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  • Travel with me

    譯者: Chloe Choo 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • to some of the most beautiful spots in cities around the world:

    跟我一起旅行

  • Rome's Spanish steps;

    到世界各地一些最美麗的景點:

  • the historic neighborhoods of Paris and Shanghai;

    羅馬的西班牙階梯;

  • the rolling landscape of Central Park;

    巴黎和上海的歷史性街區;

  • the tight-knit blocks of Tokyo or Fez;

    中央公園高低起伏的景觀;

  • the wildly sloping streets of the favelas of Rio de Janeiro;

    東京或費茲密密麻麻的建築; (註:Fez 是摩洛哥第四大城)

  • the dizzying step wells of Jaipur;

    里約熱內盧貧民窟陡峭的街道;

  • the arched pedestrian bridges of Venice.

    齋浦爾令人眼花繚亂的月亮水井; (Jaipur 是印度拉賈斯坦邦的首府)

  • Now let's go to some newer cities.

    威尼斯拱形的人行天橋。

  • Six downtowns built across six continents in the 20th century.

    現在,讓我們看一看 一些比較新的城市。

  • Why do none of these places have any of the charming characteristics

    在 20 世紀,六大洲 所建設的六座城市。

  • of our older cities?

    為什麼這些地方都沒有 我們老城區的迷人特色?

  • Or let's go to six suburbs built on six continents in the 20th century.

    讓我們再看看 20 世紀 在六大洲所建設的六個郊區。

  • Why do none of them have any of the lyrical qualities

    為什麼它們都沒有

  • that we associate with the places that we cherish the most?

    任何與我們最珍惜的地方 相關的抒情特質。

  • Now, maybe you think I'm just being nostalgic --

    也許你認為我只是懷舊,

  • why does it matter?

    它為什麼那麼重要?

  • Who cares if there is this creeping sameness besetting our planet?

    誰在乎這千篇一律的狀態 是否正困擾著我們的地球?

  • Well, it matters because most people around the world

    其實,這很重要,

  • are gravitating to urban areas globally.

    因為全球絕大多數人口 都正往城市地區遷移。

  • And how we design those urban areas could well determine

    而我們設計這些城市地區的方式

  • whether we thrive or not as a species.

    能夠精準地決定 作為一個物種的我們能否茁壯成長。

  • So, we already know that people who live in transit-rich areas,

    我們已經知道 住在方便通勤住房區域的人,

  • live in apartment buildings,

    住在公寓大樓裡,

  • have a far lower carbon footprint

    碳足跡遠比他們相應的郊區低。

  • than their suburban counterparts.

    也許從中得到一個教訓就是, 如果你熱愛大自然,

  • So maybe one lesson from that is if you love nature,

    你就不應該住在大自然裡。

  • you shouldn't live in it.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    但我認為,那些枯燥乏味的 公共運輸導向型開發的統計數據

  • But I think the dry statistics

    只說明了故事的一部分。

  • of what's known as transit-oriented development

    因為如果城市想要吸引民眾,

  • only tells part of the story.

    就必須要十分優秀。

  • Because cities, if they're going to attract people,

    它們必須是具有 獨特吸引力的強力磁鐵,

  • have to be great.

    來引進那些新的綠色城市居民。

  • They have to be powerful magnets with distinctive appeal

    請注意,這不僅僅是審美問題。

  • to bring in all those new green urbanites.

    這是一個全球性後果的問題。

  • And this is not just an aesthetic issue, mind you.

    因為如今,每天都有

  • This is an issue of international consequence.

    成千上萬的人搬到某個城市,

  • Because today, every day,

    主要在全球南方。

  • literally hundreds of thousands of people are moving into a city somewhere,

    當你想到這一點時,問問自己:

  • mainly in the Global South.

    他們是否注定生活在

  • And when you think about that, ask yourself:

    我們建於 20 世紀 那些看起來枯燥乏味的城市,

  • Are they condemned to live in the same bland cities

    還是可以為他們提供更好的環境?

  • we built in the 20th century,

    要回答這個問題,

  • or can we offer them something better?

    首先你必須了解 我們走到這個地步的過程。

  • And to answer that question,

    第一:大量生產。

  • you have to unpack how we got here in the first place.

    就像消費品和連鎖店一樣,

  • First: mass production.

    我們大量生產玻璃、鋼鐵、 混凝土、瀝青和石膏板牆,

  • Just like consumer goods and chain stores,

    然後在全球各地 以類似的方式展開部署。

  • we mass-produce glass and steel and concrete and asphalt and drywall,

    第二:法規。

  • and we deploy them in mind-numbingly similar ways across the planet.

    以汽車為例。

  • Second: regulation.

    汽車以非常高的速度行駛。

  • So, take cars, for instance.

    它們容易受到人為錯誤的影響。

  • Cars travel at very high speeds.

    因此,當身為建築師的我們 被要求設計一條新街道時,

  • They're susceptible to human error.

    我們需要看著這樣的製圖,

  • So when we're asked, as architects, to design a new street,

    告訴我們緣石的高度,

  • we have to look at drawings like this,

    行人和車輛的所在位置,

  • that tell us how high a curb needs to be,

    這裡需要一個卸貨區, 那裡需要一個上下車處。

  • that pedestrians need to be over here and vehicles over there,

    汽車在 20 世紀真正做到的是,

  • a loading zone here, a drop-off there.

    它創造了這種精雕細琢、 隔離的景觀。

  • What the car really did in the 20th century

    或以雲梯消防車為例——

  • is it created this carved-up, segregated landscape.

    那些用來把火場中的人們 援救出來的大型梯子卡車——

  • Or take the ladder fire truck -- you know, those big ladder trucks

    那些消防車的轉彎半徑是如此寬大,

  • that are used to rescue people from burning buildings?

    以致我們必須安排寬大的瀝青路面,

  • Those have such a wide turning radius,

    來容納他們。

  • that we have to deploy an enormous amount of pavement, of asphalt,

    或以至關重要的輪椅為例。

  • to accommodate them.

    輪椅需要一個最低限度的斜坡

  • Or take the critically important wheelchair.

    和額外的垂直迴轉空間。

  • A wheelchair necessitates a landscape of minimal slopes

    因此,只要有樓梯, 就必須要有電梯或坡道。

  • and redundant vertical circulation.

    請不要誤解我的意思,

  • So wherever there's a stair, there has to be an elevator or a ramp.

    我完全贊成行人安全、消防,

  • Now, don't get me wrong, please -- I am all for pedestrian safety,

    當然,還有無障礙空間。

  • firefighting

    我的父母在生命結束之前 都在輪椅上度過,

  • and certainly, wheelchair access.

    所以我非常理解這當中的痛苦。

  • Both of my parents were in wheelchairs at the end of their lives,

    但我們也必須承認 所有這些善意的規則

  • so I understand very much that struggle.

    產生了巨大且意想不到的後果,

  • But we also have to acknowledge that all of these well-intentioned rules,

    導致我們過去建造城市的方式 變得不再合法。

  • they had the tremendous unintended consequence

    同樣是非法的:在 19 世紀末,

  • of making illegal the ways in which we used to build cities.

    電梯被發明以後,

  • Similarly illegal: at the end of the 19th century,

    我們建造了這些迷人的城市建築,

  • right after the elevator was invented,

    這些可愛的建築,遍布世界各地,

  • we built these charming urban buildings,

    從意大利到印度。

  • these lovely buildings, all over the world,

    建築中可能建有 10 或 12 套公寓。

  • from Italy to India.

    它們會有個小電梯 和圍繞著電梯的樓梯,

  • And they had maybe 10 or 12 apartments in them.

    還有個採光天井。

  • They had one small elevator and a staircase that wrapped them

    它們不僅是 符合成本效益的迷人建築,

  • and a light well.

    它們也是社區化的。

  • And not only were they charming buildings that were cost-effective,

    你會在那樓梯間碰到你的鄰居。

  • they were communal --

    你也不被允許這麼建造了。

  • you ran into your neighbor on that stairwell.

    相比之下,如今,當我們要在某處 建造一座主要的新公寓大樓時,

  • Well, you can't build this, either.

    我們必須建造很多、很多電梯,

  • By contrast, today, when we have to build a major new apartment building somewhere,

    和很多消防梯,

  • we have to build lots and lots of elevators

    而且我們必須將它們與這些漫長、 無名、沉悶的走廊連接起來。

  • and lots of fire stairs,

    現在,當開發商們 面對那所有公設的成本時,

  • and we have to connect them with these long, anonymous, dreary corridors.

    他們不得不將這筆費用 分攤到更多公寓,

  • Now, developers -- when they're confronted with the cost

    所以他們想建造更大型的大樓。

  • of all of that common infrastructure,

    結果是沉悶的,

  • they have to spread that cost over more apartments,

    那在世界各個城市 建造相同的公寓大樓的沉悶。

  • so they want to build bigger buildings.

    這不僅是創造了外表的同一性,

  • What that results in is the thud,

    它也創造了社會的同一性,

  • the dull thud of the same apartment building being built

    因為這些建築的建造成本比較高,

  • in every city across the world.

    而它也在世界各地的城市 助長了負擔能力危機,

  • And this is not only creating physical sameness,

    包括了溫哥華。

  • it's creating social sameness,

    現在,我說過同一性有第三個原因,

  • because these buildings are more expensive to build,

    這真的是心理層面的原因。

  • and it helped to create an affordability crisis

    是一種對差異的恐懼,

  • in cities all over the world, including places like Vancouver.

    而建築師會經常聽到 他們的客戶問說:

  • Now, I said there was a third reason for all this sameness,

    「如果我嘗試這新想法, 會被起訴嗎?」

  • and that's really a psychological one.

    我會被嘲笑嗎?

  • It's a fear of difference,

    寧求穩妥,以免後悔。」

  • and architects hear this all the time from their clients:

    當這所有事情都凑合起来,

  • "If I try that new idea, will I be sued?

    以讓我們的地球具有同質性時, 我認為這是非常有問題的。

  • Will I be mocked?

    那麼我們如何反向而行呢?

  • Better safe than sorry."

    我們怎樣才能回到過去,

  • And all of these things have conspired together

    再次建造那些外表和文化上 都很多樣化的城市呢?

  • to blanket our planet with a homogeneity that I think is deeply problematic.

    我們該如何建造有差異化的城市呢?

  • So how can we do the opposite?

    我認為,我們應該先以 在全球注入當地人開始。

  • How can we go back to building cities

    例如,在飲食方面 已經可以看到這種情況的發生。

  • that are physically and culturally varied again?

    您只需看看精釀啤酒 對商業啤酒的影響。

  • How can we build cities of difference?

    或者,你們當中有多少人 還在吃神奇麵包?

  • I would argue that we should start

    我敢打賭你們大多數人都不吃了。

  • by injecting into the global the local.

    我認為那是因為 你不想再吃加工食品。

  • This is already happening with food, for instance.

    所以,如果你不再要加工食品,

  • You just look at the way in which craft beer has taken on corporate beer.

    那你為什麼還要「加工城市」呢?

  • Or, how many of you still eat Wonder Bread?

    為什麼你會想要在 這些大量生產、被漂白的地方,

  • I'd bet most of you don't.

    每天生活和工作呢?

  • And I bet you don't because you don't want processed food

    (掌聲)

  • in your life.

    因此,科技是 20 世紀面對的 問題的很大一部分。

  • So if you don't want processed food,

    當我們發明汽車時,

  • why would you want processed cities?

    全世界都開始去適應這項發明。

  • Why would you want these mass-produced, bleached places

    我們圍繞著汽車的標準 重新創建了我們的景觀。

  • where all of us have to live and work every day?

    在 21 世紀,

  • (Applause)

    科技可以成為解決方案的一部分,

  • So, technology was a big part of the problem in the 20th century.

    如果它適應這世界的需求。

  • When we invented the automobile, what happened is,

    我想要表達什麼呢?

  • the world all bent towards the invention.

    以自動駕駛汽車為例。

  • And we recreated our landscape around it.

    我並不覺得自動駕駛汽車令人振奮, 因為它只是一輛無人駕駛的汽車。

  • In the 21st century,

    坦白說,這對我來說, 只意味著路上會更擁堵。

  • technology can be part of the solution --

    我覺得令人振奮的應該是 自動駕駛汽車的承諾——

  • if it bends to the needs of the world.

    我想要強調「承諾」這個詞,

  • So what do I mean by that?

    鑑於亞利桑那州最近的交通事故——

  • Take the autonomous vehicle.

    是關於這些小型城市交通工具

  • I don't think the autonomous vehicle is exciting because it's a driverless car.

    能夠安全地與行人 和自行車相處的承諾。

  • That, to me, only implies

    這將讓我們能夠再次設計 人性化的街道,

  • that there's even more congestion on the roads, frankly.

    沒有緣石的街道,

  • I think what's exciting about the autonomous vehicle is the promise --

    也許可以設計像 紐約火島上的木製人行道。

  • and I want to stress the word "promise,"

    或許我們可以用 21 世紀的 鵝卵石來設計街道,

  • given the recent accident in Arizona --

    一些可以紀錄動能、讓雪融化,

  • the promise that we could have these small, urban vehicles

    在你步行時可以幫助你鍛煉身體。

  • that could safely comingle with pedestrians and bicycles.

    還記得剛才提及的雲梯消防車嗎?

  • That would enable us to design humane streets again,

    假如我們能以無人機和機器人 來取代消防車和瀝青,

  • streets without curbs,

    把人從火場裡救出來呢?

  • maybe streets like the wooden walkways on Fire Island.

    如果你認為這是難以接受的,

  • Or maybe we could design streets with the cobblestone of the 21st century,

    你會對那項科技今時今日

  • something that captures kinetic energy, melts snow,

    在救援活動中的 使用程度感到十分驚訝。

  • helps you with your fitness when you walk.

    但我現在希望你可以跟我一起想像。

  • Or remember those big ladder fire trucks?

    想像一下,如果我們 能夠設計氣墊輪椅。對吧?

  • What if we could replace them and all the asphalt that comes with them

    一項不僅能促進平等權益的發明,

  • with drones and robots that could rescue people from burning buildings?

    也讓我們能夠建造 屬於 21 世紀的意大利山城。

  • And if you think that's outlandish, you'd be amazed to know

    我想你會感到驚訝,

  • how much of that technology is already being used today

    當你知道其中一些 滿足人類需求的發明,

  • in rescue activity.

    會徹底改變我們建造城市的方式。

  • But now I'd like you to really imagine with me.

    我敢打賭你現在也正想著:

  • Imagine if we could design the hovercraft wheelchair.

    「我們還沒能創造出 動能鵝卵石或飛行輪椅,

  • Right?

    那我們可以運用現今的 哪些科技來解決這問題呢?」

  • An invention that would not only allow equal access,

    我對這個問題的靈感 來自一個非常不同的城市,

  • but would enable us to build the Italian hill town of the 21st century.

    蒙古的烏蘭巴托市。 (註:原名庫倫,是蒙古國首都)

  • I think you'd be amazed to know

    在那裏,我有客戶要求我們設計

  • that just a few of these inventions, responsive to human need,

    一個可以持續發熱的 21 世紀露天村莊,

  • would completely transform the way we could build our cities.

    運用現今的技術,

  • Now, I bet you're also thinking:

    座落於他們的市中心。

  • "We don't have kinetic cobblestones or flying wheelchairs yet,

    那是為了應付他們嚴酷的寒冬。

  • so what can we do about this problem with today's technology?"

    所以,這項目既是詩歌又是散文。

  • And my inspiration for that question comes from a very different city,

    詩歌在於喚醒當地人:

  • the city of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    多山的地形,

  • I have clients there

    使用顏色來突出那耀眼的光線,

  • who have asked us to design a 21st-century open-air village

    了解如何詮釋讓蒙古 如此有活力的游牧傳統。

  • that's sustainably heated using today's technology,

    散文則是一系列的建築發展,

  • in the heart of their downtown.

    那些相當實惠的小型建築,

  • And that's to cope with their frigid winters.

    使用當地的建築材料和技術,

  • And the project is both poetry and prose.

    但仍然可以建設新的住房形式、

  • The poetry is really about evoking the local:

    新的工作空間、

  • the mountainous terrain,

    新的店面,

  • using colors to pick up the spectacular light,

    和文化建築,如劇院或博物館,

  • understanding how to interpret the nomadic traditions

    甚至是鬼屋。

  • that animate the nation of Mongolia.

    在辦公室設計它時,

  • The prose has been the development of a catalogue of buildings,

    我們意識到自己正以 同事的作品為基礎,

  • of small buildings that are fairly affordable,

    包括在墨西哥城工作的 建築師塔蒂亞娜·畢爾巴鄂;

  • using local construction materials and technology

    在智利工作的普立茲克建築獎得主 亞歷杭德羅·阿拉韋納,

  • that can still provide new forms of housing,

    還有最近榮獲普立茲克獎, 在印度工作的巴爾克里希納·多希。

  • new workspace,

    他們都在以與眾不同的新形式 建造經濟實惠的房子,

  • new shops

    但他們也在建造有差異化的城市,

  • and cultural buildings, like a theater or a museum --

    因為他們建造的是符合當地社區、

  • even a haunted house.

    當地氣候,

  • While working on this in our office,

    和當地建築技術的城市。

  • we've realized that we're building upon the work of our colleagues,

    我們正對這想法付出雙倍努力, 我們正在研究一種新模式,

  • including architect Tatiana Bilbao, working in Mexico City;

    來克服面對上流化壓力 且不斷增長的城市,

  • Pritzker laureate Alejandro Aravena, working in Chile;

    建立在具有 19 世紀後期 核心的建築模型上,

  • and recent Pritzker winner Balkrishna Doshi, working in India.

    但原形可以根據當地需求 和當地建築材料進行改變外形。

  • And all of them are building spectacular new forms of affordable housing,

    對我來說,這所有想法 都與懷舊無關。

  • but they're also building cities of difference,

    全都告訴我,

  • because they're building cities that respond to local communities,

    我們可以建造可成長的城市,

  • local climates

    但要以反映居住在這些城市中的 多元化居民的方式成長;

  • and local construction methods.

    以適應所有收入群體的方式成長,

  • We're doubling down on that idea, we're researching a new model

    所有膚色、教派、性別。

  • for our growing cities with gentrification pressures,

    我們可以建造十分壯觀的城市,

  • that could build upon that late-19th-century model

    讓我們可以抑制城市 雜亂無序地擴展,並保護大自然。

  • with that center core,

    我們可以發展高科技的城市,

  • but a prototype that could shape-shift in response to local needs

    同時也符合了人類精神中 永垂不朽的文化需求。

  • and local building materials.

    我相信我們可以 建造有差異化的城市,

  • All of these ideas, to me, are nostalgia-free.

    來助於創造我們許多人 所渴望的全球馬賽克。

  • They all tell me

    謝謝。

  • that we can build cities that can grow,

    (掌聲)

  • but grow in a way that reflects the diverse residents

  • that live in those cities;

  • grow in a way that can accommodate all income groups,

  • all colors, creeds, genders.

  • We could build such spectacular cities that we could disincentivize sprawl

  • and actually protect nature.

  • We can grow cities that are high-tech,

  • but also respond to the timeless cultural needs of the human spirit.

  • I'm convinced that we can build cities of difference

  • that help to create the global mosaic to which so many of us aspire.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Travel with me

譯者: Chloe Choo 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 城市 建造 建築 輪椅 消防車

【TED】維什恩·查克拉巴蒂: 如何為我們共同的未來設計永垂不朽的城市 (How we can design timeless cities for our collective future | Vishaan Chakrabarti)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2018 年 07 月 16 日
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