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  • I love video games.

    譯者: yuanyuan liang 審譯者: Shelley Krishna Tsang

  • I'm also slightly in awe of them.

    我熱愛電子遊戲。

  • I'm in awe of their power

    我還有點小小地敬畏它們。

  • in terms of imagination, in terms of technology,

    我敬畏它們在

  • in terms of concept.

    想像力,技術

  • But I think, above all,

    和概念方面的力量。

  • I'm in awe at their power

    但是,最重要的,

  • to motivate, to compel us,

    我敬畏它們能夠

  • to transfix us,

    促使我們,強迫我們,

  • like really nothing else we've ever invented

    讓我們目瞪口呆,

  • has quite done before.

    這是人類其它發明

  • And I think that we can learn some pretty amazing things

    所不能企及的。

  • by looking at how we do this.

    而且我認為我們能從中瞭解到很多驚人的事實,

  • And in particular, I think we can learn things

    就是看看我們是如何玩電子遊戲的。

  • about learning.

    特別是可以瞭解到

  • Now the video games industry

    關於人的認知。

  • is far and away the fastest growing

    目前電子遊戲產業

  • of all modern media.

    發展之快遠遠超越了

  • From about 10 billion in 1990,

    其他現代媒體。

  • it's worth 50 billion dollars globally today,

    從1990年的一百億

  • and it shows no sign of slowing down.

    到今天的全球產值五百億。

  • In four years' time,

    而且完全沒有放緩的跡象。

  • it's estimated it'll be worth over 80 billion dollars.

    預計在未來的四年,

  • That's about three times the recorded music industry.

    將超過八百億美圓。

  • This is pretty stunning,

    這是唱片業的三倍。

  • but I don't think it's the most telling statistic of all.

    相當驚人的數字,

  • The thing that really amazes me

    但我認為這還不是最說明問題的數據。

  • is that, today,

    真正讓我驚訝的是

  • people spend about

    現在

  • eight billion real dollars a year

    人們可以

  • buying virtual items

    一年花實實在在的八百億

  • that only exist

    購買虛擬的iTunes

  • inside video games.

    只存在於

  • This is a screenshot from the virtual game world, Entropia Universe.

    電子遊戲裡。

  • Earlier this year,

    這是一個虛擬的遊戲世界《Entropia Universe》的遊戲截屏。

  • a virtual asteroid in it

    就在前不久,

  • sold for 330,000 real dollars.

    這個遊戲中的一個虛擬的小行星

  • And this

    竟以三十三萬美圓的價格售出。

  • is a Titan class ship

    而這個

  • in the space game, EVE Online.

    是一艘泰坦級的宇宙飛船

  • And this virtual object

    來自EVE Online 這個太空遊戲。

  • takes 200 real people

    而這艘虛擬的飛船

  • about 56 days of real time to build,

    需要200個真人

  • plus countless thousands of hours

    花費56天建造出來,

  • of effort before that.

    還要加上不知幾千小時的

  • And yet, many of these get built.

    前期工作。

  • At the other end of the scale,

    類似這樣被造出的還有很多。

  • the game Farmville that you may well have heard of,

    而另一方面,

  • has 70 million players

    Farmville這個遊戲,可能你們已經聽說了,

  • around the world

    有七千萬個玩家

  • and most of these players

    遍佈全世界,

  • are playing it almost every day.

    而且這些玩家中的大多數

  • This may all sound

    幾乎每天都在玩。

  • really quite alarming to some people,

    可能這聽上去

  • an index of something worrying

    會令一些人相當警惕,

  • or wrong in society.

    覺得是社會上那些令人焦慮

  • But we're here for the good news,

    或不正確的現象。

  • and the good news is

    但是我們來這是聽好消息的,

  • that I think we can explore

    好消息就是

  • why this very real human effort,

    我認為我們能夠研究一下

  • this very intense generation of value, is occurring.

    爲什麽這種真實的人類勞動,

  • And by answering that question,

    這麼巨大的價值的創造會得以出現。

  • I think we can take something

    通過回答這個問題,

  • extremely powerful away.

    我覺得我們可以從中得到

  • And I think the most interesting way

    極其強大的信息。

  • to think about how all this is going on

    我認為最有趣的

  • is in terms of rewards.

    思考這些問題的角度

  • And specifically, it's in terms

    就是獎賞。

  • of the very intense emotional rewards

    更具體來說,

  • that playing games offers to people

    就是非常密集的情感獎賞,

  • both individually

    通過玩遊戲提供給人們,

  • and collectively.

    既是個人的,

  • Now if we look at what's going on in someone's head

    也有集體的。

  • when they are being engaged,

    如果我們觀察一下某人的大腦,

  • two quite different processes are occurring.

    當他們忙碌時是怎樣運作的,

  • On the one hand, there's the wanting processes.

    兩個相當不同的進程同時發生著。

  • This is a bit like ambition and drive -- I'm going to do that. I'm going to work hard.

    一方面是想要的進程。

  • On the other hand, there's the liking processes,

    有些類似進取心和動機——我要做那件事。我要努力工作。

  • fun and affection

    而另一方面是喜歡的進程。

  • and delight

    樂趣和喜愛

  • and an enormous flying beast with an orc on the back.

    以及快樂——

  • It's a really great image. It's pretty cool.

    這是一個巨型飛行獸,上頭騎著一個獸人。

  • It's from the game World of Warcraft with more than 10 million players globally,

    這幅圖很棒,很酷。

  • one of whom is me, another of whom is my wife.

    它來自魔獸世界,全球的玩家超過一千萬,

  • And this kind of a world,

    其中一個就是我,另外一個就是我老婆。

  • this vast flying beast you can ride around,

    在這種世界裡

  • shows why games are so very good

    你可以騎著這種巨型的飛行獸到處閒逛,

  • at doing both the wanting and the liking.

    而這正顯示出爲什麽遊戲是多麼善於

  • Because it's very powerful. It's pretty awesome.

    讓人同時做要做和喜歡做的事。

  • It gives you great powers.

    因為這很強大,相當厲害。

  • Your ambition is satisfied, but it's very beautiful.

    它給予你強大的力量。

  • It's a very great pleasure to fly around.

    你的野心得到滿足,但又非常美麗。

  • And so these combine to form

    飛來飛去帶來絕大的快感。

  • a very intense emotional engagement.

    所有這些組合起來形成

  • But this isn't the really interesting stuff.

    非常巨大的情感投入。

  • The really interesting stuff about virtuality

    但這還不是真正有趣的部份。

  • is what you can measure with it.

    虛擬世界真正有趣的地方在於

  • Because what you can measure in virtuality

    你從中可以量度的東西。

  • is everything.

    因為你在虛擬世界中能度量的東西

  • Every single thing that every single person

    就是最重要的東西。

  • who's ever played in a game has ever done can be measured.

    每一個人在遊戲中做的每一件事

  • The biggest games in the world today

    都可被度量。

  • are measuring more than one billion points of data

    今天世界上最大型的遊戲

  • about their players, about what everybody does --

    正在量度玩家的上十億的數據

  • far more detail than you'd ever get from any website.

    具體到每個人做的事——

  • And this allows something very special

    其細緻程度超過任何其他網站。

  • to happen in games.

    而這就使得一些非常特別的東西可以

  • It's something called the reward schedule.

    存在於遊戲中。

  • And by this, I mean looking

    這就是獎賞機制。

  • at what millions upon millions of people have done

    通過這個機制,

  • and carefully calibrating the rate,

    觀察成百萬上千萬的人是怎麼玩的,

  • the nature, the type, the intensity of rewards in games

    然後仔細校準比率,

  • to keep them engaged

    屬性,類型,以及遊戲中獎賞的強度

  • over staggering amounts of time and effort.

    令人持續投入

  • Now, to try and explain this

    數量驚人的時間和努力。

  • in sort of real terms,

    現在為了試圖用一些實際的概念

  • I want to talk about a kind of task

    來闡釋這個機制,

  • that might fall to you in so many games.

    我要討論一種任務

  • Go and get a certain amount of a certain little game-y item.

    就是你在很多遊戲中會遇到的那種任務。

  • Let's say, for the sake of argument,

    去找到一定數量的某種遊戲小道具。

  • my mission is to get 15 pies

    比如說,

  • and I can get 15 pies

    我的任務是得到15個餡餅,

  • by killing these cute, little monsters.

    然後為了這15個餡餅

  • Simple game quest.

    我要殺死這些可愛的小怪物。

  • Now you can think about this, if you like,

    很簡單的遊戲任務。

  • as a problem about boxes.

    現在如果你喜歡可以把這個想像為

  • I've got to keep opening boxes.

    一個關於盒子的問題。

  • I don't know what's inside them until I open them.

    我需要不斷打開盒子。

  • And I go around opening box after box until I've got 15 pies.

    我不知道裡頭有什麽,直到我打開它們。

  • Now, if you take a game like Warcraft,

    然後我四處去打開一個又一個盒子,直到得到15個餡餅。

  • you can think about it, if you like,

    現在如果你在玩的是魔獸世界這樣的遊戲,

  • as a great box-opening effort.

    如果你願意可以把它想像為

  • The game's just trying to get people to open about a million boxes,

    一個繁重的開盒子的勞動。

  • getting better and better stuff in them.

    遊戲想讓人去打開大約一百萬個盒子,

  • This sounds immensely boring

    從裡頭找到越來越好的東西。

  • but games are able

    聽上去是極度枯燥,

  • to make this process

    但遊戲卻能夠

  • incredibly compelling.

    使得這個過程

  • And the way they do this

    極其吸引人。

  • is through a combination of probability and data.

    而它們所使用的方法

  • Let's think about probability.

    就是把概率和數據結合起來。

  • If we want to engage someone

    讓我們來想想概率問題。

  • in the process of opening boxes to try and find pies,

    如果我們想讓人去

  • we want to make sure it's neither too easy,

    打開盒子尋找餡餅,

  • nor too difficult, to find a pie.

    我們想確保它不要太容易,

  • So what do you do? Well, you look at a million people --

    也不能太困難。

  • no, 100 million people, 100 million box openers --

    那該怎麼辦?那麼你觀察一百萬個人——

  • and you work out, if you make the pie rate

    不,一億個人,一億個開盒子的人——

  • about 25 percent --

    然後來計算一下,如果你設定餡餅出現的比率

  • that's neither too frustrating, nor too easy.

    大約為25%——

  • It keeps people engaged.

    這樣不會太令人挫敗,也不會太容易;

  • But of course, that's not all you do -- there's 15 pies.

    這樣就能讓人投入進去——

  • Now, I could make a game called Piecraft,

    當然,這還不是全部——這只是15個餡餅。

  • where all you had to do was get a million pies

    現在,我可以做一個遊戲叫做餡餅世界,

  • or a thousand pies.

    你在這裡要做的就是找到一百萬個餡餅,

  • That would be very boring.

    或一千個。

  • Fifteen is a pretty optimal number.

    這個遊戲會很無聊。

  • You find that -- you know, between five and 20

    15是一個最優化的數字。

  • is about the right number for keeping people going.

    你要尋找的,——你知道,在5到20之間,

  • But we don't just have pies in the boxes.

    這是讓人願意玩下去的一個恰到好處的數量。

  • There's 100 percent up here.

    但我們在盒子里找到的不只是餡餅。

  • And what we do is make sure that every time a box is opened,

    這點我敢百分百肯定。

  • there's something in it, some little reward

    我們所做的就是要確保每次盒子一打開,

  • that keeps people progressing and engaged.

    裡頭總有點什麽,一些小小的獎勵,

  • In most adventure games,

    就是這些東西令人投入地玩下去。

  • it's a little bit in-game currency, a little bit experience.

    在大部份的冒險遊戲裡,

  • But we don't just do that either.

    這獎賞會是一點遊戲幣,一點經驗值,

  • We also say there's going to be loads of other items

    但我們也不是僅僅為了這個才玩。

  • of varying qualities and levels of excitement.

    可以說裡頭還有一些其他道具

  • There's going to be a 10 percent chance you get a pretty good item.

    帶著不同的內容和不同級別的興奮感。

  • There's going to be a 0.1 percent chance

    大約有十分之一的機會你可能得到一個相當好的道具。

  • you get an absolutely awesome item.

    而有大概千分之一的機會

  • And each of these rewards is carefully calibrated to the item.

    會得到一件絕對厲害的道具。

  • And also, we say,

    而所有這些獎賞都小心地與道具調整在一起。

  • "Well, how many monsters? Should I have the entire world full of a billion monsters?"

    而且,我們還會說,

  • No, we want one or two monsters on the screen at any one time.

    “好,放多少鬼怪呢?我是不是應該讓整個世界充滿十億個鬼怪?”

  • So I'm drawn on. It's not too easy, not too difficult.

    不,我們只想讓一到兩隻鬼怪同時出現在屏幕上。

  • So all this is very powerful.

    於是我就被吸引住了。這不太容易,也不太難。

  • But we're in virtuality. These aren't real boxes.

    加在一起就很強大了。

  • So we can do

    但是我們是在虛擬世界;這些都不是真的盒子。

  • some rather amazing things.

    所以我們還可以做一些

  • We notice, looking at all these people opening boxes,

    更加令人驚奇的事。

  • that when people get to about 13 out of 15 pies,

    在觀察所有這些人打開盒子時,我們注意到,

  • their perception shifts, they start to get a bit bored, a bit testy.

    當人們拿到15個餡餅中的13個時,

  • They're not rational about probability.

    他們的注意力發生轉移,他們開始覺得有點無聊,開始急躁。

  • They think this game is unfair.

    他們并沒有理性理解概率。

  • It's not giving me my last two pies. I'm going to give up.

    他們認為這個遊戲不公平。

  • If they're real boxes, there's not much we can do,

    它沒給我最後兩個餡餅。我快要放棄了。

  • but in a game we can just say, "Right, well.

    如果要找的是真正的盒子,那到這裡我們就無能為力了,

  • When you get to 13 pies, you've got 75 percent chance of getting a pie now."

    但是在遊戲裡,我們只需說,“好吧,這樣。”

  • Keep you engaged. Look at what people do --

    當你拿到13個餡餅時,現在你拿到餡餅的機會提高到75%。

  • adjust the world to match their expectation.

    這樣就會令你繼續玩下去。觀察人們如何玩遊戲——

  • Our games don't always do this.

    調整這個世界符合他們的期待。

  • And one thing they certainly do at the moment

    而我們的遊戲并不總是如此。

  • is if you got a 0.1 percent awesome item,

    目前有一件事它們肯定會做的就是

  • they make very sure another one doesn't appear for a certain length of time

    如果你拿到那個千分之一機會才能得到的道具,

  • to keep the value, to keep it special.

    它們會確保另一個這樣的道具在相當長一段時間內不會出現

  • And the point is really

    以此令其保值,讓它特殊。

  • that we evolved to be satisfied by the world

    而關鍵就在於

  • in particular ways.

    我們適應了以某種特定的方式

  • Over tens and hundreds of thousands of years,

    從周圍的世界獲得滿足感。

  • we evolved to find certain things stimulating,

    通過幾百萬年,

  • and as very intelligent, civilized beings,

    我們演化成尋找某種刺激性的事物,

  • we're enormously stimulated by problem solving and learning.

    並且作為非常智能和文明化的生物,

  • But now, we can reverse engineer that

    我們通過解決問題和學習知識獲得巨大的刺激。

  • and build worlds

    但是現在,我們能反向設計這一行為

  • that expressly tick our evolutionary boxes.

    構造出遊戲世界

  • So what does all this mean in practice?

    很明顯地突出我們的演化特徵。

  • Well, I've come up

    那麼所有這些在實踐中有什麽意義?

  • with seven things

    我總結出

  • that, I think, show

    七個要點

  • how you can take these lessons from games

    我認為表明了

  • and use them outside of games.

    你如何從遊戲中有所學習

  • The first one is very simple:

    并將它們應用到遊戲以外。

  • experience bars measuring progress --

    第一點很簡單:

  • something that's been talked about brilliantly

    用經驗值條量度進程——

  • by people like Jesse Schell earlier this year.

    有人已經很出色地討論過這個問題

  • It's already been done at the University of Indiana in the States, among other places.

    如今年年初時的Jesse Schell 。

  • It's the simple idea that instead of grading people incrementally

    在美國的印第安那大學和其他一些地方已經這樣去做了。

  • in little bits and pieces,

    很簡單的道理就是,不用增量的方式給人打分,

  • you give them one profile character avatar

    不要去算計那些點點滴滴,

  • which is constantly progressing

    你給他們一個角色化身

  • in tiny, tiny, tiny little increments which they feel are their own.

    這個化身會持續地發展

  • And everything comes towards that,

    一點一點地,以非常微弱的量發展,他們會感同身受。

  • and they watch it creeping up, and they own that as it goes along.

    然後一切都朝向那個目標前進,

  • Second, multiple long and short-term aims --

    他們會看著它不斷增長,然後隨著它的發展他們對之認同。

  • 5,000 pies, boring,

    第二,多進程的長短期目標——

  • 15 pies, interesting.

    五千個餡餅,太煩了,

  • So, you give people

    十五個,有意思。

  • lots and lots of different tasks.

    因此你要給人們

  • You say, it's about

    很多很多不同的任務。

  • doing 10 of these questions,

    你要說,這是

  • but another task

    解決10個這樣的問題,

  • is turning up to 20 classes on time,

    而另一個任務

  • but another task is collaborating with other people,

    是在規定時間內升20級,

  • another task is showing you're working five times,

    但再另外一個任務是和別人合作,

  • another task is hitting this particular target.

    再另一個任務是展示你的工作五次,

  • You break things down into these calibrated slices

    再一個任務是擊中這個特定的標靶。

  • that people can choose and do in parallel

    你把任務拆分成這些經過調校的小塊,

  • to keep them engaged

    人們可以挑選,以及並行處理

  • and that you can use to point them

    以令他們保持投入

  • towards individually beneficial activities.

    并將它們和

  • Third, you reward effort.

    個人的獲利行為掛鉤。

  • It's your 100 percent factor. Games are brilliant at this.

    第三,獎賞努力工作。

  • Every time you do something, you get credit; you get a credit for trying.

    這是你的萬靈丹。遊戲在這點上極其擅長。

  • You don't punish failure. You reward every little bit of effort --

    每次你做點什麽事時,你都得到分數,從嘗試中得分。

  • a little bit of gold, a little bit of credit. You've done 20 questions -- tick.

    你不會懲罰失敗;你會獎勵每一點微小的努力——

  • It all feeds in as minute reinforcement.

    一小塊金子,一小點分數——你已經做完了20個問題了——完成。

  • Fourth, feedback.

    這些都是通過小小的鼓勵實現的。

  • This is absolutely crucial,

    第四,反饋。

  • and virtuality is dazzling at delivering this.

    這絕對是個關鍵,