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  • You've heard of the European Union, but what about the European Commission?

    你聽過歐洲聯盟,但有聽過歐盟委員會嗎?

  • Or the European Council?

    或是歐盟高峰會?

  • Or what about the European Parliament?

    或是歐洲議會?

  • Yes, the EU is a very complex system.

    沒錯,歐洲聯盟是個複雜的系統。

  • So complicated that even former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, reportedly once

    複雜到曾有報導提到前美國國務卿亨利・季辛吉

  • askedWho do I call, if I want to call Europe?”

    問:「如果我想要打給歐洲,我要打給誰?」

  • As the name suggests, the European Union is a political and economic union of 28 European countries.

    如同名稱所示,歐洲聯盟是由 28 個歐洲國家所組成的政治經濟聯盟。

  • The genesis of the EU can be traced to the aftermath of the two world wars, which were

    歐盟的成立可以溯源至二次世界大戰後,當時

  • responsible for millions of deaths and a devastated European economy.

    導致高達百萬的傷亡人數以及歐洲經濟的崩毀。

  • In 1958, six founding countries, Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg

    1958 年比利時、德國、法國、義大利、盧森堡

  • and the Netherlands, came together to form the European Economic Community.

    以及荷蘭六個國家一同成立歐洲經濟共同體。

  • The idea was that with increased economic cooperation, they would be less likely

    最初的想法是增強經濟合作來降低

  • to be drawn into a conflict.

    發生衝突的可能性。

  • What started as a purely economic partnership has evolved over the past 60 years into other

    一開始單純的經濟夥伴關係在過去 60 年轉變為

  • policy areas too. These include security, climate, and foreign relations.

    政治夥伴關係。這包含了國土安全、國情以及外交關係。

  • To represent this broader remit, the European Economic Community became

    為了宣示這些職權的擴展,歐洲經濟共同體

  • the European Union in 1993.

    在 1993 年改為歐洲聯盟。

  • So, how does the EU work?

    那麼歐洲聯盟如何運作?

  • Well, one big thing to note is that there is no single leader of the European Union.

    其中一個需要注意的重點是歐洲聯盟沒有單一的領導人。

  • Instead, its responsibilities are spread across seven institutions, but we're going to focus

    相反地,歐盟的責任分散至七個機構,但我們要討論的

  • on the three main ones: The European Commission,

    是三個主要的機構:歐盟委員會、

  • the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union.

    歐洲議會以及歐洲理事會。

  • Let's start with the European Commission.

    我們先從歐盟委員會開始。

  • This is the engine room of the EU - the executive body that proposes new laws.

    它是歐盟的引擎室—起草新法律的執行主體。

  • Every member state has its own commissioner but they're supposed to be politically independent,

    每個會員國都有自己的理事代表,但他們應該保持政治中立,

  • bound by a promise to represent the interests of the EU before their home countries.

    並受到歐盟利益優先於他們祖國的承諾限制。

  • Each commissioner is in charge of a specific portfolio - similar to a government's cabinet of ministers.

    每位理事負責特定的職務內容—類似政府的內閣部長。

  • This institution is based in the Belgian capital, Brussels.

    這個機構設於比利時首都布魯塞爾。

  • Now, the European Parliament.

    接下來,歐洲議會。

  • It is based here in Brussels but also in the French city of Strasbourg, where its members

    它設立於布魯塞爾但同時也設立於法國城市斯特拉斯堡,在那裏它的成員

  • meet 12 times per year. This is where lawmakers vote on laws.

    每年開 12 次會議。這是立法者針對法律進行投票的地方。

  • Presently, it has 751 Members of the European Parliament, or MEPs, from 28 member states.

    現在共有 751 位來自 28 個會員國的歐洲議會成員,也稱為 MEP。

  • However, with the U.K.'s departure from the EU, that number is set to come down to 705.

    然而,由於英國脫歐,這個數字預計會下降至 705 位。

  • Importantly, this is the only European institution that directly represents EU citizens.

    重點是,這是歐盟機構中唯一直接代表歐盟公民的。

  • Every five years, citizens elect their representatives to the European Parliament.

    歐盟公民每五年選出他們的歐洲議會代表。

  • Finally, let's look at the Council of the European Union.

    最後,我們來看歐洲理事會。

  • It's made of ministers from the different EU member states.

    它由各歐盟會員國的部長組成。

  • Ministers with similar roles, whether it be overseeing finance, education or defense,

    職務內容相似的部長們,不論是監督財務、教育或國防,

  • meet regularly to discuss, amend and adopt laws.

    定期聚會以便討論、修正或通過法律。

  • The Council of the European Union, together with the European Parliament, are the

    歐洲理事會以及歐洲議會是

  • main decision-making bodies of the EU.

    主要決策者—組成歐盟的主體。

  • But don't confuse the Council of the European Union with the European Council.

    但不要把歐洲理事會和歐洲高峰會搞混了。

  • The leaders of the EU also meet in this building for quarterly summits.

    歐盟的領導人們也會在此進行每季高峰會。

  • Discussions here often happen at the highest level, which is why you'll see heads of

    這時的討論通常都是最高層級的,所以你會看到各國的國家領導人

  • state like the chancellor of Germany and president of France meeting up in Brussels.

    像是德國總理和法國總統在布魯塞爾開會。

  • Other important European bodies include the European Court of Justice, the Court of Auditors

    其他重要的歐盟機構有歐洲法院、歐洲審計院

  • and the European Central Bank.

    以及歐洲中央銀行。

  • Based in Luxembourg, the ECJ ensures European law is interpreted and applied in the same

    歐洲法院設立於盧森堡,它負責解釋歐洲法律及其在全歐洲的

  • way across the EU. Kind of like the U.S. Supreme Court.

    實行狀況。有點像美國的最高法院。

  • Also in Luxembourg is the Court of Auditors.

    歐洲審計院也設立於盧森堡。

  • It acts like the union's CFO, responsible for looking after the Community budget.

    它就像是歐盟的財務長,負責監督歐盟的預算。

  • And then there is the European Central Bank in Frankfurt, which sets monetary policy in the eurozone.

    還有位在法蘭克福的歐洲中央銀行,它負責歐元區的貨幣政策。

  • Yes, that's right. The eurozone, not the EU.

    沒錯,是歐元區,而非歐盟。

  • This is another important distinction.

    這是另一個重要的特徵。

  • Currently, only 19 of the 28 EU member states form the eurozone, while the remaining nine

    目前 28 個會員國中只有 19 個國家是歐元區,其他 9 個國家

  • are still using their own national currencies.

    仍繼續使用自己的貨幣。

  • The EU is a complex political arrangement.

    歐盟是個複雜的政治組織。

  • Critics say it will not survive due to the many differences of opinion between and within each country.

    評論家認為歐盟沒辦法運作太久,因為各國的意見分歧太多。

  • And with tens of thousands of people across dozens of nationalities working for the EU,

    並且歐盟內部有個一大群來自十幾個國家的人們在工作,

  • its institutions have also been criticized for its bureaucracies and complexities, saying

    歐盟機構的官僚文化和複雜度也飽受批評,一般認為

  • it makes it hard to get things done.

    這些因素導致事情很難做好。

  • At the same time, this arrangement has lasted more than 60 years and has so far achieved

    與此同時,這個組織已經運作超過 60 年,並且目前已達成

  • its main aim: avoiding war between the neighboring countries.

    它的主要目標:避免鄰近國家之間發生戰爭。

You've heard of the European Union, but what about the European Commission?

你聽過歐洲聯盟,但有聽過歐盟委員會嗎?

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什麼是歐盟?| CNBC解釋 (What is the EU? | CNBC Explains)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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