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  • Just a few minutes ago, I took this picture

    在幾分鐘之前,我照了這張相片

  • about 10 blocks from here.

    距離這裡有十個街區。

  • This is the Grand Cafe here in Oxford.

    這是牛津的「偉人咖啡館」。

  • I took this picture because this turns out to be

    我為它照相的原因是那裡原本

  • the first coffeehouse to open

    是全英格蘭第一家咖啡館,

  • in England in 1650.

    開幕於 1650 年。

  • That's its great claim to fame,

    這造就了它的廣大名氣。

  • and I wanted to show it to you,

    而我要說它的故事,

  • not because I want to give you the kind of Starbucks tour

    不是因為要帶你們進行一場老英格蘭的

  • of historic England,

    星巴克之旅,

  • but rather because

    而是因為

  • the English coffeehouse was crucial

    英國的咖啡館是

  • to the development and spread

    知識發展的重要關鍵,

  • of one of the great intellectual flowerings of the last 500 years,

    過去五百年間,偉大知識在此茁壯,

  • what we now call the Enlightenment.

    今日我們稱此為「啟蒙時代」。

  • And the coffeehouse played such a big role

    而咖啡館就在啟蒙運動萌芽期間

  • in the birth of the Enlightenment,

    扮演一個非常重要的角色,

  • in part, because of what people were drinking there.

    有部份是因為人們都會聚集在這裡用餐飲。

  • Because, before the spread

    因為在咖啡與茶

  • of coffee and tea through British culture,

    普遍英國文化之前,

  • what people drank -- both elite and mass folks drank --

    人們 —— 不論精英還是平民 ——

  • day-in and day-out, from dawn until dusk

    從早晨到黃昏,從日出到日落,

  • was alcohol.

    都是喝酒的。

  • Alcohol was the daytime beverage of choice.

    酒精是屬於白天的飲品。

  • You would drink a little beer with breakfast and have a little wine at lunch,

    你會以一點啤酒配早餐,紅酒配午餐,

  • a little gin -- particularly around 1650 --

    而少量琴酒 —— 特別在 1650 年代,

  • and top it off with a little beer and wine at the end of the day.

    將此混合一點啤酒及紅酒是一天結束時的飲品。

  • That was the healthy choice -- right --

    在那個時候算是個健康的選擇,沒錯,

  • because the water wasn't safe to drink.

    因為當時的水質太差而不適飲用。

  • And so, effectively until the rise of the coffeehouse,

    而實際上,咖啡館興起的時候,

  • you had an entire population

    幾乎所有人

  • that was effectively drunk all day.

    都願意整天在那裡灌咖啡。

  • And you can imagine what that would be like, right, in your own life --

    而你能想像那是什麼樣子,對,在你的生活中 ——

  • and I know this is true of some of you --

    我知道你們有些人真的就是這樣 ——

  • if you were drinking all day,

    如果你整天在咖啡館暢飲,

  • and then you switched from a depressant to a stimulant in your life,

    你的日子會一直在沉靜和興奮之間轉換,

  • you would have better ideas.

    你就會有好靈感。

  • You would be sharper and more alert.

    你的思考會更為清晰警覺。

  • And so it's not an accident that a great flowering of innovation happened

    所以完全不意外地,思想的大綻放是基於

  • as England switched to tea and coffee.

    茶和咖啡飲品開始盛行於英格蘭。

  • But the other thing that makes the coffeehouse important

    而讓咖啡館佔有重要地位的要素還有

  • is the architecture of the space.

    建築的空間。

  • It was a space where people would get together

    咖啡館是個讓不同背景的人們

  • from different backgrounds,

    聚集在一起的空間,

  • different fields of expertise, and share.

    大家會分享不同領域的知識。

  • It was a space, as Matt Ridley talked about, where ideas could have sex.

    這是一個空間,就像 Matt Ridley 說的那樣,思想交配的地方。

  • This was their conjugal bed, in a sense --

    某方面來說,咖啡館就是思想的洞房。

  • ideas would get together there.

    各方的思想會在此交合。

  • And an astonishing number of innovations from this period

    而這時期的創新達到一個驚人的數量,

  • have a coffeehouse somewhere in their story.

    正因為人們的生活有一家咖啡館。

  • I've been spending a lot of time thinking about coffeehouses

    最近五年,我不斷思索關於咖啡館

  • for the last five years,

    的種種事聞,

  • because I've been kind of on this quest

    因為我一直在探討

  • to investigate this question

    這樣一個問題:

  • of where good ideas come from.

    偉大思想是怎麼誕生的。

  • What are the environments

    什麼樣的環境

  • that lead to unusual levels of innovation,

    能引發革新及創造力

  • unusual levels of creativity?

    至非凡的境界?

  • What's the kind of environmental --

    這樣的環境會有什麼要素 ——

  • what is the space of creativity?

    簡言之,什麼是有創造力的空間?

  • And what I've done is

    而我的作法是

  • I've looked at both environments like the coffeehouse;

    觀察像咖啡館那樣的環境;

  • I've looked at media environments, like the world wide web,

    有引發爆炸性革新的媒體環境,

  • that have been extraordinarily innovative;

    像全球資訊網。

  • I've gone back to the history of the first cities;

    我回到城市最初發展史;

  • I've even gone to biological environments,

    我還去了生物的環境,

  • like coral reefs and rainforests,

    如珊瑚礁及熱帶雨林,

  • that involve unusual levels of biological innovation;

    它們在生物學的創新表現也相當不凡。

  • and what I've been looking for is shared patterns,

    我一直尋找的是他們共同的模式,

  • kind of signature behavior that shows up

    這些環境重複顯現的,

  • again and again in all of these environments.

    標誌性的特徵。

  • Are there recurring patterns that we can learn from,

    是否有一種我們可以借鑒的模式

  • that we can take and kind of apply to our own lives,

    讓我們採用來改善人類全體的生活,

  • or our own organizations,

    或是組織,

  • or our own environments to make them more creative and innovative?

    或是讓我們的環境更加創意及新穎?

  • And I think I've found a few.

    我覺得我已經發現了幾個。

  • But what you have to do to make sense of this

    但你必須釐清這種創新模式,

  • and to really understand these principles

    而且,如果要真正瞭解這些原則,

  • is you have to do away

    你得避免循著傳統模式走,

  • with a lot of the way in which our conventional metaphors and language

    包括我們習慣的隱喻以及語言,

  • steers us towards

    傳統模式一直限制著

  • certain concepts of idea-creation.

    我們現今對於「創意」的概念。

  • We have this very rich vocabulary

    我們有非常多的詞彙

  • to describe moments of inspiration.

    來形容瞬間的靈感。

  • We have the kind of the flash of insight,

    例如「靈光一閃」、

  • the stroke of insight,

    「當頭棒喝」,

  • we have epiphanies, we have "eureka!" moments,

    有「頓悟」,也有 "Eureka!" (大發現),

  • we have the lightbulb moments, right?

    我們還會以發亮的燈泡形容靈感,對吧?

  • All of these concepts,

    這些概念,

  • as kind of rhetorically florid as they are,

    戴著華麗修辭形式,

  • share this basic assumption,

    都表達出一個基本設想,

  • which is that an idea is a single thing,

    一個思想,是獨立的事物,

  • it's something that happens often

    這種事總是會在

  • in a wonderful illuminating moment.

    神奇的啟蒙時刻來臨。

  • But in fact, what I would argue and what you really need to kind of begin with

    但實際上,我會主張,而且是你應該先知道的 ——

  • is this idea that an idea is a network

    一個思想就是一個網路,

  • on the most elemental level.

    在最基本的概念上是如此。

  • I mean, this is what is happening inside your brain.

    我的意思是,靈感是你大腦內發生的事。

  • An idea -- a new idea -- is a new network of neurons

    一個新思想就是神經元建立的新網路,

  • firing in sync with each other inside your brain.

    你大腦內的神經元會互相同步反應。

  • It's a new configuration that has never formed before.

    這是一個前所未有的新結構。

  • And the question is: how do you get your brain into environments

    而關鍵的問題是:如何讓你的大腦進入

  • where these new networks are going to be more likely to form?

    更容易形成新網路的環境?

  • And it turns out that, in fact, the kind of network patterns of the outside world

    而事實證明,這種對外網路的模式

  • mimic a lot of the network patterns

    模仿很多

  • of the internal world of the human brain.

    人類心智的網路模式。

  • So the metaphor I'd like the use

    所以我想以此來比喻

  • I can take

    它是來自

  • from a story of a great idea that's quite recent --

    一個偉大想法的故事,相當現代 ——

  • a lot more recent than the 1650s.

    比 1650 年代來講現代很多。

  • A wonderful guy named Timothy Prestero,

    有個超棒的夥伴叫 Timothy Prestero,

  • who has a company called ... an organization called Design That Matters.

    有家公司,或是說組織,叫做 "Design that Matters" (切實的設計)。

  • They decided to tackle this really pressing problem

    他們決定解決一個迫切的問題,

  • of, you know, the terrible problems we have with infant mortality rates

    像是開發中國家面對的糟糕問題:

  • in the developing world.

    嬰兒死亡率。

  • One of the things that's very frustrating about this is that we know,

    其中一件令人沮喪的事,我們知道

  • by getting modern neonatal incubators

    透過現代的嬰兒保育器

  • into any context,

    在任何情況下,

  • if we can keep premature babies warm, basically -- it's very simple --

    基本上只要為早產兒做好保暖措施 —— 這很簡單 ——

  • we can halve infant mortality rates in those environments.

    我們就能在相同環境下,減少一半的嬰兒死亡率。

  • So, the technology is there.

    所以,就是這個技術,

  • These are standard in all the industrialized worlds.

    這個技術是已開發國家的標準設施。

  • The problem is, if you buy a $40,000 incubator,

    問題是,如果你買個四萬美元的保育器,

  • and you send it off

    把它送到非洲

  • to a mid-sized village in Africa,

    的一個中等規模的村落,

  • it will work great for a year or two years,

    它會良好運作一至兩年

  • and then something will go wrong and it will break,

    然後會故障、失修,

  • and it will remain broken forever,

    再也不堪使用。

  • because you don't have a whole system of spare parts,

    因為缺乏整個系統的備件,

  • and you don't have the on-the-ground expertise

    也沒有在地的專家

  • to fix this $40,000 piece of equipment.

    來維修這四萬美元的設備。

  • And so you end up having this problem where you spend all this money

    所以最後會有這個問題:援助基金用來

  • getting aid and all these advanced electronics to these countries,

    資助這些先進電子產品到開發中國家,

  • and then it ends up being useless.

    到頭來完全派不上用場。

  • So what Prestero and his team decided to do

    所以 Prestero 以及他的團隊決定這麼做,

  • is to look around and see: what are the abundant resources

    他們觀察周圍環境:在這些開發中國家

  • in these developing world contexts?

    有什麼豐富的資源?

  • And what they noticed was they don't have a lot of DVRs,

    他們發現這些地方沒有什麼錄影機,

  • they don't have a lot of microwaves,

    也沒有微波爐,

  • but they seem to do a pretty good job of keeping their cars on the road.

    但那裡的汽車,似乎運作得還不錯。

  • There's a Toyota Forerunner

    豐田 "Forerunner" SUV 車

  • on the street in all these places.

    在這些地方很普遍。

  • They seem to have the expertise to keep cars working.

    當地的人們看來是有一定水準的汽車保養知識。

  • So they started to think,

    所以他們開始構想,

  • "Could we build a neonatal incubator

    「我們能做出一種完全

  • that's built entirely out of automobile parts?"

    由汽車零件所組成的保育器嗎?」

  • And this is what they ended up coming with.

    而這是他們最後的成品。

  • It's called a "neonurture device."

    這叫「新型保育設備」。

  • From the outside, it looks like a normal little thing

    外表看來像是你會在

  • you'd find in a modern, Western hospital.

    歐美的現代醫院看到的設備。

  • In the inside, it's all car parts.

    而裡面全都是汽車零件。

  • It's got a fan, it's got headlights for warmth,

    它有風扇、保暖用的頂燈,

  • it's got door chimes for alarm --

    還有開門警示鈴。

  • it runs off a car battery.

    它的動力是汽車蓄電池。

  • And so all you need is the spare parts from your Toyota

    因此你只需要豐田的備件

  • and the ability to fix a headlight,

    就能夠修理它的頂燈

  • and you can repair this thing.

    以及保養整個機器。

  • Now, that's a great idea, but what I'd like to say is that, in fact,

    對,這是個很棒的點子。但我要說,事實上,

  • this is a great metaphor for the way that ideas happen.

    這個點子本身也是一個很好的比方。

  • We like to think our breakthrough ideas, you know,

    我們喜歡有突破性的想法,你知道,

  • are like that $40,000, brand new incubator,

    就像四萬美元的全新款保育器,

  • state-of-the-art technology,

    全國最先進的技術,

  • but more often than not, they're cobbled together

    但更多的想法則是從周圍的事物

  • from whatever parts that happen to be around nearby.

    擷取一小部份後,拼湊起來的。

  • We take ideas from other people,

    我們汲取他人的思想,

  • from people we've learned from, from people we run into in the coffee shop,

    從我們的老師,或是在咖啡店交談的朋友們,

  • and we stitch them together into new forms and we create something new.

    而我們將這些小零件融合出一個新形式,創造新的事物。

  • That's really where innovation happens.

    這就是創新的由來。

  • And that means that we have to change some of our models

    這代表我們必須改變對「創新」的既定概念

  • of what innovation and deep thinking really looks like, right.

    以及深思創新的本質,沒錯。

  • I mean, this is one vision of it.

    現在我們有一個例子。

  • Another is Newton and the apple, when Newton was at Cambridge.

    另一個是牛頓,以及在劍橋那棵蘋果樹。

  • This is a statue from Oxford.

    這是位於牛津的牛頓像。

  • You know, you're sitting there thinking a deep thought,

    你知道,你坐在那裡進行沉思,

  • and the apple falls from the tree, and you have the theory of gravity.

    然後一顆蘋果從樹上掉下來,你就發現地心引力了。

  • In fact, the spaces that have historically led to innovation

    事實上,這歷史性的創新發源地

  • tend to look like this, right.

    會看起來像這樣,沒錯。

  • This is Hogarth's famous painting of a kind of political dinner at a tavern,

    這是威廉·賀加斯的名畫,主題是酒館內的政治應酬,

  • but this is what the coffee shops looked like back then.

    但這表現了當時咖啡館的樣貌。

  • This is the kind of chaotic environment

    這是一種混雜的環境,

  • where ideas were likely to come together,

    讓各方想法聚集一堂,

  • where people were likely to have

    在此聚集的人們會有

  • new, interesting, unpredictable collisions -- people from different backgrounds.

    新穎、有趣、不可預測的交流 —— 來自不同背景。

  • So, if we're trying to build organizations that are more innovative,

    所以,如果我們試著建立具有創意的組織,

  • we have to build spaces that -- strangely enough -- look a little bit more like this.

    我們需要多一點像這酒館一樣的空間,很怪沒錯。

  • This is what your office should look like,

    你們的辦公室也該是這樣,

  • is part of my message here.

    這是我想表達的意思之一。

  • And one of the problems with this is that

    而對於此,其中一個問題是

  • people are actually -- when you research this field --

    人們實際上 —— 當你研究這個領域就會發現 ——

  • people are notoriously unreliable,

    人是非常不可靠的,

  • when they actually kind of self-report

    當他們自己表述

  • on where they have their own good ideas,

    在哪裡產生好點子,

  • or their history of their best ideas.

    或是他們偉大思想的故事時,尤其是如此。

  • And a few years ago, a wonderful researcher named Kevin Dunbar

    而在幾年前,一個很優秀的研究者 Kevin Dunbar,

  • decided to go around

    決定出去走走,

  • and basically do the Big Brother approach

    他決定用老大哥(小說《1984》中的獨裁人物)的方法

  • to figuring out where good ideas come from.

    來找出最好的思想是如何誕生的。

  • He went to a bunch of science labs around the world

    他走訪世界各地的科學實驗室,

  • and videotaped everyone

    並且錄影實驗室成員

  • as they were doing every little bit of their job.

    的工作細節。

  • So when they were sitting in front of the microscope,

    所以,當實驗室成員使用顯微鏡時,

  • when they were talking to their colleague at the water cooler, and all these things.

    或是和同事談論水冷卻器時,以至於全部的工作,

  • And he recorded all of these conversations

    他都錄下了對話,

  • and tried to figure out where the most important ideas,

    並試著找出最重要的想法

  • where they happened.

    發生的那一刻。

  • And when we think about the classic image of the scientist in the lab,

    當我們想像實驗室科學家的傳統形象時,

  • we have this image -- you know, they're pouring over the microscope,

    我們就會想到,科學家守著顯微鏡,

  • and they see something in the tissue sample.

    並觀察組織樣本內的細節。

  • And "oh, eureka," they've got the idea.

    然後,「喔,我發現了!」靈光一現。

  • What happened actually when Dunbar kind of looked at the tape

    實際上,Dunbar 在錄影帶中發現的

  • is that, in fact, almost all of the important breakthrough ideas

    是這樣,幾乎所有重大突破的靈感

  • did not happen alone in the lab, in front of the microscope.

    並不是在實驗室中、顯微鏡前誕生的。

  • They happened at the conference table

    靈感都是誕生在

  • at the weekly lab meeting,

    實驗室每週的會議中,

  • when everybody got together and shared their kind of latest data and findings,

    當大家聚在一起,並分享他們最新的資料以及發現時,

  • oftentimes when people shared the mistakes they were having,

    時常也會有人報告他們的錯誤、

  • the error, the noise in the signal they were discovering.

    故障,他們發現的狀況。

  • And something about that environment --

    還有一些和環境有關的事,

  • and I've started calling it the "liquid network,"

    而我稱它為「液態網路」,

  • where you have lots of different ideas that are together,

    聚集各方思想的網路,

  • different backgrounds, different interests,

    各色的背景,各色的志趣,

  • jostling with each other, bouncing off each other --

    互相衝撞,互相對映 ——

  • that environment is, in fact,

    這種環境,事實上

  • the environment that leads to innovation.

    就是引發創新的最佳環境。

  • The other problem that people have

    另外一個問題是,人們傾向於

  • is they like to condense their stories of innovation down

    將他們的創新故事濃縮到

  • to kind of shorter time frames.

    較短的時間範圍。

  • So they want to tell the story of the "eureka!" moment.

    所以他們要說明自己的發現時,

  • They want to say, "There I was, I was standing there

    他們會想說「我只是在站在那裡,

  • and I had it all suddenly clear in my head."

    然後我就瞭解了。」

  • But in fact, if you go back and look at the historical record,

    但實際上,如果你回朔過往的紀錄,

  • it turns out that a lot of important ideas

    會發現,許多重要的思想

  • have very long incubation periods --

    都是潛藏很久之後才誕生的。

  • I call this the "slow hunch."

    我稱之為「慢預感」。

  • We've heard a lot recently

    我們已經知道最近有很多

  • about hunch and instinct

    關於預感和直覺

  • and blink-like sudden moments of clarity,

    在眨眼間突然清晰的例子。

  • but in fact, a lot of great ideas

    但實際上,大多偉大思想

  • linger on, sometimes for decades,

    都輾轉在人們的心智中,

  • in the back of people's minds.

    有時會長達數十年。

  • They have a feeling that there's an interesting problem,

    當有趣的問題產生時,人們會有感覺,

  • but they don't quite have the tools yet to discover them.

    但他們沒有多少探索這個有趣問題的方法。

  • They spend all this time working on certain problems,

    他們花所有的時間解決現有的問題,

  • but there's another thing lingering there

    但還有一個揮之不去的東西