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  • An elderly woman named Rosalie was sitting in her nursing home

    一位名叫 Rosalie 的老太太坐在養老院裡

  • when her room suddenly burst to life with twirling fabrics.

    她的房間突然出現舞動的結構,像是有了生命

  • Through the elaborate drapings,

    透過精緻的窗簾

  • she could make out animals,

    她可以想像出動物

  • children,

    小孩

  • and costumed characters.

    和穿著盛裝的人物

  • Rosalie was alarmed, not by the intrusion,

    Rosalie 感到驚慌,但不是因為覺得被入侵

  • but because she knew this entourage was an extremely detailed hallucination.

    而是她知道這個環境是一個充滿細節的幻覺

  • Her cognitive function was excellent,

    她的認知功能很好

  • and she had not taken any medications that might cause hallucinations.

    她沒有服用任何可能引起幻覺的藥物

  • Strangest of all, had a real-life crowd of circus performers burst into her room,

    最奇怪的是,一個現實生活中的馬戲團演員闖進了她的房間

  • she wouldn't have been able to see them:

    她卻沒辦法看到他們

  • she was completely blind.

    因為她是盲人

  • Rosalie had developed a condition known as Charles Bonnet Syndrome,

    Rosalie 得了一種名為邦納症候群的病症

  • in which patients with either impaired vision or total blindness

    其中視力受損或完全失明的患者

  • suddenly hallucinate whole scenes in vivid color.

    突然把整個場景幻化成鮮明的色彩

  • These hallucinations appear suddenly,

    這些幻覺出現得很突然

  • and can last for mere minutes or recur for years.

    而且可以持續短短幾分鐘或復發多年

  • We still don't fully understand what causes them to come and go,

    我們還不能完全知道是什麼原因促使症狀反覆發生

  • or why certain patients develop them when others don't.

    或是為什麼特定病患會有幻覺,而其他人卻沒有

  • We do know from fMRI studies that these hallucinations

    但我們知道功能性磁共振成像研究出這些幻覺

  • activate the same brain areas as sight,

    刺激相同的大腦區域,如失明

  • areas that are not activated by imagination.

    這些區域不是被想像力所刺激

  • Many other hallucinations, including smells,

    許多其他的幻覺,包括嗅覺

  • sights,

    視覺

  • and sounds,

    和聽覺

  • also involve the same brain areas as real sensory experiences.

    也涉及到與真實感官體驗相同的大腦區域

  • Because of this, the cerebral cortex is thought to play a part in hallucinations.

    因此,大腦皮層被認為是幻覺的一部分

  • This thin layer of grey matter covers the entire cerebrum,

    這層灰質覆蓋整個大腦

  • with different areas processing information from each of our senses.

    用不同的區域處理來自我們每個感官的資訊

  • But even in people with completely unimpaired senses,

    但即使是在完全沒有意識的人

  • the brain constructs the world we perceive from incomplete information.

    大腦構建我們從不完整資訊中感知的世界

  • For example, our eyes have blind spots

    例如,我們的眼睛有盲點

  • where the optic nerve blocks part of the retina.

    視神經阻滯視網膜的一部分

  • When the visual cortex processes light into coherent images,

    當視覺皮層將光處理成連貫的影像

  • it fills in these blind spots with information from the surrounding area.

    它利用周圍地區的資訊填補這些盲點

  • Occasionally, we might notice a glitch, but most of the time we're none the wiser.

    偶爾,我們可能會注意到一個小故障,但大部分時間我們都不知道

  • When the visual cortex is deprived of input from the eyes, even temporarily,

    當眼睛剝奪視覺皮層看到的畫面,即使是暫時的

  • the brain still tries to create a coherent picture,

    大腦仍然會試著創造出連貫的影像

  • but the limits of its abilities become a lot more obvious.

    但其能力的局限性變得更加明顯

  • The full-blown hallucinations of Charles Bonnet Syndrome are one example.

    邦納症候群的幻覺就是一個例子

  • Because Charles Bonnet Syndrome only occurs in people

    因為邦納症候群只發生在

  • who had normal vision and then lost their sight,

    原本視力正常,但後來失明的人身上

  • not those who were born blind,

    而不是那些天生失明的人

  • scientists think the brain uses remembered images

    科學家認為大腦使用記憶的影像

  • to compensate for the lack of new visual input.

    來彌補缺乏新的視覺輸入

  • And the same is true for other senses.

    對其他感官也是如此

  • People with hearing loss often hallucinate music or voices,

    失聰的人常常幻聽到音樂或聲音

  • sometimes as elaborate as the cacophony of an entire marching band.

    有時像整個行進樂團的雜音一樣精細

  • In addition to sensory deprivation,

    除了感官剝奪

  • recreational and therapeutic drugs,

    娛樂和治療藥物

  • conditions like epilepsy and narcolepsy,

    癲癇和嗜睡症等病症

  • and psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia,

    以及精神分裂症等精神疾病

  • are a few of the many known causes of hallucinations,

    是許多已知的幻覺原因中的一部分

  • and we're still finding new ones.

    而且我們還在找新的症狀

  • Some of the most notorious hallucinations

    一些最臭名昭著的幻覺

  • are associated with drugs like LSD and psilocybin.

    與藥物如 LSD (迷幻藥) 和裸蓋菇素有關

  • Their hallmark effects include the sensation that dry objects are wet

    他們的效果特徵包括感覺到乾燥物體是濕的

  • and that surfaces are breathing.

    物體表面會呼吸

  • At higher doses, the visual world can appear to melt,

    在更高的劑量下,視覺世界可能會融化

  • dissolve into swirls,

    溶解成漩渦

  • or burst into fractal-like patterns.

    或破裂成分形圖案

  • Evidence suggests these drugs also act on the cerebral cortex.

    有證據表明這些藥物也對大腦皮層起作用

  • But while visual impairment typically only causes visual hallucinations,

    但是視覺損傷通常只會引起視覺幻覺

  • and hearing loss auditory ones,

    失聰引起幻聽

  • substances like LSD cause perceptual disturbances across all the senses.

    像 LSD 這樣的物質會引起所有感官的知覺干擾

  • That's likely because they activate receptors in a broad range of brain areas,

    這很可能是因為它們刺激了腦區廣泛的受體

  • including the cortical regions for all the senses.

    包括所有感官的皮層區域

  • LSD and psilocybin both function like serotonin in the brain,

    LSD 和裸蓋菇素都像大腦中的血清素

  • binding directly to one type of serotonin receptor in particular.

    特別是直接與一種血清素受體結合

  • While serotonin's role in the brain is complex and poorly understood,

    而大腦中的血清素很複雜且知之甚少

  • it likely plays an important part in integrating information

    它可能在整合資訊方面有重要的作用

  • from the eyes,

    比如眼睛

  • nose,

    鼻子

  • ears,

    耳朵

  • and other sensory organs.

    以及其他感官

  • So one theory is that LSD and psilocybin cause hallucinations

    有一種理論認為,LSD 和裸蓋菇素會引起幻覺

  • by disrupting the signaling involved in sensory integration.

    是透過破壞感覺綜合的訊號

  • Hallucinations associated with schizophrenia

    與精神分裂症相關的幻覺

  • may share a similar mechanism with those caused by LSD and psilocybin.

    可能與 LSD 和裸蓋菇素引起相同的幻覺

  • Patients with schizophrenia

    精神分裂症患者

  • often have elevated levels of serotonin in the brain.

    他們大腦中的血清素水準常常升高

  • And antipsychotic drugs relieve symptoms of schizophrenia

    而抗精神病藥物緩解精神分裂症的症狀

  • by blocking the same serotonin receptors LSD and psilocybin bind to.

    是透過阻斷相同的血清素受體 LSD 和裸蓋菇素結合

  • And, in some cases,

    而且,在某些情况下

  • these drugs can even relieve the hallucinations

    這些藥物甚至可以減輕

  • of patients with Charles Bonnet Syndrome.

    邦納症候群患者的幻覺

  • We're still a long way from understanding all the different causes

    我們對理解幻覺的所有不同原因

  • and interconnected mechanisms of hallucinations.

    和相互聯系的機制還有很長的路要走

  • But it's clear that hallucinatory experiences

    但是很明顯,幻覺體驗

  • are much more closely tied to ordinary perception than we once thought.

    超乎想像且更緊密地與普通感知有所關聯

  • And by studying hallucinations,

    透過研究幻覺

  • we stand to learn a great deal

    我們可以學到很多

  • about how our brains construct the world we see,

    關於我們的大腦是如何構成我們所看到的世界

  • hear,

    或聽到的

  • smell,

    聞到的

  • and touch.

    摸到的

  • As we learn more,

    隨著我們了解得更多

  • we'll likely come to appreciate just how subjective and individual

    我們可能會逐漸意識到

  • each person's island universe of perception really is.

    每個人的感知之島的宇宙是多麼的主觀和有個性

An elderly woman named Rosalie was sitting in her nursing home

一位名叫 Rosalie 的老太太坐在養老院裡

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 幻覺 大腦 感官 皮層 視覺

【TED-Ed】看到神秘的東西 ... 什麼會造成幻覺?(What causes hallucinations? - Elizabeth Cox)

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    Samuel 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 07 日
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