Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • Hi everyone.

    大家好

  • Two year ago, my life changed forever.

    兩年前,我的生活徹底改變了。

  • My wife Kelsey and I

    我和我妻子凱爾西

  • welcomed our daughter Lela into the world.

    歡迎我們的女兒Lela來到這個世界。

  • Now, becoming a parent is an amazing experience.

    現在,成為父母是一種奇妙的體驗。

  • Your whole world changes over night.

    你的整個世界在一夜之間發生了變化。

  • And all of your priorities change immediately.

    而你所有的優先級都會立即改變。

  • So fast that it makes it really difficult to process sometimes.

    快得讓人有時真的難以處理。

  • Now, you also have to learn a tremendous amount about being a parent

    現在,你也要學習大量的關於做父母的知識。

  • like, for example, how to dress your child.

    比如,如何給孩子穿衣服。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • This was new to me.

    這對我來說很新鮮。

  • This is an actual outfit, I thought this was a good idea.

    這是一件實際的裝備,我覺得這是個好主意。

  • And even Lela knows that it's not a good idea. (Laughter)

    連Lela都知道這不是一個好主意。(Laughter)

  • So there is so much to learn and so much craziness all at once.

    所以要學的東西太多了,一下子就瘋狂了。

  • And to add to the craziness, Kelsey and I both work from home,

    而為了增加瘋狂,凱爾西和我都在家工作。

  • we're entrepreneurs, we run our own businesses.

    我們是企業家,我們經營自己的生意。

  • So, Kelsey develops courses online for yoga teachers.

    所以,Kelsey為瑜伽老師開發了在線課程。

  • I'm an author.

    我是一個作家。

  • And so, I'm working from home, Kelsey's working from home.

    所以,我在家裡工作,凱爾西的工作在家裡。

  • We have an infant and we're trying to make sure

    我們有一個嬰兒,我們正在努力確保。

  • that everything gets done that needs done.

    該做的都做了,該做的都做了。

  • And life is really, really busy.

    而生活真的很忙,真的很忙。

  • And a couple of weeks into this amazing experience,

    而在這段神奇的經歷中,幾周後。

  • when the sleep deprivation really kicked in,

    當睡眠不足真的踢。

  • like around week eight,

    像第八週左右。

  • I had this thought, and it was the same thought

    我有這樣的想法,也是這樣的想法

  • that parents across the ages, internationally,

    認為,國際上各個年齡段的家長,。

  • everybody has had this thought, which is:

    每個人都有這樣的想法,那就是:

  • I am never going to have free time ever again.

    我再也不會有空閒時間了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Somebody said it's true.

    有人說這是真的。

  • It's not exactly true,

    這不完全是真的。

  • but it feels really, really true in that moment.

    但在那一刻,感覺真的,真的很真實。

  • And this was really disconcerning to me,

    而這一點實在讓我感到不解。

  • because one of the things that I enjoy

    因為我喜歡的事情之一

  • more than anything else is learning new things.

    比什麼都重要的是學習新事物。

  • Getting curious about something and diving in

    對某件事情感到好奇,並深入瞭解

  • and fiddling around and learning through trial and error.

    並在試錯中摸索和學習。

  • And eventually becoming pretty good at something.

    並最終成為相當不錯的東西。

  • And without this free time,

    而沒有這個空閒時間。

  • I didn't know how I was ever going to do that ever again.

    我不知道自己以後還怎麼做。

  • And so, I'm a big geek,

    所以,我是個大宅男。

  • I want to keep learning things, I want to keep growing.

    我想繼續學習東西,我想繼續成長。

  • And so what I've decided to do was,

    所以我決定做的是。

  • go to the library, and go to the bookstore,

    去圖書館,去書店。

  • and look at what research says about

    看看研究是怎麼說的

  • how we learn and how we learn quickly.

    我們如何學習,如何快速學習。

  • And I read a bunch of books, I read a bunch of websites.

    而且我看了一堆書,看了一堆網站。

  • And tried to answer this question,

    並試圖回答這個問題。

  • how long does it take to acquire a new skill?

    掌握一個新技能需要多長時間?

  • You know what I found?

    你知道我發現了什麼嗎?

  • 10,000 hours!

    一萬小時!

  • Anybody ever heard this?

    有人聽過這個嗎?

  • It takes 10,000 hours. If you want to learn something new,

    需要10000個小時。如果你想學習新的東西。

  • if you want to be good at it,

    如果你想成為優秀的。

  • it's going to take 10,000 hours to get there.

    這將需要10,000小時才能到達那裡。

  • And I read this in book after book, in website after website.

    而我在一本又一本的書中,在一個又一個的網站中讀到了這一點。

  • And my mental experience of reading all of this stuff was like:

    而我看完這些東西的心理體驗是這樣的。

  • No!!

    不!!!

  • I don't have time! I don't have 10,000 hours.

    我沒有時間!我沒有一萬個小時的時間。

  • I am never going to be able to learn anything new.

    我是永遠也學不到新東西的。

  • Ever again. (Laughter)

    再也不會了(笑聲)

  • But that's not true.

    但這不是真的。

  • So, 10,000 hours, just to give you a rough order of magnitude,

    所以,一萬小時,只是給你一個大概的數量級。

  • 10,000 hours is a full-time job for five years.

    1萬小時是全職工作5年。

  • That's a long time.

    這是一個很長的時間。

  • And we've all had the experience of learning something new,

    而我們都有過學習新東西的經歷。

  • and it didn't take us anywhere close to that amount of time, right?

    它沒有采取我們任何地方接近 該量的時間,對不對?

  • So, what's up? There's something kinda funky going on here.

    那麼,怎麼了?這裡有些事情有點古怪

  • What the research says and what we expect, and have experiences,

    研究說什麼,我們期待什麼,有什麼經驗。

  • they don't match up.

    他們不匹配。

  • And what I found, here's the wrinkle:

    而我發現,這裡的皺紋。

  • The 10,000 hour rule came out of studies of expert-level performance.

    一萬小時規則是在研究專家級業績的基礎上產生的。

  • There's a professor at Florida State University,

    佛羅里達州立大學有個教授

  • his name is K. Anders Ericsson.

    他的名字是K. Anders Ericsson.

  • He is the originator of the 10,00 hour rule.

    他是10,00小時規則的始作俑者。

  • And where that came from is, he studied professional athletes,

    而這一切的來歷是,他研究職業運動員。

  • world class musicians, chess grand masters.

    世界級的音樂家,象棋大師。

  • All of this ultra competitive folks in ultra-high performing fields.

    所有這些超高性能領域的競爭者。

  • And he tried to figure out how long does it take

    他想弄清楚需要多長時間

  • to get to the top of those kinds of fields.

    以達到這類領域的頂端。

  • And what he found is, the more deliberate practice,

    而他發現的是,越是刻意練習。

  • the more time that those individuals spend

    這些人花的時間越多

  • practicing the elements of whatever it is that they do,

    練習他們所做的任何事情的要素。

  • the more time you spend, the better you get.

    花的時間越多,就越好。

  • And the folks at the tippy top of their fields

    而那些在各自領域的頂端的人們

  • put in around 10,000 hours of practice.

    投入約1萬小時的練習。

  • Now, we were talking about the game of telephone a little bit earlier.

    現在,我們剛才說的是電話遊戲。

  • Here's what happened:

    事情是這樣的

  • an author by the name of Malcolm Gladwell

    格拉德威爾作家

  • wrote a book in 2007 called "Outliers: The Story of Success",

    2007年寫了一本書,叫《離群者。成功的故事"。

  • and the central piece of that book was the 10,000 hour rule.

    而這本書的核心內容就是一萬小時規則。

  • Practice a lot, practice well, and you will do extremely well,

    多多練習,好好練習,你會做得非常好。

  • you will reach the top of your field.

    你將達到你的領域的頂端。

  • So, the message,

    所以,這個消息。

  • what Dr. Ericsson was actually saying is,

    愛立信博士實際上說的是:

  • it takes 10,000 hours to get at the top of an ultra competitive field

    一萬小時才能在競爭激烈的領域中脫穎而出。

  • in a very narrow subject, that's what that means.

    在一個非常狹窄的主題中,就是這個意思。

  • But here's what happened: ever since Outliers came out,

    但事情是這樣的:自從《離群》出來後。

  • immediately came out, reached the top of best seller lists,

    馬上就出來了,登上了暢銷榜的榜首。

  • stayed there for three solid months.

    在那裡呆了整整三個月。

  • All of a sudden the 10,000 hour rule was everywhere.

    突然間,到處都是一萬小時的規定。

  • And a society-wide game of telephone started to be played.

    於是一場全社會的電話遊戲開始了。

  • So this message, it takes 10,000 hours to reach the top of an ultra competitive field,

    所以這條資訊,需要一萬個小時才能達到超強競爭領域的頂端。

  • became, it takes 10,000 hours to become an expert at something,

    成了,要想成為某方面的專家,需要一萬個小時。

  • which became,

    其中成為:

  • it takes 10,000 hours to become good at something,

    要想成為優秀的人,需要一萬個小時。

  • which became,

    其中成為:

  • it takes 10,000 hours to learn something.

    學東西要花一萬個小時。

  • But that last statement, it takes 10,000 hours to learn something,

    但最後一句話,學東西需要一萬個小時。

  • is not true. It's not true.

    是不真實的。這不是真的。

  • So, what the research actually says --

    所以,研究實際上說--

  • I spent a lot of time here at the CSU library

    我在中科大圖書館待了很久。

  • in the cognitive psychology stacks 'cause I'm a geek.

    在認知心理學堆棧,因為我是一個怪胎。

  • And when you actually look at the studies of skill acquisition,

    而當你真正看到技能學習的研究時。

  • you see over and over a graph like this.

    你看一遍又一遍這樣的圖。

  • Now, researchers, whether they're studying a motor skill,

    現在,研究人員,無論是研究運動技能。

  • something you do physically or a mental skill,

    一些你身體上做的事情或一種心理技能。

  • they like to study things that they can time.

    他們喜歡研究的東西,他們可以時間。

  • 'Cause you can quantify that, right?

    因為你可以量化,對吧?

  • So, they'll give research participants a little task,

    所以,他們會給研究參與者一個小任務。

  • something that requires physical arrangement,

    需要物理安排的東西。

  • or something that requires learning a little mental trick,

    或需要學習一點心理技巧的東西。

  • and they'll time how long a participant takes to complete the skill.

    他們會對參與者完成技能所需的時間進行計時。

  • And here's what this graph says, when you start --

    這張圖是這麼說的,當你開始 --

  • so when researchers gave participants a task, it took them a really long time,

    所以當研究人員給參與者一個任務時,他們花了很長的時間。

  • 'cause it was new and they were horrible.

    因為它是新的,他們是可怕的。

  • With a little bit of practice, they get better and better and better.

    隨著一點點的練習,他們會越來越好,越來越好。

  • And that early part of practice is really, really efficient.

    而早期的那段練習,真的是非常非常有效率。

  • People get good at things with just a little bit of practice.

    人只要稍加練習就會變得很好。

  • Now, what's interesting to note is that,

    現在,值得注意的是:

  • for skills that we want to learn for ourselves,

    對於我們自己想要學習的技能。

  • we don't care so much about time, right?

    我們不關心那麼多的時間,對不對?

  • We just care about how good we are, whatever good happens to mean.

    我們只關心自己有多好,不管好的是什麼意思。

  • So if we relabel performance time to how good you are,

    所以,如果我們把表現時間重新標示為你有多優秀。

  • the graph flips, and you get his famous and widely known,

    圖翻轉,你會得到他的著名和廣為人知。

  • this is the learning curve.

    這就是學習曲線。

  • And the story of the learning curve is when you start,

    而學習曲線的故事就是當你開始。

  • you're grossly incompetent and you know it, right?

    你是嚴重無能的,你知道的,對不對?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • With a little bit of practice, you get really good, really quick.

    只要稍加練習,你就會變得非常好,非常快。

  • So that early level of improvement is really fast.

    所以,這種早期水準的提高真的很快。

  • And then at a certain point you reach a plateau,

    然後到了一定的時候,你會達到一個平臺。

  • and the subsequent games become much harder to get,

    和後續的遊戲變得更難獲得。

  • they take more time to get.

    他們需要更多的時間來獲得。

  • Now, my question is, I want that, right?

    現在,我的問題是,我想要這個,對嗎?

  • How long does it take from starting something

    從開始做一件事需要多長時間

  • and being grossly incompetent and knowing it

    明知故犯,無能無力

  • to being reasonably good?

    到是合理的好?

  • In hopefully, as short a period of time as possible.

    希望在儘可能短的時間內。

  • So, how long does that take?

    那麼,這需要多長時間呢?

  • Here's what my research says: 20 hours.

    我的研究是這樣說的:20小時。

  • That's it. You can go from knowing nothing

    就是這樣。你可以從一無所知

  • about any skill that you can think of.

    關於任何你能想到的技能。

  • Want to learn a language? Want to learn how to draw?

    想學一門語言嗎?想學畫畫嗎?

  • Want to learn how to juggle flaming chainsaws?

    想學習火焰電鋸的耍法嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • If you put 20 hours of focused deliberate practice into that thing,

    如果你把20個小時的專注刻意練習放到那件事上。

  • you will be astounded.

    你會大吃一驚。

  • Astounded at how good you are.

    驚訝於你的優秀。

  • 20 hours is doable,

    20小時是可以做到的。

  • that's about 45 minutes a day for about a month.

    那就是每天45分鐘,大約一個月。

  • Even skipping a couple days, here and there.

    甚至跳過幾天,這裡和那裡。

  • 20 hours isn't that hard to accumulate.

    20個小時的積累並不難。

  • Now, there's a method to doing this.

    現在,有一個方法可以做到這一點。

  • Because it's not like you can just start fiddling around for about 20 hours

    因為這不是你可以隨便開始擺弄20個小時就可以的

  • and expect these massive improvements.

    並期待這些巨大的改進。

  • There's a way to practice intelligently.

    有一種方法可以聰明地練習。

  • There's a way to practice efficiently,

    有一種方法可以有效地練習。

  • that will make sure that you invest those 20 hours

    這將確保你投資的20小時。

  • in the most effective way that you possibly can.

    以最有效的方式,你可能會。

  • And here's the method, it applies to anything:

    而這是方法,它適用於任何事物。

  • The first is to deconstruct the skill.

    首先是解構技能。

  • Decide exactly what you want to be able to do when you're done,

    準確地決定你做完後要能做什麼。

  • and then look into the skill and break it down into smaller pieces.

    然後再研究一下這個技能,把它分解成小塊。

  • Most of the things that we think of as skills

    我們所認為的大多數事情都是技能。

  • are actually big bundles of skills that require all sorts of different things.

    其實都是大捆大綁的技能,需要各種不同的東西。

  • The more you can break apart the skill,

    越是能拆分技能。

  • the more you're able to decide,

    你就越能決定。

  • what are the parts of this skill that would actually help me

    這個技能有哪些地方可以真正幫助到我

  • get to what I want?

    得到我想要的東西?

  • And then you can practice those first.

    然後你可以先練習這些。

  • And if you practice the most important things first,

    而如果你先練好最重要的東西。

  • you'll be able to improve your performance

    你將能夠提高你的表現

  • in the least amount of time possible.

    在儘可能短的時間內。

  • The second is, learn enough to self correct.

    二是,要學會足夠的自我修正。

  • So, get three to five resources about what it is you're trying to learn.

    所以,關於你要學的東西,要找三到五個資源。

  • Could be book, could be DVDs, could be courses, could be anything.

    可以是書,可以是DVD,可以是課程,可以是任何東西。

  • But don't use those as a way to procrastinate on practice.

    但不要把這些當做拖延練習的方法。

  • I know I do this, right?

    我知道是我做的,對吧?

  • Get like 20 books about the topic, like,

    得到像20本關於這個主題的書,像。

  • "I'm going to start learning how to program a computer

    "我要開始學習電腦編程了

  • when I complete these 20 books".

    當我完成這20本書"。

  • No. That's procrastination.

    不,那是拖延症。

  • What you want to do is learn just enough

    你要做的是學習足夠的

  • that you can actually practice

    你可以真正練習

  • and self correct or self edit as you practice.

    並在實踐中自我修正或自我編輯。

  • So the learning becomes a way of getting better

    所以,學習成為一種進步的方式

  • at noticing when you're making a mistake

    識時務者為俊傑

  • and then doing something a little different.

    然後做一些不同的事情。

  • The third is to remove barriers to practice.

    三是消除執業障礙。

  • Distractions, television, internet.

    分心,電視,網絡。

  • All of these things that get in the way

    所有這些東西都會妨礙到我們的生活

  • of you actually sitting down and doing the work.

    的你真正坐下來做工作。

  • And the more you're able to use just a little bit of willpower

    而你越是能用一點點的意志力。

  • to remove the distractions that are keeping you from practicing,

    以消除阻礙你練習的雜念。

  • the more likely you are to actually sit down and practice, right?

    你就越有可能真正坐下來練習,對嗎?

  • And the fourth is to practice for at least 20 hours.

    四是至少要練習20小時。

  • Now, most skills have what I call a frustration barrier.

    現在,大多數技能都有我所說的挫折障礙。

  • You know, the grossly-incompetent- and-knowing-it part?

    你知道,嚴重的無能和知道的部分?

  • That's really, really frustrating. We don't like to feel stupid.

    這是真的,真的很令人沮喪。我們不喜歡感覺愚蠢。

  • And feeling stupid is a barrier to us actually sitting down and doing the work.

    而感覺自己很笨,是我們真正坐下來做工作的障礙。

  • So, by pre-committing to practicing whatever it is that you want to do

    所以,通過預先承諾,無論你想做什麼,都要去實踐。

  • for at least 20 hours,

    至少20小時。

  • you will be able to overcome that initial frustration barrier

    你將能夠克服最初的挫折障礙。

  • and stick with the practice long enough to actually reap the rewards.

    並長期堅持練習,真正收穫。

  • That's it! It's not rocket science.

    就是這樣!這不是火箭科學。

  • Four very simple steps that you can use to learn anything.

    四個非常簡單的步驟,你可以用來學習任何東西。

  • Now, this is easy to talk about in theory,

    現在,這在理論上是很容易談的。

  • but it's more fun to talk about in practice.

    但在實踐中談論更有趣。

  • So one of the things that I've wanted to learn how to do for a long time

    所以,我一直想學習如何做的事情之一,很長一段時間

  • is play the ukulele.

    是彈四絃琴。

  • Has anybody seen Jake Shimabukuro's TEDTalk

    有人看過Jake Shimabukuro的TEDTalk嗎?

  • where he plays the ukulele and makes it sound like --

    在那裡,他扮演的四絃琴 並使它聽起來像 -

  • he's like a ukulele god.

    他就像一個四絃琴之神。

  • It's amazing.

    太神奇了

  • I saw it, I was like, "That is so cool!"

    我看到它,我當時想,"太酷了!"

  • It's such a neat instrument. I would really like to learn how to play.

    這真是一個整潔的樂器。我真的很想學習如何演奏。

  • And so I decided that to test this theory

    所以我決定,為了驗證這個理論

  • I wanted to put 20 hours into practicing ukulele

    我想花20個小時練習四絃琴。

  • and see where it got.

    看看它到了哪裡。

  • And so the first thing about playing the ukulele is,

    所以彈四絃琴的第一件事就是。

  • in order to practice, you have to have one, right?

    要想修行,就得有一個,對不對?

  • So, I got an ukulele and -- My lovely assistant?

    所以,我有一把四絃琴和... 我可愛的助手?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Thank you sir. I think I need the chord here.

    謝謝你,先生。我想我需要這裡的和絃。

  • It's not just an ukulele, it's an electric ukulele. (Laughter)

    這不僅僅是一把四絃琴,還是一把電動四絃琴。(笑聲)

  • Yeah.

    是啊。

  • So, the first couple hours are just like the first couple hours of anything.

    所以,前幾個小時就像任何事情的前幾個小時一樣。

  • You have to get the tools that you are using to practice.

    你必須得到你所使用的工具來練習。

  • You have to make sure they're available.

    你必須確保他們是可用的。

  • My ukulele didn't come with strings attached.

    我的四絃琴沒帶弦。