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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Krystian Aparta

    譯者: Wilde Luo 審譯者: NAN-KUN WU

  • There was a day, about 10 years ago,

    10 年前的某一天,

  • when I asked a friend to hold a baby dinosaur robot upside down.

    我叫我的一個朋友 倒著抓住一只恐龍寶寶機器人。

  • It was this toy called a Pleo that I had ordered,

    這是我訂購的玩具,叫做「普里奧」,

  • and I was really excited about it because I've always loved robots.

    我對此很興奮,因為 我對機器人情有獨鍾。

  • And this one has really cool technical features.

    這隻機器人使用了很酷的技術。

  • It had motors and touch sensors

    它裝備了一些馬達和觸摸感應器,

  • and it had an infrared camera.

    以及一個紅外線攝影機。

  • And one of the things it had was a tilt sensor,

    此外,它還有一個傾斜感應器,

  • so it knew what direction it was facing.

    所以它知道自己面對的方向。

  • And when you held it upside down,

    當你倒過來抓住它,

  • it would start to cry.

    它會開始哭。

  • And I thought this was super cool, so I was showing it off to my friend,

    我覺得這真是酷斃了, 所以我自豪地向朋友展示它,

  • and I said, "Oh, hold it up by the tail. See what it does."

    我說:「噢,抓它的尾巴, 吊著它,看它會怎麽樣。」

  • So we're watching the theatrics of this robot

    然後我們看著這隻機器人

  • struggle and cry out.

    裝模作樣地掙扎和哭喊。

  • And after a few seconds,

    幾秒鐘之後,

  • it starts to bother me a little,

    它開始令我心煩,

  • and I said, "OK, that's enough now.

    我說:「好了,夠了。

  • Let's put him back down."

    我們放下它。」

  • And then I pet the robot to make it stop crying.

    接着我安撫這隻機器人, 讓它平靜下來。

  • And that was kind of a weird experience for me.

    這件事讓我感覺十分怪異。

  • For one thing, I wasn't the most maternal person at the time.

    一方面,我在那時 並不如母親一般慈愛。

  • Although since then I've become a mother, nine months ago,

    直到九個月前,我成為了母親,

  • and I've learned that babies also squirm when you hold them upside down.

    我才知道原來寶寶在被 倒著抓住時也會掙扎扭動。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But my response to this robot was also interesting

    但是我對這隻機器人的 反應也耐人尋味,

  • because I knew exactly how this machine worked,

    因為,即使我對這臺 機器的工作原理一清二楚,

  • and yet I still felt compelled to be kind to it.

    但我仍然情不自禁地 對它生出惻隱之心。

  • And that observation sparked a curiosity

    這個觀察結果激起了我的好奇心,

  • that I've spent the past decade pursuing.

    讓我在過去這十年不斷探究:

  • Why did I comfort this robot?

    為什麼我會安撫這隻機器人?

  • And one of the things I discovered was that my treatment of this machine

    我的其中一個發現就是: 我對這臺機器的所作所為

  • was more than just an awkward moment in my living room,

    不僅僅只是客廳裡一個尷尬的 小插曲,它說明了更多東西。

  • that in a world where we're increasingly integrating robots into our lives,

    在如今,我們的生活 與機器人日益親密無間,

  • an instinct like that might actually have consequences,

    類似上述行為的本能 可能會造成實在的影響,

  • because the first thing that I discovered is that it's not just me.

    因為我的第一個發現就是: 我不是唯一一個這樣做的人。

  • In 2007, the Washington Post reported that the United States military

    2007 年,華盛頓郵報報導, 美國軍方正在測試

  • was testing this robot that defused land mines.

    一種拆除地雷的機器人。

  • And the way it worked was it was shaped like a stick insect

    它是這樣工作的: 它的形狀類似於竹節蟲,

  • and it would walk around a minefield on its legs,

    它會用自己的「腿」在雷區附近移動。

  • and every time it stepped on a mine, one of the legs would blow up,

    每一次踩到地雷, 它都會被炸掉一隻腿,

  • and it would continue on the other legs to blow up more mines.

    然後它會用其它的「腿」 繼續移動,引爆更多的地雷。

  • And the colonel who was in charge of this testing exercise

    那位負責這項測試工作的上校

  • ends up calling it off,

    最終取消了它。

  • because, he says, it's too inhumane

    因為他說,看著這些傷痕累累的機器人

  • to watch this damaged robot drag itself along the minefield.

    在雷區掙扎前行實在是慘無人道。

  • Now, what would cause a hardened military officer

    那麽,又是什麼讓這位老練的軍官

  • and someone like myself

    以及像我這樣的人

  • to have this response to robots?

    對機器人做出這種反應?

  • Well, of course, we're primed by science fiction and pop culture

    當然,我們受科幻小說 和流行文化的影響,

  • to really want to personify these things,

    已經躍躍欲試要將這些事物人格化,

  • but it goes a little bit deeper than that.

    但還不止於此。

  • It turns out that we're biologically hardwired to project intent and life

    事實證明,對於身邊任何 看來像是自發做出的動作,

  • onto any movement in our physical space that seems autonomous to us.

    生物天性決定了我們 會為其賦予意圖和生命。

  • So people will treat all sorts of robots like they're alive.

    所以人們會把各種各樣的 機器人當成生命對待。

  • These bomb-disposal units get names.

    這些炸彈處理單位被賦予了名字。

  • They get medals of honor.

    它們被授予了榮譽勛章。

  • They've had funerals for them with gun salutes.

    在它們的葬禮上,人們以禮炮致敬。

  • And research shows that we do this even with very simple household robots,

    研究表明,甚至對於構造簡單的 家用機器人,我們也是如此,

  • like the Roomba vacuum cleaner.

    例如「Roomba 吸塵器機器人」。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It's just a disc that roams around your floor to clean it,

    它只是一個圓盤, 在地板上遊蕩並打掃,

  • but just the fact it's moving around on its own

    但僅因為它自己四處移動,

  • will cause people to name the Roomba

    也會讓人們親昵地幫它取名字,

  • and feel bad for the Roomba when it gets stuck under the couch.

    當它被卡在沙發下時 還會給予同情。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And we can design robots specifically to evoke this response,

    並且我們能專門為此 來設計機器人,

  • using eyes and faces or movements

    藉助眼睛、面部或者動作,

  • that people automatically, subconsciously associate

    人們在潛意識裏

  • with states of mind.

    會自動將其與某種心情聯繫起來。

  • And there's an entire body of research called human-robot interaction

    一系列「人與機器人互動」的研究

  • that really shows how well this works.

    都表明了這種機制的運作多麼廣泛。

  • So for example, researchers at Stanford University found out

    例如,史丹佛大學的研究者發現

  • that it makes people really uncomfortable

    當要求人們去觸碰機器人的私處時,

  • when you ask them to touch a robot's private parts.

    他們會感到非常不適。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So from this, but from many other studies,

    因此,從很多研究看來,

  • we know, we know that people respond to the cues given to them

    我們知道人們會對這些 逼真的機器人所帶來的暗示

  • by these lifelike machines,

    作出反應,

  • even if they know that they're not real.

    即使人們知道它們並非生命。

  • Now, we're headed towards a world where robots are everywhere.

    我們正進入一個 機器人已無處不在的世界,

  • Robotic technology is moving out from behind factory walls.

    機器人技術打破藩籬,開始走出工廠。

  • It's entering workplaces, households.

    它進入了工作場所、家庭。

  • And as these machines that can sense and make autonomous decisions and learn

    隨着這些能夠感知、 自主決策及學習的機器

  • enter into these shared spaces,

    進入這些公共場所,

  • I think that maybe the best analogy we have for this

    我認為,也許對此最好的類比就是

  • is our relationship with animals.

    我們與動物之間的關係。

  • Thousands of years ago, we started to domesticate animals,

    數千年前,我們開始馴養動物,

  • and we trained them for work and weaponry and companionship.

    它們被我們馴化:付出勞動、 作為武器,並陪伴我們。

  • And throughout history, we've treated some animals like tools or like products,

    在歷史上,我們把一些動物 當作工具或者產品,

  • and other animals, we've treated with kindness

    而對於另一些動物,我們予以善待

  • and we've given a place in society as our companions.

    並為它們保留一席之地, 成為我們的夥伴。

  • I think it's plausible we might start to integrate robots in similar ways.

    我認為,我們以相似的方式 接納機器人,是合情合理的。

  • And sure, animals are alive.

    當然,動物是活的,

  • Robots are not.

    而機器人不是。

  • And I can tell you, from working with roboticists,

    實話實說,與機器人 專家共事讓我得知

  • that we're pretty far away from developing robots that can feel anything.

    我們還遠不足以開發出 能有任何感受的機器人。

  • But we feel for them,

    但是我們同情它們,

  • and that matters,

    這很重要。

  • because if we're trying to integrate robots into these shared spaces,

    因為如果想要讓機器人 融入這些公共空間,

  • we need to understand that people will treat them differently than other devices,

    我們需要瞭解:人們對待 它們與其他設備的方式會不同。

  • and that in some cases,

    在某些情況下,

  • for example, the case of a soldier who becomes emotionally attached

    例如,一位軍人對一同工作的機器人

  • to the robot that they work with,

    產生了情感依賴,

  • that can be anything from inefficient to dangerous.

    這可能造成種種後果, 小到不便,大到危險。

  • But in other cases, it can actually be useful

    在其他情況下, 培養這種與機器人的情感聯結

  • to foster this emotional connection to robots.

    是很有用處的。

  • We're already seeing some great use cases,

    我們已經看到了一些很好的例子,

  • for example, robots working with autistic children

    例如,輔導自閉症兒童的機器人

  • to engage them in ways that we haven't seen previously,

    前所未有地吸引着孩子們,

  • or robots working with teachers to engage kids in learning with new results.

    或者,與老師們共事的機器人 讓孩子們投入學習,取得了新成果。

  • And it's not just for kids.

    這並非只限於孩子。

  • Early studies show that robots can help doctors and patients

    早期的研究顯示, 在醫療保健領域中,

  • in health care settings.

    機器人能夠幫助醫生和病人。

  • This is the PARO baby seal robot.

    這是叫做「帕羅」的海豹寶寶機器人。

  • It's used in nursing homes and with dementia patients.

    它被用於養老院中,陪伴失智症患者。

  • It's been around for a while.

    這項服務已有一段時間了。

  • And I remember, years ago, being at a party

    我還記得,幾年前在一個聚會上,

  • and telling someone about this robot,

    我告訴某人關於這種機器人的事,

  • and her response was,

    她的反應是,

  • "Oh my gosh.

    「噢,天哪,

  • That's horrible.

    這太可怕了。

  • I can't believe we're giving people robots instead of human care."

    簡直難以置信,照顧人們的 竟然是機器人,而不是人工護理。」

  • And this is a really common response,

    這是相當普遍的反應,

  • and I think it's absolutely correct,

    而且我認為這也是人之常情,

  • because that would be terrible.

    因為那樣做真的非常糟糕。

  • But in this case, it's not what this robot replaces.

    但在這裏,機器人 所替代的並非人工護理。

  • What this robot replaces is animal therapy

    機器人所替代的,是動物療法,

  • in contexts where we can't use real animals

    在這種環境下, 我們不允許使用活的動物,

  • but we can use robots,

    但我們可以使用機器人,

  • because people will consistently treat them more like an animal than a device.

    因為人們永遠會把它們 當作動物,而不是設備。

  • Acknowledging this emotional connection to robots

    隨着這些設備日益走近人們的生活,

  • can also help us anticipate challenges

    承認與機器人的情感聯結

  • as these devices move into more intimate areas of people's lives.

    同樣能夠幫助我們 預料到即將面臨的挑戰。

  • For example, is it OK if your child's teddy bear robot

    例如,如果你孩子的泰迪熊機器人

  • records private conversations?

    會記録私人談話,這合理嗎?

  • Is it OK if your sex robot has compelling in-app purchases?

    如果你的性愛機器人強烈 要求購買內置服務,這合理嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Because robots plus capitalism

    因為當機器人遇上資本主義,

  • equals questions around consumer protection and privacy.

    便會產生關於消費者保護 以及隱私方面的問題。

  • And those aren't the only reasons

    這些並不是唯一造成

  • that our behavior around these machines could matter.

    我們對於這些機器的 行為十分重要的原因。

  • A few years after that first initial experience I had

    在最初那場

  • with this baby dinosaur robot,

    對恐龍寶寶機器人的 實驗數年之後,

  • I did a workshop with my friend Hannes Gassert.

    我和朋友哈尼斯 · 哥薩特 開了個研討會。

  • And we took five of these baby dinosaur robots

    我們拿了 5 個這樣的 恐龍寶寶機器人,

  • and we gave them to five teams of people.

    分發給 5 組受試者。

  • And we had them name them

    我們讓人們給它們起名字,

  • and play with them and interact with them for about an hour.

    和它們一起玩耍、互動, 大約用了一個小時。

  • And then we unveiled a hammer and a hatchet

    然後我們拿出一隻錘子和斧頭,

  • and we told them to torture and kill the robots.

    我們要受試者折磨並殺死機器人。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And this turned out to be a little more dramatic

    實驗的結果比我們想象的

  • than we expected it to be,

    更有戲劇性,

  • because none of the participants would even so much as strike

    因為參與者甚至都不忍敲打

  • these baby dinosaur robots,

    這些恐龍寶寶機器人,

  • so we had to improvise a little, and at some point, we said,

    所以我們不得不臨時變卦, 後來只好告訴他們,

  • "OK, you can save your team's robot if you destroy another team's robot."

    「好吧,如果摧毀了其他組的機器人, 你就能拯救自己的機器人了。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And even that didn't work. They couldn't do it.

    即使是這樣也沒有起色。 他們同樣做不到。

  • So finally, we said,

    所以最後,我們說,

  • "We're going to destroy all of the robots

    「我們要摧毀所有的機器人了,

  • unless someone takes a hatchet to one of them."

    除非某個人拿起斧頭 對其中一個下手。

  • And this guy stood up, and he took the hatchet,

    某位仁兄站起來了, 他拿著斧頭,

  • and the whole room winced as he brought the hatchet down

    當他砍中機器人的脖子時,

  • on the robot's neck,

    整個房間的空氣都仿彿凝固了。

  • and there was this half-joking, half-serious moment of silence in the room

    這就是當時在房間裏 因為這隻倒下的機器人

  • for this fallen robot.

    所帶來既幽默又嚴肅的時刻。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So that was a really interesting experience.

    這真是一段有趣的經歷。

  • Now, it wasn't a controlled study, obviously,

    當然,這不是一個具有控制組的研究,

  • but it did lead to some later research that I did at MIT

    但它確實導向了 我在麻省理工學院

  • with Palash Nandy and Cynthia Breazeal,

    和帕拉斯 · 南迪和辛西婭 · 布雷西亞 一起做的一些後續的研究,

  • where we had people come into the lab and smash these HEXBUGs

    我們當時讓人們進入實驗室 粉碎這些電子甲蟲,

  • that move around in a really lifelike way, like insects.

    它們像昆蟲一樣十分逼真地移動。

  • So instead of choosing something cute that people are drawn to,

    所以,與其選擇某種 吸引人們的可愛動物,

  • we chose something more basic,

    我們選擇了更為簡單的東西,

  • and what we found was that high-empathy people

    我們發現,富有同情心的人

  • would hesitate more to hit the HEXBUGS.

    在粉碎電子甲蟲時會更加猶豫。

  • Now this is just a little study,

    這只是一個小研究,

  • but it's part of a larger body of research

    但這也屬於一個更大範疇的研究,

  • that is starting to indicate that there may be a connection

    該研究開始表明: 在人們對同情之心的傾向

  • between people's tendencies for empathy

    和他們對於機器人的行為之間

  • and their behavior around robots.

    或許存在聯繫。

  • But my question for the coming era of human-robot interaction

    但對於未來人類和機器互動的時代,

  • is not: "Do we empathize with robots?"

    我想問的並不是「我們會對 機器人產生同情嗎?」

  • It's: "Can robots change people's empathy?"

    而是「機器人能夠 改變我們的同情心嗎?」

  • Is there reason to, for example,

    例如,

  • prevent your child from kicking a robotic dog,

    阻止你的孩子踢一隻機器狗,

  • not just out of respect for property,

    且並非出於對財產的尊重,

  • but because the child might be more likely to kick a real dog?

    而是因為如此孩子就更有可能 虐待真正的狗,這是否有道理?

  • And again, it's not just kids.

    並且,同樣不侷限於孩子。

  • This is the violent video games question, but it's on a completely new level

    這個問題源於暴力遊戲, 但它站在一個全新的角度,

  • because of this visceral physicality that we respond more intensely to

    因為這種自發的肢體 讓我們做出的反應

  • than to images on a screen.

    會比對螢幕上的圖片更強烈。

  • When we behave violently towards robots,

    當我們虐待機器人,

  • specifically robots that are designed to mimic life,

    尤其是那種被設計成 模仿生命的機器人,

  • is that a healthy outlet for violent behavior

    這是對暴力行為的正常發泄,

  • or is that training our cruelty muscles?

    還是在助長我們的暴戾習性?

  • We don't know ...

    我們不知道……

  • But the answer to this question has the potential to impact human behavior,

    但是這個問題的答案 能夠影響人類行為,

  • it has the potential to impact social norms,

    它能夠影響社會準則,

  • it has the potential to inspire rules around what we can and can't do

    它能夠啓發我們,對於 特定的機器人,哪些事能做,

  • with certain robots,

    哪些事不能做。

  • similar to our animal cruelty laws.

    與我們的「動物保護法」相似。

  • Because even if robots can't feel,

    因為即使機器人無法感知情感,

  • our behavior towards them might matter for us.

    我們對它們的行為 對我們或許很重要。

  • And regardless of whether we end up changing our rules,

    不論最後我們是否 改變了我們的準則,

  • robots might be able to help us come to a new understanding of ourselves.

    機器人或許能夠幫助我們 再一次全新地認識我們自己。

  • Most of what I've learned over the past 10 years

    我過去 10 年來 所瞭解的大部分內容

  • has not been about technology at all.

    並不是關於技術本身。

  • It's been about human psychology

    而是關於人類的心理、

  • and empathy and how we relate to others.

    同情心以及我們 如何與他人建立聯繫。

  • Because when a child is kind to a Roomba,

    因為當一個孩子和善相待 Roomba 機器人時,

  • when a soldier tries to save a robot on the battlefield,

    當一名軍人想在 戰場上拯救一名機器人時,

  • or when a group of people refuses to harm a robotic baby dinosaur,

    或者當一群人拒絶 傷害恐龍機器寶寶時,

  • those robots aren't just motors and gears and algorithms.

    這些機器人已不再是 馬達、齒輪和演算法。

  • They're reflections of our own humanity.

    他們都折射出我們人性的光輝。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Krystian Aparta

譯者: Wilde Luo 審譯者: NAN-KUN WU

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 機器人 寶寶 動物 恐龍 斧頭

【TED】凱特-達林。為什麼我們與機器人有情感聯繫(為什麼我們與機器人有情感聯繫|凱特-達林)。 (【TED】Kate Darling: Why we have an emotional connection to robots (Why we have an emotional connection to robots | Kate Darling))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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