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  • On September 6, 1522,

    1522 年 9 月 6 日

  • the "Victoria" sailed into harbor in southern Spain.

    維多利亞號回到西班牙南方港口

  • The battered vessel and its 18 sailors were all that remained

    只剩下破舊的船艙及 18 名水手

  • of a fleet that had departed three years before.

    已非三年前船隊出航的盛大風光

  • Yet her voyage was considered a success

    然而這趟航行依然是個創舉

  • for the "Victoria" had achieved something unprecedented:

    維多利亞號寫下了人類的歷史

  • the first circumnavigation of the globe.

    第一次繞地球一周的航行

  • But this story really begins in 1494,

    故事得從 1494 年說起

  • two years after Columbus's voyage on behalf of Spain.

    哥倫布代表西班牙航行的兩年後

  • Columbus's discovery had prompted the Catholic Spanish rulers

    他的發現讓西班牙的統治者蠢蠢欲動

  • to turn to the Pope to preempt any claims by Portugal to the new lands.

    他們搶在葡萄牙前 向教皇聲明新大陸所有權

  • The Pope resolved this dispute by drawing an imaginary line on the world map.

    於是教皇在世界地圖上 畫了一條假想線來解決爭議

  • Spain had the right to claim territories west of the divide,

    西班牙有權佔領西半邊的土地

  • and Portugal to the east.

    東半邊則給葡萄牙

  • Spain and Portugal, the two major seafaring super powers at the time,

    西班牙和葡萄牙這兩個當代強權

  • agreed to these terms in what came to be called the Treaty of Tordesillas.

    都同意這項史稱 「托爾德西利亞斯條約」的決議

  • At the time, these nations had their eyes on the same prize:

    當時,雙方都著眼於同一個目標

  • trade routes to the Spice Islands in today's Indonesia.

    那就是找到貿易路線, 前往位於今日印尼的香料群島

  • The spices found there,

    那裡的香料

  • which were used as seasonings,

    可以用來增添風味

  • food preservatives,

    保存食物

  • and aphrodisiacs,

    甚至用作催情劑

  • were worth many times their weight in gold.

    小小一撮就價值連城, 是等重金價的許多倍

  • But because of Portugal's control over eastern sea routes,

    然而葡萄牙已經佔了東向的航線

  • Spain's only viable option was to sail west.

    西班牙唯一的選擇就是向西航行

  • So when a Portuguese defector named Ferdinand Magellan

    於是當葡萄牙叛逃出來的 斐迪南·麥哲倫說

  • claimed that a westward route to the Spice Islands existed,

    有一條向西的航線能到香料群島

  • King Charles made him captain of a Spanish armada,

    西班牙國王查理一世 便派他當一支船隊的船長

  • and gave him all the resources he would need.

    除了提供一切所需的資源

  • Along with a share in the voyage's profits,

    國王還承諾給他航行成果的分紅

  • he granted Magellan five ships and about 260 men.

    麥哲倫得到五艘船 和大約 260 名船員

  • The crew included a young slave named Enrique,

    包含一名年輕奴隸恩里克

  • captured by Magellan on a previous journey to Malacca,

    他是麥哲倫之前去馬拉加抓到的

  • and Antonio Pigafetta,

    以及安東尼奧·皮加費塔

  • a Venetian nobleman seeking adventure.

    一名熱愛冒險的威尼斯貴族

  • On September 20, 1519, the fleet weighed anchor

    1519 年 9 月 20 日船隊出航

  • and headed southwest.

    向西南前進

  • After making landfall in what is now Brazil,

    在現今的巴西登陸後

  • it proceeded along the coast, exploring any water way leading inland.

    船隊沿著海岸尋找往內陸的水路

  • They were looking for the fabled passage linking east and west.

    尋找著傳說中連結東西的通道

  • As the weather worsened,

    但隨著天氣變糟

  • the Spaniards resentment at having a Portuguese captain escalated.

    西班牙船員對麥哲倫 這個葡萄牙船長的不滿日漸升高

  • A full-blown mutiny soon erupted,

    全面叛亂頓時引爆

  • which Magellan crushed with unspeakable cruelty.

    而麥哲倫無比殘酷地鎮壓了叛亂

  • But his problems were only just beginning.

    但他的麻煩才正要開始

  • During a reconnaissance mission, the "Santiago" was wrecked by a storm.

    聖地牙哥號在一次偵察任務中 被風暴捲入而摧毀

  • Then while exploring a narrow waterway,

    此外,在探索一條狹窄的水路時

  • the captain of the "San Antonio" took the first opportunity to slip away

    聖安東尼奧號的船長趁機逃跑

  • and sail back home.

    直接掉頭回家鄉

  • Magellan pressed forward,

    麥哲倫繼續向前

  • and on October 21, he started exploring a navigable sea way.

    在 10 月 21 日開始探索 一條可供航行的海路

  • 27 freezing days later,

    27 個寒冷日子後

  • the three remaining ships emerged from what we now call

    剩下的三艘船穿過了一道海峽

  • the Strait of Magellan into the Mar Pacifico.

    也就是現在的麥哲倫海峽, 進入太平洋

  • The fleet never expected the new ocean to be so vast.

    這片海洋遠比船隊想像得遼闊

  • After 98 days at sea, dozens of sailors had succumbed to scurvy and famine.

    在海上待了 98 天後, 許多船員死於壞血病及飢餓

  • When they finally reached land again,

    當他們終於重新踏上陸地時

  • Enrique, the young slave, proved able to communicate with the natives.

    發現船員中那年輕的奴隸恩里克 能夠與當地土著溝通

  • Their goal couldn't be far.

    表示他們的目的地不遠了

  • Sailing further west, Magellan was warmly received by Rajah Humabon of Cebu.

    再往西邊前進,麥哲倫受到 宿霧統治者的熱情禮遇

  • So when the ruler asked him to help subdue

    所以當對方請他幫忙鎮壓

  • and convert the rebellious chief of Mactan,

    並撤換造反的麥克坦島統治者

  • the captain readily agreed.

    麥哲倫就欣然同意了

  • The adventure would be his last.

    而這卻成為他最後一場冒險

  • Overconfident and severely outnumbered, Magellan's force was overwhelmed,

    麥哲倫的軍隊過分自信, 最後卻寡不敵眾而慘遭擊潰

  • and the native's bamboo spears ended the captain's life.

    麥哲倫也死在當地原住民的竹矛下

  • Yet the voyage had to continue.

    然而航程還是得繼續下去

  • Magellan's will specified that Enrique should be freed,

    麥哲倫的遺囑提到放安里克自由

  • but the expedition still needed an interpreter.

    但此次遠航仍需由他來做翻譯

  • With his freedom at stake,

    據說安里克為了自由

  • Enrique is believed to have plotted with the Rajah

    和宿霧的統治者合辦了場鴻門宴

  • to have about 30 of the Spaniards killed at a feast on the beach.

    在宴會上殺死了約三十個西班牙船員

  • Enrique was never heard from again,

    之後就再也沒有安里克的下落

  • but if he ever made it back to Malacca,

    但若是他回到馬拉加

  • he may have been the first person to actually circumnavigate the globe.

    他很可能成為史上第一個 繞地球一周的人

  • Meanwhile, the survivors burned the Concepcion

    同時,倖存者燒了康塞普西翁號

  • and proceeded onward.

    繼續向前行

  • They finally reached the Spice Islands in November of 1521

    終於在 1521 年 11 月 抵達香料群島

  • and loaded up on precious cargo.

    加載了珍貴的貨物

  • But they still had to return to Spain.

    但他們還得航行回去西班牙

  • The "Trinidad" sank shortly after being captured by the Portuguese.

    特立尼達號被葡萄牙捕獲後便沉沒

  • The "Victoria" continued west, piloted by Juan Sebastián Elcano,

    維多利亞號則持續向西, 由胡安·艾爾卡諾掌舵

  • one of the pardoned mutineers.

    他是一名被赦免的叛將

  • Against all odds, the small vessel made it back to Spain

    經過風風雨雨, 小船總算回到西班牙

  • with a full cargo of cloves and cinnamon,

    船上滿載丁香和肉桂

  • enough to cover the expedition and turn a profit.

    價值足以攤平航行成本,還賺了一筆

  • An obsessive chronicler,

    倖存者之一的探險家皮加費塔

  • Pigafetta described the lands and people they encountered.

    紀錄下航程中的所見所聞

  • With the help of a humble slave,

    他還在奴隸的幫助下

  • he also compiled the world's first phrase book

    編寫了世上第一本土語大全

  • of native languages.

    紀錄土著語言

  • His journal is the reason we can tell this story.

    我們之所以有這些故事能說 也都要歸功於他

  • Magellan's legacy lingers.

    麥哲倫的傳奇流傳於世

  • He had galaxies and space programs named after him.

    有銀河和太空計畫都以他命名

  • Elcano, too, was celebrated in Spain

    接替他掌舵的艾爾卡諾 同樣在西班牙受到推崇

  • with a coat of arms and his face on currency and stamps.

    紙鈔和郵票上都可以看到 他的盾徽和肖像

  • United by fate, the survivors

    命中注定般

  • and the hundreds who sacrificed their lives

    倖存者和在旅途中喪命的人 匯聚在一起

  • challenged conventional wisdom

    顛覆了當時人們的想像

  • and completed a historic journey once thought impossible.

    完成了這趟 一度被認為不可能的旅程

On September 6, 1522,

1522 年 9 月 6 日

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 麥哲倫 西班牙 葡萄牙 船隊 船長

麥哲倫是如何環遊地球的 - Ewandro Magalhaes. (How Magellan circumnavigated the globe - Ewandro Magalhaes)

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    robert 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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