Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • So I want to talk today about money and happiness,

    我今天想講的是有關金錢與快樂

  • which are two things

    這是兩樣我們

  • that a lot of us spend a lot of our time thinking about,

    經常花很多時間去想的事情

  • either trying to earn them or trying to increase them.

    一是要如何賺取它們或是讓它們變更多

  • And a lot of us resonate with this phrase.

    而很多人對這句話很有共嗚

  • So we see it in religions and self-help books,

    我們可以在宗教或自助手冊中看到

  • that money can't buy happiness.

    "金錢是買不到快樂的"

  • And I want to suggest today that, in fact, that's wrong.

    而我今天想告訴大家,事實上,這是錯的

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • I'm at a business school, so that's what we do.

    我是在商學院工作,而研究這些是我們的工作

  • So that's wrong, and, in fact, if you think that,

    以上那句是錯的。若你想清楚其實

  • you're actually just not spending it right.

    你只是沒有把金錢花得對

  • So that instead of spending it the way you usually spend it,

    所以,與其花在你經常花的地方裡

  • maybe if you spent it differently,

    你可能要花在不同的地方

  • that might work a little bit better.

    這可能會有一點點的幫助

  • And before I tell you the ways that you can spend it that will make you happier,

    在我告訴你們要如何花錢才能令你更快樂之前

  • let's think about the ways we usually spend it

    試想想你平常是怎樣花錢

  • that don't, in fact, make us happier.

    而沒有讓你更快樂

  • We had a little natural experiment.

    我們做了一個小小的自然實驗

  • So CNN, a little while ago, wrote this interesting article

    CNN,前陣子,有一篇很有趣的文章

  • on what happens to people when they win the lottery.

    是人們在贏得樂透後會變成怎樣

  • It turns out people think when they win the lottery their lives are going to be amazing.

    結果是其他人都認為那些人的生活定必變成更美好

  • This article's about how their lives get ruined.

    而那篇文章是有關他們的生活如何變得糟糕

  • So what happens when people win the lottery

    那些中了樂透的人究竟發生什麼事情呢

  • is, number one, they spend all the money and go into debt,

    第一,他們把所有的錢花光還欠了一身債

  • and number two, all of their friends and everyone they've ever met

    第二,所有曾經認識他們的朋友

  • find them and bug them for money.

    都來問他們要錢

  • And it ruins their social relationships, in fact.

    而這影響他們的社交關係

  • So they have more debt and worse friendships

    因此相比他們在中獎之前

  • than they had before they won the lottery.

    他們有更多的債和更差的友誼

  • What was interesting about the article

    這篇文章有趣的地方是

  • was people started commenting on the article, readers of the thing.

    其他人開始回應這篇文章

  • And instead of talking about

    他們不是談論這篇文章如何

  • how it had made them realize that money doesn't lead to happiness,

    讓他們明白金錢沒有帶給他們快樂

  • everyone instantly started saying,

    每一個人卻是馬上地開始說

  • "You know what I would do if I won the lottery ... ?"

    若然我中了樂透,我會如何如何....

  • and fantasizing about what they'd do.

    並開始幻想他們會做的事情

  • And here's just two of the ones we saw that are just really interesting to think about.

    而這是其中兩個值得我們想一想的回應

  • One person wrote in, "When I win, I'm going to buy my own little mountain

    一人寫著"若然我中了樂透,我會買下一座小山

  • and have a little house on top."

    然後在山上建一個小房子。"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And another person wrote, "I would fill a big bathtub with money

    而另一人寫著"我會把錢填滿一個大浴缸,

  • and get in the tub while smoking a big fat cigar

    然後走進浴缸抽一支大雪茄

  • and sipping a glass of champagne."

    和啜飲一杯香檳。"

  • This is even worse now: "Then I'd have a picture taken

    而這個更差:我會拍一張照片

  • and dozens of glossies made.

    然後印出幾打。

  • Anyone begging for money or trying to extort from me

    那些向我索錢或嘗試向我敲詐的人

  • would receive a copy of the picture and nothing else."

    將只會得到這張相片而不會有其他。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And so many of the comments were exactly of this type,

    大部份的評語都是這一類的

  • where people got money

    人們得到金錢

  • and, in fact, it made them antisocial.

    事實上,令他們變得反社會。

  • So I told you that it ruins people's lives and that their friends bug them.

    所以我告訴你中獎會令人的生活更差而他們的朋友也開始煩擾他們

  • It also, money often makes us feel very selfish

    金錢往往令我們變得更自私

  • and we do things only for ourselves.

    而我們只會顧著自己

  • Well maybe the reason that money doesn't make us happy

    金錢不會令我們更快樂可能是因為

  • is that we're always spending it on the wrong things,

    我們時常把金錢用在錯誤的地方

  • and in particular, that we're always spending it on ourselves.

    尤其是我們經常把金錢用在自己身上

  • And we thought, I wonder what would happen

    我很想知道

  • if we made people spend more of their money on other people.

    若我們把更多的金錢用在其他人的身上會怎樣

  • So instead of being antisocial with your money,

    與其有了錢而變得反社會

  • what if you were a little more prosocial with your money?

    不如有了錢後變得更親社會

  • And we thought, let's make people do it and see what happens.

    我們便想:讓我們令他們這樣做,看看會是什麽結果。

  • So let's have some people do what they usually do

    我們讓一些人做他們平常做的

  • and spend money on themselves,

    把錢花在自己身上

  • and let's make some people give money away,

    然後令一些人把錢分掉

  • and measure their happiness and see if, in fact, they get happier.

    然後量度他們的快樂,看看他們實際上是否變得更快樂

  • So the first way that we did this.

    我們首先是這樣做的

  • On one Vancouver morning, we went out on the campus

    在溫哥華的一個早上,我們走到

  • at University of British Columbia

    英屬哥倫比亞大學的校園

  • and we approached people and said, "Do you want to be in an experiment?"

    我們找人問他們是否願意參加一項實驗

  • They said, "Yes."

    他們都說:"好的。”

  • We asked them how happy they were, and then we gave them an envelope.

    我們問他們現在有多快樂,然後給他們一個信封

  • And one of the envelopes had things in it that said,

    而其中一個信封內有紙條寫著

  • "By 5:00 pm today, spend this money on yourself."

    在今天下午五時前把金錢花在自己的身上

  • So we gave some examples of what you could spend it on.

    我們給了他們一些例子

  • Other people, in the morning, got a slip of paper that said,

    而那天早上另外的人卻得到一張紙條寫著

  • "By 5:00 pm today, spend this money on somebody else."

    在今天下午五時前把金錢花在其他人身上

  • Also inside the envelope was money.

    信封裡面同樣放了金錢

  • And we manipulated how much money we gave them.

    我們巧妙地操控我們給予的金額

  • So some people got this slip of paper and five dollars.

    有些人得到字條和五加元

  • Some people got this slip of paper and 20 dollars.

    而有些人得到字條和二十加元

  • We let them go about their day. They did whatever they wanted to do.

    我們讓他們自由地過他們的一天,任由他們做想做的事情

  • We found out that they did in fact spend it in the way that we asked them to.

    我們發現他們依照我們要他們所做的去做

  • We called them up at night and asked them,

    我們晚上致電給他們問他們:

  • "What'd you spend it on, and how happy do you feel now?"

    “你們把錢花在哪裡,現在你有多快樂?”

  • What did they spend it on?

    他們究竟把錢花在哪裡呢?

  • Well these are college undergrads, so a lot of what they spent it on for themselves

    他們都是大學的本科生,所以那些花在自己身上的

  • were things like earrings and makeup.

    都是買一些耳環、化妝品之類的東西上

  • One woman said she bought a stuffed animal for her niece.

    有一個女人說她花錢買了一個布娃娃給她姪女

  • People gave money to homeless people.

    有些人把錢給了無家可歸者

  • Huge effect here of Starbucks.

    這裡也有星巴克式的巨大效應

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • So if you give undergraduates five dollars, it looks like coffee to them

    如果你給這些大學生五元就好像給他們一杯咖啡

  • and they run over to Starbucks and spend it as fast as they can.

    他們會跑到星巴克以最快的速度把它花掉

  • But some people bought a coffee for themselves, the way they usually would,

    但有些人會把咖啡買給自己,這是普遍的做法

  • but other people said that they bought a coffee for somebody else.

    而有些人說他們會買咖啡給別人

  • So the very same purchase,

    所以同樣的消費

  • just targeted toward yourself

    目的可以是為了自己

  • or targeted toward somebody else.

    或者為了別人

  • What did we find when we called them back at the end of the day?

    想知我們當天完結時打給他們發現了什麼嗎?

  • People who spent money on other people got happier.

    那些把錢花在其他人身上的人更快樂

  • People who spent money on themselves, nothing happened.

    那些把錢花在自己身上的人沒有分別

  • It didn't make them less happy, it just didn't do much for them.

    那樣沒有讓他們不快樂,只是沒有對他們產生影響

  • And the other thing we saw is the amount of money doesn't matter that much.

    第二個發現是金錢的數額影響不大

  • So people thought that 20 dollars would be way better than five dollars.

    有些人會認為二十元會比五元好很多

  • In fact, it doesn't matter how much money you spent.

    但事實上,你能花多少是沒有影響的

  • What really matters is that you spent it on somebody else

    有影響的是你花在其他人身上

  • rather than on yourself.

    而不是自己身上

  • We see this again and again

    當我們給錢要他們把金錢花在其他人而不在自己身上

  • when we give people money to spend on other people instead of on themselves.

    這個結果我們重覆又重覆地見到

  • Of course, these are undergraduates in Canada --

    當然他們是加拿大的大學生

  • not the world's most representative population.

    並不是世界上很有代表性的一群人

  • They're also fairly wealthy and affluent and all these other sorts of things.

    他們也蠻有錢和富裕等等

  • We wanted to see if this holds true everywhere in the world

    我們想知道這個理論是否在世界各地都成立

  • or just among wealthy countries.

    或是只在富裕的國家

  • So we went, in fact, to Uganda and ran a very similar experiment.

    因此我們到了烏干達做了一個類似的實驗

  • So imagine, instead of just people in Canada,

    試想想,並不只是在加拿大的人

  • we said, "Name the last time you spent money on yourself or other people.

    我們問:“你們上一次花費是在自己身上還是他人身上

  • Describe it. How happy did it make you?"

    說一說。它帶給你多少快樂?”

  • Or in Uganda, "Name the last time you spent money

    而在烏干達,我們問:“說一說你們上一次花費

  • on yourself or other people and describe that."

    是花在自己身上還是他人身上。”

  • And then we asked them how happy they are again.

    跟著我們再次問他們有多快樂

  • And what we see is sort of amazing

    我們所看到的是有些驚人的

  • because there's human universals on what you do with your money

    因為我們人類如何花錢是有共通的地方的

  • and then real cultural differences on what you do as well.

    另外又有文化差異影響我們怎樣花錢

  • So for example,

    舉一個例子

  • one guy from Uganda says this.

    有一個來自烏干達的男子說

  • He said, "I called a girl I wished to love."

    "我打給一個我喜歡的女孩"

  • They basically went out on a date,

    他們经常出去約會

  • and he says at the end that he didn't "achieve" her up till now.

    但他說到目前為止他仍未"得到"她的歡心

  • Here's a guy from Canada.

    而這個來自加拿大的男子

  • Very similar thing.

    說了類似的事情

  • "I took my girlfriend out for dinner.

    我帶我的女朋友出去吃飯,

  • We went to a movie, we left early,

    我們去看電影,我們很早離場,

  • and then went back to her room for ... " only cake -- just a piece of cake.

    然後回到她的房間...吃蛋糕...只是一片蛋糕(沒有進一步發展)

  • Human universal -- so you spend money on other people,

    人類的共通點就是我們花錢在其他人身上

  • you're being nice to them.

    我們對他們好

  • Maybe you have something in mind, maybe not.

    可能我們心裡有一些目的,又可能沒有

  • But then we see extraordinary differences.

    但我們見到非常大的區別

  • So look at these two.

    我們看看這兩個例子

  • This is a woman from Canada.

    她是一個來自加拿大的女人

  • We say, "Name a time you spent money on somebody else."

    我們問:“試說出你把錢花在別人身上的例子。”

  • She says, "I bought a present for my mom.

    她說:“我買了一件禮物給我的媽媽

  • I drove to the mall in my car, bought a present, gave it to my mom."

    我駕車到一個商場,買了一件禮物送給我的媽媽。”

  • Perfectly nice thing to do.

    一件非常值得做的事情

  • It's good to get gifts for people that you know.

    給一個你認識的人一份禮物是很好的

  • Compare that to this woman from Uganda.

    相比這個來自烏干達的女人

  • "I was walking and met a long-time friend

    “我在街上碰到一個老朋友

  • whose son was sick with malaria.

    她的兒子患了瘧疾

  • They had no money, they went to a clinic and I gave her this money."

    他們沒有錢,他們去了診所然後我給了他們這些錢

  • This isn't $10,000, it's the local currency.

    那不是一萬加元,而是當地的貨幣

  • So it's a very small amount of money, in fact.

    所以事實上是很少的金錢

  • But enormously different motivations here.

    但有很大不同的動機

  • This is a real medical need,

    這是真正的醫療需要

  • literally a life-saving donation.

    簡直是救命錢

  • Above, it's just kind of, I bought a gift for my mother.

    上一個只是買了一份禮物給媽媽

  • What we see again though

    但我們再次見到的是

  • is that the specific way that you spend on other people

    用哪一種的方式把錢用在別人身上

  • isn't nearly as important

    並不是最重要

  • as the fact that you spend on other people

    而是把錢用在別人身上

  • in order to make yourself happy,

    能令你快樂

  • which is really quite important.

    才是最重要的

  • So you don't have to do amazing things with your money to make yourself happy.

    所以你不用花錢做很偉大的事情才會快樂

  • You can do small, trivial things and yet still get these benefits from doing this.

    你只要做一些細微的瑣事也能得到同樣的效果

  • These are only two countries.

    這只是兩個國家

  • We also wanted to go even broader and look at every country in the world if we could

    我們希望去得更廣,可以的話看看每一個國家裡

  • to see what the relationship is between money and happiness.

    金錢和快樂的關係

  • We got data from the Gallup Organization,

    我們從蓋洛普組織得到數據

  • which you know from all the political polls that have been happening lately.

    那是讓我們知道最近發生的政治數據的機構

  • They ask people, "Did you donate money to charity recently?"

    他們問:”最近你有沒有捐錢給慈善團體呢?“

  • and they ask them, "How happy are you with your life in general?"

    亦問:”你對現在的生活總體感覺有多快樂呢?“

  • And we can see what the relationship is between those two things.

    而我們從中見到兩者的關係

  • Are they positively correlated? Giving money makes you happy.

    它們是否成正比? 即捐錢會令你快樂

  • Or are they negatively correlated?

    還是成反比呢?

  • On this map, green will mean they're positively correlated

    在這地圖中,綠色代表正比

  • and red means they're negatively correlated.

    而紅色代表反比

  • And you can see, the world is crazily green.

    如你所見,地圖非常綠

  • So in almost every country in the world

    差不多在所有的國家

  • where we have this data,

    從我們得到的數據中

  • people who give money to charity are happier people

    那些捐錢的人比沒有捐錢的

  • that people who don't give money to charity.

    更為快樂

  • I know you're all looking at that red country in the middle.

    我知道你們會注意地圖中心那個紅色的國家

  • I would be a jerk and not tell you what it is,

    若我不告訴你們那是哪一個國家,我會是很賴皮的人

  • but in fact, it's Central African Republic.

    事實上那是中非共和國

  • You can make up stories. Maybe it's different there for some reason or another.

    你可以編出很多故事。或者那裡與眾不同

  • Just below that to the right is Rwanda though,

    但在它的右下方是盧旺達

  • which is amazingly green.

    它是非常綠的

  • So almost everywhere we look

    所以差不多所有的地方

  • we see that giving money away makes you happier

    我們都見到捐錢會比留給自己

  • than keeping it for yourself.

    令人更快樂

  • What about your work life, which is where we spend all the rest of our time

    哪麼你的工作又如何?它佔據你生命的一大部分

  • when we're not with the people we know.

    當我們不是與我們認識的人在一起

  • We decided to infiltrate some companies and do a very similar thing.

    我們想滲入幾間公司進行類似的實驗

  • So these are sales teams in Belgium.

    這是比利時的一支銷售隊伍

  • They work in teams; they go out and sell to doctors

    他們以團隊方式工作,出去尋找業務,并賣給醫生

  • and try to get them to buy drugs.

    試圖說服醫生買藥

  • So we can look and see how well they sell things

    我們去看看他們的銷售業績

  • as a function of being a member of a team.

    以團隊的一員下賣得如何

  • Some teams, we give people on the team some money for themselves

    有一些隊伍,我們給他們個人一些錢

  • and say, "Spend it however you want on yourself,"

    並說:”把這些錢隨意地花在你們身上,”

  • just like we did with the undergrads in Canada.

    就好像我們叫加拿大的大學生那樣做

  • But other teams we say, "Here's 15 euro.

    但另一些團隊,我們說:“這是十五元歐元

  • Spend it on one of your teammates this week.

    在這個星期把錢花在其中一位隊員身上。”

  • Buy them something as a gift or a present and give it to them.

    給他們買一份禮物,并送給他們

  • And then we can see, well now we've got teams that spend on themselves

    你可以見到,一些隊伍把錢花在自己身上

  • and we've got these prosocial teams

    而支持社交的隊伍

  • who we give money to make the team a little bit better.

    用錢使團隊更加好

  • The reason I have a ridiculous pinata there

    我之所以有一個可笑的皮納塔

  • is one of the teams pooled their money and bought a pinata,

    是因為有一支隊伍把錢集合一起買了一個皮納塔

  • and they all got around and smashed the pinata and all the candy fell out and things like that.

    然後圍在一起把皮納塔打破,所有的糖果散落

  • A very silly, trivial thing to do,

    這是一件很幼稚的瑣事

  • but think of the difference on a team that didn't do that at all,

    但想想另外一支沒有這樣做的團隊的分別

  • that got 15 euro, put it in their pocket,

    他們有15元歐元在他們的口袋裡

  • maybe bought themselves a coffee,

    他們可能給他們自己買一杯咖啡

  • or teams that had this prosocial experience

    或那個有支持社交經驗的團隊

  • where they all bonded together to buy something and do a group activity.

    把錢合起來買東西來做團體活動

  • What we see is that, in fact, the teams that are prosocial sell more stuff

    我們見到的是支持社交的團隊

  • than the teams that only got money for themselves.

    比那只把錢留著的團隊賣出更多東西

  • And one way to think about it

    用一個方向去想想

  • is for every 15 euro you give people for themselves,

    我們給團隊的每個人15歐元

  • they put it in their pocket, they don't do anything different than they did before.

    那些把錢放在自己口袋的人,所做的事情跟以前一樣

  • You don't get any money from that.

    你不會得到任何金錢

  • You actually lose money because it doesn't motivate them to perform any better.

    你事實上失去金錢因為它不能鼓勵他們做得更好

  • But when you give them 15 euro to spend on their teammates,

    但當你把十五元歐羅用在團員身上

  • they do so much better on their teams

    他們會在團隊中發揮得更好

  • that you actually get a huge win on investing this kind of money.

    他們把錢這樣的投放會得到更大的成功

  • And I realize that you're probably thinking to yourselves,

    我想你們或許這樣想

  • this is all fine,

    它們都很好

  • but there's a context that's incredibly important for public policy

    這是對公共政策非常重要的

  • and I can't imagine it would work there.

    但我不認為會可行

  • And basically that if he doesn't show me that it works here,

    如果他不展示給我看會在那裡可行

  • I don't believe anything he said.

    我是不會相信他所說的

  • And I know what you're all thinking about are dodgeball teams.

    我知道你們想著躲避球隊。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • This was a huge criticism that we got

    我們得到一個巨大的批評

  • to say, if you can't show it with dodgeball teams, this is all stupid.

    如果不能顯示在躲避球隊中,這只是空談

  • So we went out and found these dodgeball teams

    所以我們出去找一支躲避球隊