 18 歲的青少年,

  • are more prone to risk-taking than children or adults,

    比小孩或成人更容易有冒險的傾向,

  • but what makes them so daring?

    但他們為什麼這麼大膽呢?

  • Do they suddenly become reckless,

    他們是突然就變得魯莽嗎?

  • or is this just a natural phase that they're going through?

    或是這只是一個他們必經且自然的成長階段?

  • Well neuroscientists have already found evidence

    神經科學家已經找到證據了。

  • that the teen brain is still in the process of maturation --

    證據顯示青少年時期的大腦仍處於成熟中的階段,

  • and that this makes them exceptionally poor at decision-making,

    所以他們在做決定時的判斷力相當的差,

  • causing them to fall prey to risky behaviors.

    讓他們深受冒險行為之苦。

  • But in that case, if the maturing brain is to blame,

    但既然如此,如果罪魁禍首是成熟中的大腦,

  • then why are teens more vulnerable than children,

    那麼為什麼青少年卻比孩童更加脆弱呢?

  • even though their brains are more developed than those of children?

    即使和孩童相比,青少年大腦發展得更完全但卻更脆弱呢?

  • Also, not all teens in the world take risks at the same level.

    另外,並非世界上所有的青少年都
冒著一樣大的風險。

  • Are there some other underlying or unintentional causes

    這其中是否還有其他內在或無意識的起因

  • driving them to risk-taking?

    導致他們冒險?

  • Well, this is exactly what I decided to research.

    這正是我決定要研究的原因。

  • So, I founded my research on the basis of a psychological process

    我的研究以心理學的歷程為基礎,

  • known as "habituation,"

    就是所謂的「習慣化」,

  • or simply what we refer to as "getting used to it."

    或是我們一般簡單地稱為「適應」。

  • Habituation explains how our brains adapt to some behaviors,

    習慣化指的是我們的大腦如何去適應一些行為,

  • like lying, with repeated exposures.

    像是反覆地編織謊言。

  • And this concept inspired me to design a project

    而這個概念讓我有了設計一個計畫的靈感,

  • to determine if the same principle

    這個計畫的目的是確認相同的原理是否

  • could be applied to the relentless rise of risk-taking in teenagers.

    也能應用在冒險人數不斷增加的青少年身上。

  • So I predicted that habituation to risk-taking

    所以我的預測是,就以冒險行為來說,習慣性

  • may have the potential to change the already-vulnerable teenage brain

    可能改變那些已經很脆弱的青少年大腦,

  • by blunting or even eradicating

    藉由減弱或甚至消滅

  • the negative emotions associated with risk,

    和風險有關的負面情緒,

  • like fear or guilt.

    像是恐懼或罪惡感。

  • I also thought because they would feel less fearful and guilty,

    我還認為既然他們覺得比較不害怕和比較沒有罪惡感,

  • this desensitization would lead them to even more risk-taking.

    那麼這個減敏感法會讓他們變本加厲地去冒險。

  • In short, I wanted to conduct a research study

    簡而言之,我想要進行一個研究調查, 


  • to answer one big question:

    藉此回答一個大問題:

  • Why do teens keep making outrageous choices

    為什麼青少年不斷的做出猖狂的選擇,

  • that are harmful to their health and well-being?

    不斷做出不利於他們的健康和美好人生的選擇呢?

  • But there was one big obstacle in my way.

    但我的實驗面臨一個巨大的阻礙。

  • To investigate this problem,

    為了調查這個問題,

  • I needed teenagers to experiment on,

    我需要青少年當作實驗對象,

  • laboratories and devices to measure their brain activity,

    我需要實驗室和器材才能量測他們的腦部活動,

  • and teachers or professors to supervise me and guide me along the way.

    還需要老師或教授在各個環節指導我和引導我。

  • I needed resources.

    我需要資源。

  • But, you see, I attended a high school in South Dakota

    但是,我讀的是一所位於南達科他州的高中,

  • with limited opportunity for scientific exploration.

    在這裡進行科學試驗的機會有限。

  • My school had athletics,

    我的學校有運動社團、

  • band, choir, debate and other clubs,

    樂團、合唱團、辯論社和其他社團,

  • but there were no STEM programs or research mentors.

    但就是沒有 STEM 教育學程或研究導師。

  • And the notion of high schoolers

    而且高中生普遍認為,

  • doing research or participating in a science fair was completely foreign.

    做研究或參加科展的人根本是異類。

  • Simply put, I didn't exactly have the ingredients

    簡單的說,我擁有的食材無法

  • to make a chef-worthy dish.

    做出一道主廚料理。

  • And these obstacles were frustrating,

    而且這些阻礙真令人沮喪,

  • but I was also a stubborn teenager.

    但我就是一個倔強的青少女。

  • And as the daughter of Bangladeshi immigrants

    身為孟加拉移民的女兒,

  • and one of just a handful of Muslim students

    再加上我是少數穆斯林學生的一份子,

  • in my high school in South Dakota,

    在我位於南達科他州的高中裡,

  • I often struggled to fit in.

    為了融入大家我時常得經過一番努力。

  • And I wanted to be someone with something to contribute to society,

    而且我想要成為一個能夠對社會有貢獻的人,

  • not just be deemed the scarf-wearing brown girl

    我不要只被視為一個包著頭巾的褐皮膚女孩,

  • who was an anomaly in my homogenous hometown.

    在我同文同種的家鄉,我被當成是不正常的人。

  • I hoped that by doing this research,

    我希望藉由這個研究,

  • I could establish this

    我可以得到認可

  • and how valuable scientific exploration could be for kids like me

    且證明科學探索對像我一樣的小孩來說有多麽重要,

  • who didn't necessarily find their niche elsewhere.

    我們不需要去別處找尋自己的人生定位。 


  • So with limited research opportunities,

    在有限的研究機會之下,

  • inventiveness allowed me to overcome seemingly impossible obstacles.

    創造力讓我克服那些看似不可能越過的阻礙。

  • I became more creative in working with a variety of methodologies,

    我變得更有創意,像是運用各種方法論、

  • materials and subjects.

    材料和實驗對象。

  • I transformed my unassuming school library

    我將不起眼的學校圖書館改造成

  • into a laboratory

    一間實驗室

  • and my peers into lab rats.

    我讓同學當白老鼠。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • My enthusiastic geography teacher,

    我充滿熱忱的地理老師,

  • who also happens to be my school's football coach,

    剛好是我學校的足球教練,

  • ended up as my cheerleader,

    結果變成我的啦啦隊長,

  • becoming my mentor to sign necessary paperwork.

    成為我的導師簽署必要文件。

  • And when it became logistically impossible

    而且邏輯上不可能的事情是

  • to use a laboratory electroencephalography,

    使用一個實驗室的腦電圖,

  • or EEG,

    又稱為 EEG,

  • which are those electrode devices used to measure emotional responses,

    利用電極設備用來測量情緒反應,

  • I bought a portable EEG headset with my own money,

    我自掏腰包買了一個攜帶式的腦電圖頭套,

  • instead of buying the new iPhone X

    而不是把錢拿去買最新的 iPhone X,

  • that a lot of kids my age were saving up for.

    許多跟我一樣大的青少年存錢就是為了買這隻手機。

  • So finally I started the research

    最後我終於開始我的研究,

  • with 86 students, ages 13 to 18, from my high school.

    總共有 86 位年紀介於 13 到 18 歲的同校學生參加實驗。

  • Using the computer cubicles in my school library,

    我在學校圖書館裡的電腦隔間做實驗,

  • I had them complete a computerized decision-making simulation

    我請他們完成一個電腦決策的模擬試驗,

  • to measure their risk-taking behaviors comparable to ones in the real world,

    利用模擬試驗,量測他們的冒險行為和真實行為相比較,

  • like alcohol use, drug use and gambling.

    像是、飲酒、吸毒和賭博。

  • Wearing the EEG headset,

    他們帶著腦電圖的頭套,

  • the students completed the test 12 times over three days

    這些學生在 3 天內,完成了 12 次的試驗,

  • to mimic repeated risk exposures.

    模仿重複的冒險行為。

  • A control panel on the EEG headset

    腦電圖頭套上有一個控制版,

  • measured their various emotional responses:

    用來測量他們不同的情緒反應,

  • like attention, interest, excitement, frustration,

    例如專注力、興趣、興奮、沮喪

  • guilt, stress levels and relaxation.

    罪惡感、壓力程度和放鬆度。

  • They also rated their emotions

    這些受試者也將自己的情緒分級,

  • on well-validated emotion-measuring scales.

    他們用充分驗證的情緒測量表分級。

  • This meant that I had measured the process of habituation

    這代表我已經量測了習慣化的過程,

  • and its effects on decision-making.

    以及它對決策的影響。

  • And it took 29 days to complete this research.

    整個研究花了 29 天完成。

  • And with months of frantically drafting proposals,

    花了好幾個月的時間,匆忙地草擬提案,

  • meticulously computing data in a caffeinated daze at 2am,

    在凌晨 2 點,灌了咖啡因的恍惚狀態下,細心謹慎地推算資料,

  • I was able to finalize my results.

    我終於可以下結論了。

  • And the results showed that habituation to risk-taking

    研究結果顯示,以冒險來說,習慣化

  • could actually change a teen's brain by altering their emotional levels,

    的確可以改變青少年的大腦,只要改變他們的情緒分級,

  • causing greater risk-taking.

    和製造更大的風險就可行。

  • The students' emotions that were normally associated with risks,

    學生的情緒通常和風險相關,

  • like fear, stress, guilt and nervousness,

    像是恐懼、壓力、罪惡感和緊張,

  • as well as attention,

    以及專注力,

  • were high when they were first exposed to the risk simulator.

    他們第一次做風險模擬試驗時,這些情緒都很高漲。 


  • This curbed their temptations and enforced self-control,

    這個試驗抑止了他們的情緒且加強了自我掌控的能力,

  • which prevented them from taking more risks.

    也因此能阻止他們冒更多的風險。

  • However, the more they were exposed to the risks through the simulator,

    然而,他們透過模擬器做了越多次的冒險行為測試,

  • the less fearful, guilty and stressed they became.

    他們就變得越不害怕、不覺得有罪惡感和壓力。

  • This caused a situation

    這導致了一種情況,

  • in which they were no longer able to feel

    也就是他們再也無法感知,

  • the brain's natural fear and caution instincts.

    大腦自然產生的恐懼和警覺的本能。

  • And also, because they are teenagers and their brains are still underdeveloped,

    而且正因為他們是青少年且他們的大腦仍未發育完全,

  • they became more interested and excited in thrill-seeking behaviors.

    所以他們變得對於追求刺激感的行為更加感興趣和興奮。

  • So what were the consequences?

    那麼後果是什麼呢?

  • They lacked self-control for logical decision-making,

    對於有邏輯的做決策他們缺乏自我控制,

  • took greater risks

    他們會冒更大的風險

  • and made more harmful choices.

    且做更多會造成傷害的選擇。

  • So the developing brain alone isn't to blame.

    所以我們不能錯怪了發展中的大腦。

  • The process of habituation also plays a key role in risk-taking

    在冒險行為中,習慣化的過程也扮演著重要的角色,

  • and risk escalation.

    且在風險增加中也是如此。

  • Although a teen's willingness to seek risk

    儘管青少年會主動冒險,

  • is largely a result of the structural and functional changes

    很大的原因是因為結構及功能的改變,

  • associated with their developing brains,

    這些改變和他們發育中的大腦相關,

  • the dangerous part that my research was able to highlight

    我的研究中要強調的危險部分,

  • was that a habituation to risks

    指的是對於風險來說,習慣化

  • can actually physically change a teen's brain

    的確可以實質上改變青少年的大腦,

  • and cause greater risk-taking.

    且讓他們冒更大的風險。

  • So it's the combination of the immature teen brain

    所以青少年愛冒險是因為,尚未成熟的青少年大腦,

  • and the impact of habituation

    加上習慣化的影響。

  • that is like a perfect storm to create more damaging effects.

    這就像一個完美的暴風結構,將帶來更多會造成傷害的後果。

  • And this research can help parents and the general public

    這份研究能夠幫助家長和大眾,

  • understand that teens aren't just willfully ignoring warnings

    了解青少年並不是故意要忽略警告,

  • or simply defying parents by engaging in increasingly more dangerous behavior.

    也不是故意做出更加危險的行為就只是要和父母做對。

  • The biggest hurdle they're facing is their habituation to risks:

    青少年面對最大的阻礙是他們對於冒險的習慣化,

  • all the physical, detectable and emotional functional changes

    所有實質且可檢測的情緒功能的改變,

  • that drive and control and influence their over-the-top risk-taking.

    這驅使、控制和影響了他們,而去過分冒險。

  • So yes, we need policies that provide safer environments

    所以沒錯,我們需要的政策不僅要能夠提供更安全的環境,

  • and limit exposures to high risks,

    且限制高風險情況發生,

  • but we also need policies that reflect this insight.

    我們需要的政策也要能反映此見解。

  • These results are a wake-up call for teens, too.

    這些研究結果對於青少年來說也是一種警醒。

  • It shows them that the natural and necessary fear and guilt

    這讓他們知道,自然產生的恐懼和罪惡感是不可或缺的,

  • that protect them from unsafe situations

    因為那些情緒可以保護他們遠離不安全的情況。

  • actually become numb when they repeatedly choose risky behaviors.

    但當他們不斷做出冒險行為時,就察覺不到這些情緒了。

  • So with this hope to share my findings with fellow teenagers and scientists,

    我希望和青少年和科學家分享我的發現,

  • I took my research

    所以我帶著我的研究,

  • to the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, or ISEF,

    參加英特爾國際科技展覽會,簡稱 ISEF,

  • a culmination of over 1,800 students

    這個科展超過 1800 位學生參加,

  • from 75 countries, regions and territories,

    他們分別來自 75 個國家、區域和領土,

  • who showcase their cutting-edge research and inventions.

    發表了他們最頂尖且最先進的研究和發明。

  • It's like the Olympics of science fair.

    這就像是自然科學展的奧林匹克。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • There, I was able to present my research to experts in neuroscience and psychology

    在那裡,我將我的研究呈現給神經科學及心理學領域的專家們看,

  • and garner valuable feedback.

    且得到珍貴的建言。

  • But perhaps the most memorable moment of the week

    但也許那個禮拜最值得紀念的時刻,

  • was when the booming speakers suddenly uttered my name

    是講者的嘴巴突然蹦出了我的名字,

  • during the awards ceremony.

    就在頒獎典禮進行中。

  • I was in such disbelief that I questioned myself:

    我當時不敢相信,我甚至問了自己,

  • Was this just another \"La La Land\" blunder

    不會是誤唸了我的名字,就像電影《樂來越愛你》一樣,

  • like at the Oscars?

    在奧斯卡頒獎典禮上被唸錯了吧?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Luckily, it wasn't.

    很幸運地,這是真的!

  • I really had won first place

    我真的得到第一名!

  • in the category \"Behavioral and Social Sciences.\"

    我是行為及社會科學類的第一名。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Needless to say,

    更不用說,

  • I was not only thrilled to have this recognition,

    我不僅僅是超開心能夠獲得此殊榮,

  • but also the whole experience of science fair that validated my efforts

    而且我也很開心參加科展驗證了我的努力,

  • keeps my curiosity alive

    讓我的好奇心不滅。

  • and strengthens my creativity,

    且為我的創造力注入滿滿能量,

  • perseverance and imagination.

    鞏固我的毅力和豐富我的想像力。

  • This still image of me experimenting in my school library

    這是我在學校圖書館做實驗的照片,

  • may seem ordinary,

    看似普通,

  • but to me, it represents a sort of inspiration.

    但對我來說,這張照片代表一種靈感。

  • It reminds me that this process taught me to take risks.

    這張照片提醒我,實驗的過程教導我要勇於冒險。

  • And I know that might sound incredibly ironic.

    我知道這句話聽起來非常諷刺。

  • But I took risks realizing

    但正因為我冒了這個險,我才發現,

  • that unforeseen opportunities often come from risk-taking --

    預料之外的機會,通常會因冒險而出現,

  • not the hazardous, negative type that I studied,

    我說的並非是我研究的那種,有危險且負面的冒險,

  • but the good ones,

    我說的是正向的冒險,

  • the positive risks.

    正面的冒險。

  • The more risks I took,

    我越是冒險,

  • the more capable I felt of withstanding my unconventional circumstances,

    就越是覺得,自己能夠禁得起我那非傳統的情況,

  • leading to more tolerance, resilience and patience

    讓我更能容忍、更有韌性和耐心,

  • for completing my project.

    去完成我的計畫。

  • And these lessons have led me to new ideas

    而且這些經驗讓我找到新的點子,

  • like: Is the opposite of negative risk-taking also true?

    例如:負面冒險行為的相反也適用嗎?

  • Can positive risk-taking escalate with repeated exposures?

    藉由重複的正面冒險,能夠加強正面的冒險行為嗎?

  • Does positive action build positive brain functioning?

    正面行為能夠樹立正向的腦部運作嗎?

  • I think I just might have my next research idea.

    我想我可能正好找到,我下一個研究主題了。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Have you ever tried to understand a teenager?

你曾試著理解青少年嗎?

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 行為 大腦 研究 風險 試驗

【TED】卡什菲亞-拉赫曼:冒險如何改變青少年的大腦(冒險如何改變青少年的大腦|卡什菲亞-拉赫曼)。 (【TED】Kashfia Rahman: How risk-taking changes a teenager's brain (How risk-taking changes a teenager's brain | Kashfia Rahman))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字