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  • These two Kenyan ladies were best friends

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

  • from neighboring villages,

    這兩位肯亞女子是最要好的朋友,

  • but they'd stopped seeing each other, literally, for 10 years,

    住在相鄰的村落中,

  • because both had gone blind from a curable condition called cataracts.

    但她們不再跟彼此見面了, 真的是十年都不「見」,

  • They hadn't been aware they'd been sat together for over an hour

    因為兩人都因為一種可治癒的 疾病失明了,就是白内障。

  • when we offered them surgery at the nearest hospital.

    當我們提議讓她們 在最近的醫院進行手術時,

  • Mama Jane, on the right, told me

    過了一個小時,她們都沒有發現 好朋友就坐在自己身邊。

  • her biggest fear was that she would poison her grandson,

    珍媽媽,也就是 右邊的這一位,告訴我

  • whom she'd never seen,

    她最大的恐懼就是她會毒死

  • because she couldn't see what she was cooking for him.

    她從來沒看過的孫子,

  • Her arms were covered in burns from cooking on a charcoal stove,

    因為她看不見她在為他燒什麼菜。

  • and she despaired that she was robbing her six-year-old grandson of his childhood

    她的手臂都是用碳爐 燒菜造成的燙傷,

  • because he was effectively her eyes.

    且她感到絕望,覺得自己 奪走了六歲孫子的童年,

  • The effect of her blindness was going through the generations.

    因為他實際上就是她的眼睛。

  • He wasn't able to go to school or break the cycle of poverty.

    她的失明影響到不只一個世代。

  • All of this, despite cost-effective solutions existing.

    他無法去上學或是打破貧窮的循環。

  • Cataract surgery can be done in under 10 minutes

    儘管具有成本效益的解決方案, 卻仍然發生這種事。

  • for just a hundred dollars.

    白內障手術不用十分鐘就能完成,

  • Four in every five people who are blind don't need to be;

    價格只要一百美金。

  • curative or preventive treatments already exist.

    五個失明的人當中, 有四個其實不該失明;

  • Fortunately for Mama Jane and her friend,

    治癒性和或預防性的療法 都已經存在了。

  • a donor had provided treatment

    珍媽媽和她的朋友很幸運,

  • so that we could take them to the nearest hospital

    一位捐贈者提供了治療,

  • three hours away.

    讓我們能帶她們到最近的醫院,

  • But in that very same clinic,

    只要三小時的路程。

  • I met Theresa,

    但就在同一間診所中,

  • a shy young woman who couldn't look me in the eyes,

    我遇見了泰瑞莎,

  • not because she couldn't see,

    她是位害羞的年輕女子, 無法看我的眼睛,

  • but the appearance of the growth on her eyes called pterygium

    不是因為她看不見,

  • meant she'd lost her confidence,

    而是因為她的眼睛長出了翼狀贅片,

  • and with it, her place in her community.

    意思就是她失去了她的信心,

  • She had no prospects for marriage or children

    隨著信心,也失去了 她在社區中的地位。

  • and had been completely ostracized.

    她完全不指望能結婚生子,

  • I knew how to treat her condition; it was pretty straightforward.

    且完全被排斥在外。

  • But we had strict instructions that the funds we had

    我知道如何治療她的狀況; 方法相當直接。

  • were for people with cataracts.

    但我們能取得的基金 有嚴格的指示,

  • What was I supposed to do?

    只能用於白內障的人。

  • Ignore her?

    我能怎麼做?

  • My wife and I managed to raise the funds to cover her treatment,

    忽視她?

  • but situations like Theresa were common every day,

    我太太和我想辦法 為她的治療募款,

  • where people had the wrong diseases.

    但像泰瑞莎這樣的情況 天天都在發生,

  • And by the "wrong diseases,"

    這些人得了錯的病。

  • I mean conditions for which funding hadn't been earmarked.

    我所謂的「錯的病」

  • Earmarking may seem like smart business or smart philanthropy on paper,

    指的就是不包含在 資金撥款用途中的那些病。

  • but it doesn't make any sense when you're looking the person in the eye.

    理論上,撥專款似乎是種 聰明的生意或聰明的慈善,

  • Yet, this is how we deliver health care to millions of people the world over.

    但當你看著病人的眼睛時, 這樣的做法是不合理的。

  • I've been thinking about this problem for a very long time.

    然而,我們就這樣將健康照護 提供給世界各地的數百萬人。

  • Things happened to me at the age of 12 that completely transformed my life.

    長年以來, 我一直在思考這個問題。

  • My teachers insisted that I would go for an eye test.

    我十二歲的時候發生了一件事, 改變了我的人生。

  • I resisted it for as many years as I could

    我的老師堅持我要去做視力檢查。

  • because as the only brown boy in the school,

    多年來我一直很抗拒,能閃則閃,

  • I already felt like a chocolate chip in rice pudding,

    身為學校中唯一褐色皮膚的男孩,

  • and the idea of looking more different was not particularly appealing.

    我已經覺得自己像是 米布丁中的巧克力片了,

  • You see, I'd associated an eye test with wearing glasses

    我實在沒什麼興趣再去 找出我和別人的不同。

  • and looking different,

    我會把視力檢查聯想到要戴眼鏡

  • not with seeing differently.

    及看起來與眾不同,

  • When eventually I was persuaded to go,

    而不是聯想到看更清楚。

  • the optometrist fitted me with the trial lenses

    最終,我被說服要去檢查時,

  • and was shocked at just how poor my sight was.

    驗光師讓我配上試鏡片,

  • He sent me outside to report what I could see.

    我很驚訝我的視力原來這麼差。

  • I remember looking up and seeing trees had leaves on them.

    他要我走出去, 告訴他我能看到什麼。

  • I had never known this.

    我還記得我向上看, 看到樹木上面有樹葉。

  • Later that week, for the first time, I saw stars in the night sky.

    我以前從來不知道這一點。

  • It was breathtaking.

    同一週沒多久之後, 我第一次看見了夜空的星星。

  • In fact, the entire trajectory of my life changed.

    那景象讓我摒息。

  • I went from a failing child at school who was constantly told I was lazy

    事實上,我人生的整個軌道改變了。

  • and not paying attention

    我以前在學校裡被認為是懶惰、

  • to suddenly being a child with opportunity and potential.

    注意力不集中的魯蛇小孩,

  • But I soon realized that this opportunity was not universal.

    突然變成了有機會、有潛能的小孩。

  • That same summer, in Egypt,

    但我很快就發現, 這個機會並不是大家都有的。

  • the home where my parents are originally from,

    同年夏天,在埃及,

  • I was with children that looked a lot more like me

    也就是我父母原本的家鄉,

  • but couldn't have been more different.

    我和外表跟我很像的 孩子們在一起,

  • What separated us was opportunity.

    但我又他們非常不同。

  • How is it that I had this life and they had theirs?

    我們之間的差別在於機會。

  • It still makes no sense to me.

    為什麼我能有這種生活, 他們的生活卻是那樣?

  • How is it we've --

    我仍然覺得不合理。

  • in a world where glasses, that completely changed my life

    為什麼我們——

  • have been around for 700 years,

    完全改變了我人生的眼鏡,

  • yet two and a half billion people still can't access them.

    在世界上其實已經存在七百年了,

  • This deep sense of injustice drove me to become a doctor,

    為什麼仍然有二十五億人 無法取得眼鏡?

  • eventually an eye surgeon,

    這種很深刻的不公平感, 驅使我變成了醫生,

  • and in 2012, my wife and I packed our bags and moved to Kenya

    最終成了眼科外科醫生,

  • to try and give something back.

    2012 年,我和我太太 打包搬到肯亞,

  • We started by setting up a hundred eye clinics

    試著以某種方式回饋。

  • across the Great Rift Valley,

    我們一開始在東非大裂谷設立了

  • where we met people like Mama Jane and Theresa.

    一百間眼科診所,

  • We founded a new organization called Peek Vision,

    在那裡,我們遇到 像是珍媽媽和泰瑞莎的人。

  • a social enterprise where we built smartphone technology

    我們成立了一個新組織, 叫 Peek Vision,

  • that makes it possible for people in the community

    是一間社會企業, 我們開發智慧手機技術,

  • to find people in their homes,

    讓社區中的人能夠

  • the most vulnerable groups who are being missed,

    在他們的家中找到人,

  • and created new tools that made it easier to diagnose them

    最弱勢、被忽視的族群,

  • and connect them to services.

    我們還會創造新工具, 更容易為他們做診斷,

  • Inspired by the challenges I'd had as a child,

    將他們與服務連結。

  • we equipped teachers, 25 of them, with smartphones

    靈感是來自我小時候遇到的困難,

  • to screen children in schools.

    所以我們找了二十五位老師, 提供他們智慧手機,

  • Our first program resulted in 21,000 children

    在學校篩檢兒童。

  • being screened in just nine days.

    我們的第一個專案結果,

  • That same program was replicated to reach 200,000 children,

    是在九天內篩檢完 兩萬一千名兒童。

  • covering the entire district.

    同樣的專案繼續複製執行, 觸及了二十萬名兒童,

  • Soon we were able to repeat this in six new programs

    也就是整區的所有兒童。

  • in different countries.

    我們很快會在 不同國家的六個新專案中

  • But now, I was faced with the very same problems I had with Theresa

    重覆使用這種做法。

  • of earmarked funds,

    但現在,我面臨的問題 就類似泰瑞莎案例中的

  • but now as an organization.

    資金撥款用途問題,

  • People wanted to fund specific projects

    但現在換成是一個組織。

  • or particular diseases

    大家會想要資助特定的專案計畫

  • or subsets of the population.

    或是特定的疾病,

  • But it didn't make sense,

    或是某部分的人口。

  • because what we needed to do was build an incredible team

    但這樣不合理,

  • who could create the systems that would change the lives

    因為我們需要做的 是建立一個絕佳的團隊,

  • of millions of people, whatever their needs were.

    這個團隊要能夠創造系統,

  • But it didn't work that way.

    來改變數百萬人的生命, 不論他們的需求是什麼。

  • Soon, we were able to align ourselves with partners who understood,

    但不是那樣運作的。

  • because I understand the challenge.

    我們很快就和能夠理解的夥伴結盟,

  • Ultimately, you need to trust where your money's going,

    因為我知道困難挑戰在哪裡。

  • and that trust usually manifests through the requirement

    最終,你得要信任你的金錢投資,

  • to create detailed plans -- lots of paperwork.

    而信任的表現方式 通常是會透過需求,

  • But what happens if the dynamic needs of people

    建立細節計畫的需求, 很多文書工作。

  • don't fit with the plan that you created,

    但如果人的動態需求

  • and your funding is dependent on delivering the plan?

    不符合你所建立的計畫,

  • You end up with a choice:

    且你的資金要仰賴 計畫的實現,怎麼辦?

  • Do you serve the plan, the funder,

    你最後要做一個選擇:

  • or do you serve the need?

    你是要滿足計畫,也就是出資者,

  • This is not a choice we should have to make,

    或是要滿足需求?

  • because ultimately, we can only serve one master.

    這不該是我們需要去做的選擇,

  • The measure of our humanity

    因為最終,我們只能 服侍一個主人。

  • is how we serve the most vulnerable amongst us.

    人性的衡量方式,

  • Currently, the system is not working, and too many people are being left behind.

    就是我們如何服務 我們當中最脆弱的人。

  • We've been fortunate to find incredible supporters and partners,

    目前,這個系統沒有用, 太多人被拋下。

  • which led to a new program in Botswana,

    我們很幸運, 能找到很棒的支持者和夥伴,

  • in which every single schoolchild is being screened and treated

    這就導致了在波紮那的新專案,

  • by the end of 2021,

    這個專案要讓所有學童

  • meaning an entire generation of children

    在 2021 年底前都接受篩檢和治療,

  • will have the opportunity that good vision affords.

    也就是說,整個世代的孩童

  • But this took years of work.

    都將會有好視力帶來的機會。

  • It took multiple feasibility studies,

    但這花了很多年的工作。

  • engaging different partners and stakeholders,

    做了很多項可行性研究,

  • business cases, economic analyses,

    動用到不同的夥伴、利害關係人、

  • to persuade the government to eventually come on board.

    商業案例、經濟分析,

  • But they're now leading and funding this in their own national budget.

    終於說服政府加入。

  • But we did not have the resources to do this.

    現在他們用自己國家的預算 在領導和資助這件事。

  • Our visionary funders and partners came alongside us,

    但我們沒有資源來做這件事。

  • and the key ingredients were we were aligned on mission,

    我們有遠景的資助者 和夥伴來協助我們,

  • on the why we were doing it.

    而關鍵的要素就是 我們因為使命而結盟,

  • We agreed on the outcome, what had to be done.

    因為做這件事的原因而結盟。

  • But critically, they were flexible and gave us autonomy

    我們對於結果、 該做什麼,都有一致看法。

  • to work out how we got there,

    但,重要的是, 他們有彈性,能給我們自主權

  • giving us the space to be creative, ambitious and take risk.

    來想辦法做到目標,

  • What if all health care looked like this?

    給我們空間來發揮創意、 施展野心、去冒險。

  • What would it mean for all the social causes we're trying to solve?

    如果所有的健康照護 都是這個樣子的呢?

  • Business knows this.

    那對於我們試圖解決的 所有社會成因,有什麼意涵?

  • By taking a long-term, ambitious view

    企業知道這一點。

  • and giving people the autonomy to be creative

    採用長遠、有野心的觀點,

  • to solve our world's biggest challenges,

    給大家自主權,發揮創意,

  • we've disrupted entire industries.

    來解決我們世界上 最大的挑戰之一,

  • Look at Amazon, Google.

    我們已經擾亂了整個產業。

  • Surely, we need the same level of ambition

    看看亞馬遜、谷歌。

  • if we're going to serve the most vulnerable in our societies.

    當然,我們需要同等的野心,

  • As a planet, we've set a target,

    如果我們打算要服務 我們社會中最脆弱的人。

  • the Sustainable Development Goals,

    我們地球已經設定了一個目標,

  • yet we're spending less than half the amount on tackling the global goals

    「永續發展目標」,

  • than we are on conflict resolution,

    但我們用在處理全球目標上的花費,

  • which mostly arises from the very inequalities we're not serving.

    還不到在解決衝突上的花費的一半,

  • It's time for change.

    而大部分的衝突都因為那些我們 沒打算服務的不平等所產生的。