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  • Spindly trees,

    瘦長的樹、

  • rusted gates,

    生鏽的鐵門、

  • crumbling stone,

    碎裂的石頭、

  • a solitary mourner

    孤身一人的哀悼者 ——

  • these things come to mind when we think of cemeteries.

    當我們想到墓地時,會聯想到這些東西

  • But not so long ago,

    但在不久以前

  • many burial grounds were lively places,

    許多墓地原先都是生氣蓬勃的地方

  • with blooming gardens and crowds of people strolling among the headstones.

    有百花綻放,還有人群們漫步於石碑之間

  • How did our cemeteries become what they are today?

    我們的墓地是如何變成今日這樣的?

  • Some have been around for centuries,

    有些是已經存在了幾世紀

  • like the world's largest, Wadi al-Salaam,

    像是世界上最大的,Wadi al-Salaam (位於伊拉克)

  • where more than five million people are buried.

    有五百萬以上的人在此地長眠

  • But most of the places we'd recognize as cemeteries are much younger.

    但大多數被我們視為墓地的地方都年輕多了

  • In fact, for much of human history,

    事實上,人類歷史上有很長的時段

  • we didn't bury our dead at all.

    我們根本就不會埋葬死者

  • Our ancient ancestors had many other ways of parting with the dead loved ones.

    我們的老祖宗有許多其他種方式和死去的摯愛告別

  • Some were left in caves,

    有些被放在洞穴

  • others in trees

    有些放樹上

  • or on mountaintops.

    或是放山頂

  • Still others were sunk in lakes,

    還有一些是沉到湖裡、

  • put out to sea,

    放到海上、

  • ritually cannibalized,

    依據儀式吃掉、

  • or cremated.

    或是焚化

  • All of these practices,

    所有這些舉動

  • though some may seem strange today,

    雖然或許在今日看來奇怪

  • were ways of venerating the dead.

    但在過去都是尊敬死者的方式

  • By contrast, the first known burials

    相較之下,已知的第一起埋葬

  • about 120,000 years ago

    大約在 12 萬年前

  • were likely reserved for transgressors,

    可能是特別用來對付罪人的

  • excluding them from the usual rites intended to honor the dead.

    將他們排除在用來向死者致敬的尋常儀式之外

  • But the first burials revealed some advantages over other practices:

    但是埋葬擁有一些其他儀式沒有的優點:

  • they protected bodies from scavengers and the elements,

    保護軀體不受動物食用或是氣候摧殘

  • while shielding loved ones from the sight of decay.

    同時也能避免生者看見死者腐壞的樣子

  • These benefits may have shifted ancient people's thinking toward graves designed to honor the dead,

    這些好處或許改變了老祖宗對於埋葬、尊敬死者的想法

  • and burial became more common.

    埋葬也變得更加普遍

  • Sometimes, these graves contained practical or ritual objects,

    有時候,這些墳墓會有實用性或是儀式性的物品

  • suggesting belief in an afterlife, when the dead might need such tools.

    意味著相信來生,認為死者在來生會需要這類工具

  • Communal burials first appeared in North Africa and West Asia

    公共埋葬最早出現在北非和西非

  • around 10 to 15,000 years ago,

    大約 1 至 1.5 萬年前

  • around the same time as the first permanent settlements in these areas.

    也差不多是這些地區開始有定居聚落的時期

  • These burial grounds created permanent places to commemorate the dead.

    這些埋葬地成為了紀念死者的固定地點

  • The nomadic Scythians littered the steppes with grave mounds known as kurgans.

    遊牧民族塞西亞人在西伯利亞大草原一帶留下了埋葬土堆,稱為 kurgan

  • The Etruscans built expansive necropoles,

    伊特魯里亞人建立了大型墳場

  • their grid-patterned streets lined with tombs.

    他們的棋盤式街道就和墳墓並排

  • In Rome, subterranean catacombs housed

    在羅馬,地下墓穴容納了

  • both cremation urns and intact remains.

    火葬骨灰甕和完整的遺骸

  • The word cemetery, orsleeping chamber,”

    cemetery (墓地) 一詞,或稱「長眠墓室」

  • was first used by ancient Greeks,

    最早由古希臘人使用

  • who built tombs in graveyards at the edges of their cities.

    他們在城市的邊緣墳場中建造墳墓

  • In medieval European cities,

    在中世紀歐洲城市

  • Christian churchyards provided rare, open spaces

    基督教教堂墓地提供了珍貴的開放空間

  • that accommodated the dead,

    容納死者

  • but also hosted markets, fairs, and other events.

    但也會在這舉行市集和其他活動

  • Farmers even grazed cattle in them,

    農夫甚至會在這裡放牧

  • believing graveyard grass made for sweeter milk.

    因為他們相信墓地的草可以培養出更甜的牛奶

  • As cities grew during the industrial revolution,

    當城市在工業革命時期擴張時

  • large suburban cemeteries replaced smaller urban churchyards.

    大型的郊區墓地取代了較小的都市教堂墓地

  • Cemeteries like the 110-acrere-Lachaise in Paris

    像是在巴黎佔地 110 英畝的拉雪兹神父公墓

  • or the 72-acre Mt. Auburn in Cambridge, Massachusetts

    或是在麻薩諸塞州劍橋佔地 72 英畝的奧本山公墓

  • were lushly landscaped gardens

    都有豐富茂盛的花園造景

  • filled with sculpted stones

    遍佈石雕像

  • and ornate tombs.

    和加了雕飾的墳墓

  • Once a luxury reserved for the rich and powerful,

    以個人身份標記的墳墓一度是有錢有勢的人們才有的奢侈品

  • individually marked graves became available to the middle and working classes.

    但中產和勞動階級的人們也負擔得起了

  • People visited cemeteries for funerals,

    人們來墓地參加喪禮

  • but also for anniversaries, holidays,

    但有時是為了紀念日、節日

  • or simply an afternoon outdoors.

    或純粹只是一個午後戶外活動

  • By the late 19th century, as more public parks and botanical gardens appeared,

    到了 19 世紀後期,當越來越多公園和植物園出現後

  • cemeteries began to lose visitors.

    造訪墓地的人就漸漸少了

  • Today, many old cemeteries are lonely places.

    在今日,許多老舊墓地是孤單的地方

  • Some are luring visitors back with tours,

    有一些試圖透過遊覽、

  • concerts, and other attractions.

    演唱會或是其他方式吸引人們參訪

  • But even as we revive old cemeteries,

    但即使我們復興了老舊墓地

  • we're rethinking the future of burial.

    我們也是在重新思考埋葬的未來

  • Cities like London, New York, and Hong Kong

    像是倫敦、紐約和香港這些城市

  • are running out of burial space.

    埋葬空間就要不夠了

  • Even in places where space isn't so tight,

    即使是在空間不那麼擁擠的地方

  • cemeteries permanently occupy land

    墓地也是一直佔據著那些

  • that can't be otherwise cultivated or developed.

    永遠不能拿來另做開墾或是發展的土地

  • Traditional burial consumes materials

    傳統埋葬會消耗材料

  • like metal, stone, and concrete,

    像是金屬、石頭和水泥

  • and can pollute soil and groundwater with toxic chemicals.

    都會藉著有毒物質污染土壤和地下水

  • With increasing awareness of the environmental costs,

    隨著越來越多人意識到環境成本

  • people are seeking alternatives.

    人們開始尋找替代方案

  • Many are turning to cremation and related practices.

    許多人轉向火葬和相關的措施

  • Along with these more conventional practices,

    除了這些較為傳統的方式

  • people can now have their remains shot into space,

    人們現在也能將遺骸發射進太空、

  • used to fertilize a tree,

    用來給樹施肥

  • or made into jewelry,

    或是做成鑽石、

  • fireworks,

    煙火、

  • and even tattoo ink.

    甚至是刺青墨水

  • In the future, options like these may replace burial completely.

    在未來,這類的選項或許會完全取代埋葬

  • Cemeteries may be our most familiar monuments to the departed,

    墓地或許是我們最熟悉的、用來紀念往生者的方式

  • but they're just one step in our ever-evolving process of remembering and honoring the dead.

    但在我們用來緬懷和尊敬死者的方式持續演進的同時,它們也只是其中一步

  • All living things die, but is resurrection possible?

    所有生物都會死亡,但是有可能復生嗎?

  • And, what's the actual difference between a living creature and a dead body anyway?

    還有,活著的生物和死去的軀體究竟差在哪?

  • Check out this lesson to find out.

    看看這門課來解答吧!

Spindly trees,

瘦長的樹、

字幕與單字

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 墓地 埋葬 死者 墳墓 儀式

【TED-Ed】墓地的歷史:墓地曾經是很夯的聚會地點!? (The fascinating history of cemeteries - Keith Eggener)

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    shuting1215 發佈於 2018 年 12 月 02 日
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