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  • Quick! What's common between

    考考你:

  • beef burgers, baseball training

    漢堡、棒球訓練、滅音器,這三個東西

  • and auto mufflers?

    有什麼共同點?

  • Tough question. Let's ask it another way.

    很難回答吧?不然這樣問好了

  • What's the common factor between McDonald's,

    什麼是麥當勞、D-bat 訓練場和馬立可汽車

  • D-Bat and Meineke?

    都擁有的共同點?

  • You may know the answer if, along with a Big Mac,

    和麥當勞巨無霸一塊兒 你可能已經知道答案了

  • you've absorbed a fragment of the romantic story of Ray Kroc.

    你已經知道雷.克羅克 (Ray Kroc) 浪漫故事的一個片段

  • He's the salesman that created what became

    他就是創造了

  • the world's biggest fast food chain.

    世界上最大速食連鎖店的推銷員

  • He did it by making a deal

    他透過和一對叫麥當勞的先生們

  • with a couple of men called the McDonalds.

    做交易來完成這件事

  • Brothers they were, owners of a small restaurant chain,

    他們是擁有一個小餐廳連鎖店的兄弟

  • and the deal was, he could use their brand name and their methods.

    這個交易是 他可以使用他們的品牌和方法

  • Then he invited small entrepreneurs

    然後他邀請小企業家

  • to open McDonald's, that they'd run as operators,

    開麥當勞餐廳

  • with an ownership state.

    並且擁有所有權

  • Very different than the business model where Mom and Pop stores

    這個商業模型相當不同於爸媽的雜貨店

  • have full ownership, but no similar support.

    爸媽的雜貨店擁有所有權 卻沒有類似連鎖店的支持

  • All the examples

    我在一開始

  • in my opening question are a franchise operation.

    所提問的所有例子 都採用經銷權來運作

  • Kroc is sometimes credited

    克羅克有時被認為是

  • with inventing franchising,

    經銷權的發明者

  • and so is Isaac Singer, the sewing machine magnate.

    縫紉機大王伊薩克.辛格 (Issac Singer) 也是

  • Not so. The real genesis of franchising

    然而實情卻不是如此 真正創造經銷權的人

  • was not in stitches or beef,

    不是做裁縫的,也不是搞牛肉的

  • it was in beauty.

    而是美髮沙龍

  • Martha Matilda Harper

    瑪莎.明德.哈珀 (Martha Matilda Harper)

  • was a Canadian-born maid.

    是一位出生於加拿大的女僕

  • She made the beds, cleaned house, did the shopping.

    她鋪床、打掃房子、採買

  • In the employment of a doctor's family in Ontario,

    在安大略省的一個醫生家庭中工作時

  • she acquired a secret formula for shampoo,

    她買下了一個洗髮水的秘密配方

  • one more scientifically based

    一個比每天報紙裡的吹牛廣告

  • than the quackeries advertized every day in the newspapers.

    更科學的配方

  • The kindly doctor also taught the maturing young woman

    那位好醫生也教這個成熟的年輕女子

  • the elements of physiology.

    一些生理學的基礎課程

  • Martha had a secret ambition

    瑪莎對這個秘密配方

  • to go along with the secret formula:

    有個秘密野心:

  • a determination to run her own business.

    她決定自己做生意

  • By 1888, serving as a maid in Rochester, New York,

    1888 年,在紐約的 羅契斯特市裡當女僕的她

  • she saved enough money --

    存夠了錢

  • 360 dollars -- to think of opening

    360 美元

  • a public hairdressing salon.

    讓她想開一家大眾的美髮沙龍

  • But before she could realize her dream,

    但在她實現夢想之前

  • two blows fell. She became sick,

    兩件事降臨了,她變得虛弱

  • and collapsed from exhaustion.

    接著因為過度勞累而病倒了

  • Mrs. Helen Smith, a healing practitioner

    一位用基督教科學信心療法 開業的醫生海倫.史密斯女士

  • of the Christian Science faith, was summoned to her bedside.

    被召喚到她的床邊

  • The two women prayed, and Martha recovered.

    兩位婦女為她祈禱,瑪莎隨後便康復了

  • No sooner was she better then she was told,

    在康復沒多久後,她被告知:

  • "Oh no, you can't rent the place you've eyed."

    「哦不,你不能租你看過的地方。」

  • You see, her venture was to be the first public hairdressing salon.

    你知道,她的事業會成為第一家 大眾的美容美髮沙龍

  • A woman in business was shocking enough then.

    在商場中的女人已經夠嚇人了

  • Only 17 percent of the workforce in 1890 was female,

    在 1890 年時,只有 17% 的勞動人口是女性

  • but a woman carrying out hairdressing

    但是一個女人在大庭廣眾下

  • and skincare in a public place?

    做美容美髮?

  • Why, it was sure to invite a scandal.

    想當然耳,那一定會引來流言蜚語

  • Martha spent some of her savings on a lawyer, and won her case.

    瑪莎用了一些積蓄請了律師,打贏了官司

  • She proudly displayed on the door

    她自豪地在門上展示

  • of her new her salon a photograph

    她的新沙龍照片

  • of the barely five-foot Martha as Rapunzel,

    五尺高的瑪莎就像長髮公主一樣

  • with hair down to her feet, but glowing with good health.

    頭髮及地,面容健康的模樣

  • Her sickness, too, had proved a boon.

    她的病也證明了一件事

  • Her ambition was now propelled

    現在,她的雄心壯志

  • by Christian Science values.

    受到基督教科學的價值觀所激勵著

  • The Harper Method, as she came to call her services,

    當她稱自己的服務為 「哈珀法 (The Harper Method)」時

  • was as much about servicing the soul

    服務心靈的重要性

  • as it was about cutting hair.

    不亞於修剪頭髮的重要性

  • In the therapeutic serenity of her salon,

    在沙龍裡進行治療的靜謐中

  • she taught that every person could glow

    她傳授的是 每一個人都能閃閃動人

  • with the kind of beauty she had,

    就像她一樣美麗

  • if spiritually whole and physically obedient to what she called

    如果靈性上的健全和生理上的服從

  • "the laws of cleanliness, nourishment,

    是她所謂的:「潔淨、滋養、

  • exercise and breathing."

    運動與呼吸法則。」

  • She was very practical about it.

    那麼她可是非常確實地身體力行

  • She even designed the first reclining shampoo chair,

    她甚至設計了第一張洗髮躺椅

  • though she neglected to patent the invention.

    可惜她忽略了要申請發明專利

  • Martha's salon was a huge success.

    瑪莎的沙龍非常成功

  • Celebrities came from out of town

    名流從各地前來

  • to experience the Harper Method.

    體驗哈珀法

  • They enjoyed the service so much

    他們很享受這項服務

  • that they urged her to set up a salon in their cities.

    甚至敦促她到他們的城市開間沙龍

  • And this is where Martha's ethical sense

    這是啟發瑪莎

  • inspired her crowning innovation.

    偉大創新發明的初衷

  • Instead of commissioning agents, as other innovators had done,

    不像其他發明者習慣找代理商

  • from 1891, she installed

    1891 年起,她安排了像她一樣的勞工婦女

  • working-class women just like herself

    在沙龍服務

  • in salons exactly like hers,

    就像在她的沙龍一樣

  • dedicated to her philosophy and her products.

    致力於推展她的理念和產品

  • But these new employees

    但這些新進員工

  • were not provided a salary by Martha.

    並沒有從瑪莎那裡拿到薪水

  • The women in what became a satellite network of 500 salons

    實際上,這些婦女都相繼 成為了哈珀沙龍的擁有人

  • in America, and then Europe and Central America

    最初的五百家沙龍 在美國形成了衛星網絡

  • and Asia, actually owned the Harper's Salons.

    接下來又延伸到歐洲、中美洲以及亞洲

  • What was good enough in the nineteenth century

    那就如同十九世紀

  • for suffragette campaigners like Susan B. Anthony

    為婦女參政運動努力的 蘇珊.安東尼 ( Susan B. Anthony)

  • and was good enough in the twentieth century

    還有二十世紀

  • for Woodrow Wilson, Calvin and Grace Coolidge, Jacqueline Kennedy,

    伍德羅.威爾遜 (Woodrow Wilson)、 柯立芝總統與夫人葛蕾思、賈桂琳.甘迺迪

  • Helen Hayes and Ladybird Johnson

    海倫.海斯與小瓢蟲.約翰遜(Ladybird Johnson)

  • must be good enough for the rest of the world.

    同樣地也為世界其它地方帶來美好

  • Today, only the Harper Method Founder's Shop

    今天,哈珀法創始店

  • remains in Rochester, New York, but Martha's legacy is manifold.

    僅存在紐約的羅契斯特 但瑪莎的影響無所不在

  • Her health and beauty treatments have been copied,

    她的健康美容治療法已被大量仿效

  • and her business model is dominant.

    而她的商業模式也成為主流

  • In fact, half of retail sales in America

    事實上,在美國有一半的零售商

  • are through Martha Harper's franchising idea.

    都是學習瑪莎.哈珀的經銷權理念

  • So the next time you enjoy a McDonald's hamburger

    所以下次你享用麥當勞的漢堡

  • or a good night's rest at a Days Inn,

    或在戴斯酒店一夜好眠時

  • think of Martha.

    別忘了瑪莎

  • Because these franchises might not be the same

    因為沒有她在一世紀前的發明模型

  • without her inventing the model, over a century ago.

    這些經銷商可能就會大不相同了

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 瑪莎 麥當勞 發明 婦女 連鎖店

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    陳劭杰 發佈於 2013 年 10 月 09 日
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