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  • Immunotherapy is an exciting area of cancer research that is changing the way we think

  • about cancer treatment.

  • Immunotherapy works by using the body's immune system to fight cancer.

  • The immune system is a complex network of organs, tissues, and cells, and the substances

  • they make.

  • One of the purposes of the immune system is to rid the body of germs, such as bacteria,

  • and abnormal cells, such as cancer cells.

  • Immunotherapy uses different ways to boost the immune system to do a better job of killing

  • cancer cells.

  • This video describes three types of immunotherapy that are used to treat cancer : non-specific

  • immune stimulation, T-cell transfer therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  • Non-specific immune stimulation is a type of immunotherapy that stimulates a patient's

  • immune response in a general way.

  • In non-specific immune stimulation, drugs or other substances are used to increase the

  • overall immune response, which can help kill cancer cells.

  • For example, some patients who have had surgery to remove bladder cancer may also be treated

  • with a substance called BCG.

  • When BCG is put into the bladder, it can cause a non-specific immune response that kills

  • cancer cells that remain in the bladder after surgery.

  • This may keep the cancer from getting worse or coming back.

  • T-cell transfer therapy is another type of immunotherapy.

  • T cells are a type of immune cell and are powerful weapons the immune system uses to

  • fight cancer.

  • For T-cell transfer therapy, T cells are taken from a patient and changed in the laboratory

  • to make them better able to target the patient's cancer cells and kill them.

  • Millions of copies of these specially changed T cells are then grown in the laboratory and

  • given back to the patient to fight the cancer.

  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a third type of immunotherapy.

  • Immune checkpoints on cell surfaces help control an immune response.

  • Usually immune checkpoints keep T cells inactive, that is in anoffstate, until they

  • are needed.

  • This keeps the T cells from harming normal cells.

  • Cancer cells can take advantage of these checkpoints to switch T cells off.

  • This keeps the cancer cells from being killed.

  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that block the checkpoints.

  • This frees the T cells to attack the cancer.

  • These three types of immunotherapy are effective ways to treat cancer, but they don't work

  • for every patient and can cause serious side effects.

  • Researchers supported by the National Cancer Institute are working to learn more about

  • how the immune system works to fight cancer.

  • By studying this, researchers can learn how to improve immunotherapy for all patients.

Immunotherapy is an exciting area of cancer research that is changing the way we think


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B1 中級 美國腔

免疫療法:免疫系統如何對抗癌症? (Immunotherapy: How the Immune System Fights Cancer)

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    Renjie Jeng 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日