Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • In the year 1066,

    在1066年

  • 7000 Norman infantry and knights sailed in warships across the English Channel.

    7000名諾曼步兵和騎士乘坐戰艦駛過英吉利海峽。

  • Their target: England, home to more than a million people.

    他們的目標是英格蘭,超過一百萬人的家園。

  • Theirs was a short voyage with massive consequences.

    他們的航程很短,但後果很嚴重。

  • And around the same period of time,

    而在同一時期前後。

  • other groups of Normans were setting forth all across Europe,

    其他諾曼人的團體在歐洲各地展開。

  • going on adventures that would reverberate throughout that continent's history.

    踏上了將會在該大陸的歷史上引起反響的冒險之旅。

  • So who were these warriors

    那麼這些戰士是誰呢?

  • and how did they leave their mark so far and wide?

    他們又是如何將自己的印記留得如此之遠的呢?

  • Our story begins over 200 years earlier,

    我們的故事始於200多年前。

  • when Vikings began to settle on the shores of northern France

    維京人開始在法國北部沿海地區定居下來

  • as part of a great Scandinavian exodus across northern Europe.

    作為北歐斯堪的納維亞大遷徙的一部分。

  • The French locals called these invaders Normans,

    法國當地人稱這些入侵者為諾曼人。

  • named for the direction they came from.

    因其來自的方向而得名。

  • Eventually, Charles, the king of the Franks,

    最終,法蘭克人的國王查理。

  • negotiated peace with the Viking leader Rollo in 911,

    911年與維京人領袖羅羅談判和平。

  • granting him a stretch of land along France's northern coast

    授予他法國北部海岸的一片土地。

  • that came to be known as Normandy.

    後來被稱為諾曼底。

  • The Normans proved adaptable to their newly settled life.

    事實證明,諾曼人能夠適應他們新的定居生活。

  • They married Frankish women,

    他們娶了法蘭克人的女人。

  • adopted the French language,

    採用了法語。

  • and soon started converting from Norse paganism to Christianity.

    並很快開始從北歐異教皈依基督教。

  • But though they adapted,

    不過雖然他們適應了。

  • they maintained the warrior tradition

    他們保持著武士的傳統

  • and conquering spirit of their Viking forebears.

    和維京人先輩的征服精神。

  • Before long, ambitious Norman knights were looking for new challenges.

    不久之後,雄心勃勃的諾曼騎士們開始尋找新的挑戰。

  • The Normans' best-known achievement was their conquest of England.

    諾曼人最著名的成就是他們征服了英格蘭。

  • In 1066, William, the Duke of Normandy,

    1066年,諾曼底公爵威廉。

  • disputed the claim of the new English king, Harold Godwinson.

    對英國新國王哈羅德-戈德溫森的主張提出異議。

  • Soon after landing in England,

    登陸英國後不久。

  • William and his knights met Harold's army near the town of Hastings.

    威廉和他的騎士們在黑斯廷斯鎮附近與哈羅德的軍隊相遇。

  • The climactic moment in the battle

    戰鬥的高潮時刻

  • is immortalized in the 70-meter-long Bayeux Tapestry,

    在70米長的拜厄掛毯中得到了永生。

  • where an arrow striking Harold in the eye seals the Norman victory.

    在那裡,一箭擊中哈羅德的眼睛,封住了諾曼人的勝利。

  • William consolidated his gains with a huge castle-building campaign

    威廉通過大規模的城堡建設運動鞏固了他的成果。

  • and a reorganization of English society.

    以及英國社會的重組。

  • He lived up to his nickname "William the Conqueror"

    他不愧是 "征服者威廉 "的綽號。

  • through a massive survey known as the Domesday Book,

    通過被稱為 "多米諾書 "的大規模調查。

  • which recorded the population and ownership

    記錄人口和所有制

  • of every piece of land in England.

    英國每一塊土地的。

  • Norman French became the language of the new royal court,

    諾曼法語成為新的王室的語言。

  • while commoners continued to speak Anglo-Saxon.

    而平民則繼續說盎格魯-撒克遜語。

  • Over time, the two merged to give us the English we know today,

    隨著時間的推移,二者的融合讓我們有了今天的英語。

  • though the divide between lords and peasants can still be felt

    雖說貴賤分明

  • in synonym pairs such as cow and beef.

    在同義詞對中,如牛和牛肉。

  • By the end of the 12th century,

    到12世紀末。

  • the Normans had further expanded into Wales,

    諾曼人已進一步向威爾士擴張。

  • Scotland,

    蘇格蘭:

  • and Ireland.

    和愛爾蘭。

  • Meanwhile, independent groups of Norman knights

    同時,獨立的諾曼騎士團

  • traveled to the Mediterranean,

    前往地中海。

  • inspired by tales of pilgrims returning from Jerusalem.

    靈感來自於從耶路撒冷回來的朝聖者的故事。

  • There, they threw themselves into a tangled mass of conflicts

    在那裡,他們投入到紛繁複雜的矛盾中去了

  • among the established powers all over that region.

    在該地區的既有勢力中,。

  • They became highly prized mercenaries,

    他們成了備受重視的僱傭兵。

  • and during one of these battles,

    並在其中一場戰鬥中。

  • they made the first recorded heavy cavalry charge with couched lances,

    他們首次記錄了重騎兵用長槍衝鋒。

  • a devastating tactic that soon became standard in medieval warfare.

    一種毀滅性的戰術,很快成為中世紀戰爭的標準戰術。

  • The Normans were also central to the First Crusade of 1095-99,

    諾曼人也是1095-99年第一次十字軍東征的核心。

  • a bloody conflict that re-established Christian control

    血海深仇

  • in certain parts of the Middle East.

    在中東某些地區。

  • But the Normans did more than just fight.

    但諾曼人做的不僅僅是戰鬥。

  • As a result of their victories,

    由於他們的勝利。

  • leaders like William Iron-Arm and Robert the Crafty

    梟雄

  • secured lands throughout Southern Italy,

    在整個意大利南部獲得土地。

  • eventually merging them to form the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130.

    最終在1130年將其合併為西西里王國。

  • Under Roger II,

    在羅傑二世的帶領下。

  • the kingdom became a beacon of multicultural tolerance

    王國成為多元文化容忍的燈塔。

  • in a world torn apart by religious and civil wars.

    在一個被宗教和內戰撕裂的世界裡。

  • Muslim Arab poets and scholars served in the royal court

    阿拉伯穆斯林詩人和學者在皇宮任職

  • alongside Byzantine Greek sailors and architects.

    與拜占庭希臘水手和建築師一起。

  • Arabic remained an official language along with Latin, Greek, and Norman French.

    阿拉伯語與拉丁語、希臘語和諾曼底法語一起仍是官方語言。

  • The world's geographical knowledge was compiled in The Book of Roger,

    世界上的地理知識都編入了《羅輯思維》。

  • whose maps of the known world

    其世界地圖

  • would remain the most accurate available for 300 years.

    將在300年內保持現有的最準確。

  • And the churches built in Palermo combined Latin-style architecture,

    而在巴勒莫建造的教堂結合了拉丁風格的建築。

  • Arab ceilings,

    阿拉伯人的天花板。

  • and Byzantine domes,

    和拜占庭的穹頂。

  • all decorated with exquisite golden mosaics.

    都用精緻的金色馬賽克裝飾。

  • So if the Normans were so successful, why aren't they still around?

    那麼,如果諾曼人如此成功,為什麼他們不在了呢?

  • In fact, this was a key part of their success:

    事實上,這也是他們成功的關鍵所在。

  • not just ruling the societies they conquered,

    不僅僅是統治他們所征服的社會。

  • but becoming part of them.

    但成為他們的一部分。

  • Although the Normans eventually disappeared as a distinct group,

    雖然諾曼人最終作為一個獨特的群體消失了。

  • their contributions remained.

    他們的貢獻仍然存在。

  • And today, from the castles and cathedrals that dot Europe's landscape

    而今天,從遍佈歐洲的城堡和大教堂來看

  • to wherever the English language is spoken,

    到任何講英語的地方。

  • the Norman legacy lives on.

    諾曼人的遺產得以延續。

In the year 1066,

在1066年

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 諾曼 征服 哈羅德 威廉 維京人

【TED-Ed】諾曼人如何改變了歐洲的歷史? (How the Normans changed the history of Europe - Mark Robinson)

  • 1191 84
    詹士緯 發佈於 2018 年 08 月 12 日
影片單字