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  • All around the world,

    大麻在全世界正被除罪化甚至合法化

  • marijuana is being decriminalized, or even made legal.

    但這真的是個好主意嗎? 在網路論戰中,有害的一面經常被淡化

  • But is this really a good idea?

    所以讓我們來檢視三個反對大麻合法化的主要論點

  • In the online debate,

    Kurzgesagt 三個大麻不應合法化的理由

  • the harmful sides are often downplayed.

    論點一

  • So let's look at the three most powerful arguments

    在過去數十年間,大麻被改造成效果更強的物質

  • against legalizing marijuana.

    現在的大麻效果已經強大到 成為一種可能導致精神疾病的藥物

  • [Intro - Kurzgesagt]

    大麻中主要的有效成分是 THC

  • Argument number 1:

    而強力的證據指出,在不論其他風險因素的情況下

  • In the last few decades,

    THC 與精神疾病有所關聯

  • Marijuana has been engineered to become much more potent.

    大麻也含有一種名為 CBD 的物質 可能抵銷 THC 的作用

  • Today, marijuana is so potent,

    CBD 甚至被用在治療精神疾病和焦慮症的實驗中

  • that it's actually a strong drug that may cause psychosis.

    但由於 CBD 不會讓你嗨,過去數十年間 種植者逐漸減少大麻中的 CBD 含量

  • The main active ingredient of marijuana is THC,

    並同時提高 THC 的含量

  • and there's strong evidence that THC is related to psychosis

    樣本檢測顯示,大麻的 THC 含量從 90 年代的 4% 提升至 2014 年的 12%

  • regardless of other risk factors.

    改變 THC 和 CBD 的含量比例 從 1995 年的 1:14 到 2014 年的 1:80

  • Marijuana also contains a substance called CBD,

    雖然這些檢測的準確性尚不明確

  • that seems to counteract its effect.

    但近期的研究整體顯示,使用越多越強的大麻 會導致罹患精神疾病的機率上升

  • It's even being tested as a treatment against psychosis and anxiety.

    但一般大眾罹患精神疾病的風險究竟有多高?

  • But because it doesn't make you high,

    一項英國的研究發現

  • growers have gradually decreased the amount of CBD

    雖然大麻的使用量在 1996 年至 2005 年間顯著上升

  • in marijuana over the last few decades,

    但精神分裂症患者的人數仍維持穩定

  • while increasing THC levels.

    在原本就是罹患精神疾病的高風險族群中 因大麻而造成精神疾病的機率最高

  • Sample testing showed that THC levels have risen from around 4% in the 1990s

    據我們目前所知,更有可能的是,大麻只是加速了 精神疾病的症狀發展,而不是造成症狀的原因

  • to nearly 12% in 2014,

    因此反對的理由是:如果越少人有管道接觸大麻 因大麻而造成精神疾病的風險就會降低

  • shifting the ratio of THC to CBD from 1:14 in 1995

    但實際上你也可以說,正是因為大麻是非法物質

  • to about 1:80 in 2014.

    反而造成更多的人罹患精神疾病

  • It's unclear how precise those tests were, however.

    00:02:25,500 --> 00:02:32,720 全面禁止會讓違法藥物變得更加強效,因為你能以 更小的體積運輸更多的產品,並有更高的獲利

  • Overall, recent findings suggest that the more marijuana you consume,

    這正是在美國禁酒令期間發生的事 烈酒成為最常見的東西

  • and the stronger it is,

    而現在的大麻也正經歷一樣的事情

  • the higher your risk of developing psychosis.

    想像在一個世界中 烈酒是唯一的酒精飲料

  • But how high is the risk of psychosis for the general population?

    你只能在完全不喝酒,和喝到比自己想要的更醉中選擇

  • A study from Britain found that

    這正是今日許多大麻使用者面臨的情況

  • while marijuana use has risen significantly between 1996 and 2005,

    人們並未在禁酒令期間內停止喝酒 數據也顯示法律並無法讓人們停止使用大麻

  • the number of schizophrenia cases

    我們無法讓大麻消失,但我們可以讓它變得更安全

  • a type of psychosisremain stable.

    如果大麻合法,消費者會有更多的選擇 而管理機關可以制定 CBD 含量的限制

  • The risk of marijuana induced psychosis

    就像大多數的人下班後不會想喝掉一整瓶伏特加 他們會很開心抽一口有如下班後啤酒般的大麻

  • remains the highest for people

    論點二:大麻是一種入門毒品,一旦合法化 會有更多人開始濫用更危險的藥物

  • who already have a high risk of psychosis to begin with.

    一項 2015 年的研究發現

  • For them, it seems more likely that

    終生大麻使用者中,45% 的人曾經在 某個時間點使用其他非法藥物

  • marijuana speeds up the development of their condition,

    大麻合法化後可能會加強這種風潮,讓更多年輕人 在試過合法的大麻後,可能最後會嘗試更強烈的藥物

  • rather than causing it, as far as we know right now.

    但其實真正的入門藥物更早就出現了-香菸

  • So the reasoning goes,

    一線研究顯示,在 15 歲以前開始吸菸的青少年

  • if fewer people have access to marijuana,

    使用非法藥物的機率要比不吸菸者高出 80%

  • the lower the risk of marijuana induce psychosis.

    2007 年的一項發現,在 12 至 17 歲吸菸的青少年 酗酒的比例高出三倍

  • But actually, you could argue that

    濫用海洛因或可卡因等藥物的機率高出七倍 而使用大麻的比例也同樣高出七倍

  • precisely because marijuana is illegal,

    但如果上述事實為真,那讓更多藥物合法化 怎麼能降低強烈藥物使用?

  • more people will end up with psychosis.

    首先要知道一件重要的事,那就是 人們使用藥物不是取決於它合法與否

  • Prohibition makes illegal drug stronger and more potent,

    如果你想購買任何藥物 你總是能夠找到願意賣你的人

  • because this way you can ship more product in a smaller space

    真正問題是,為什麼人們會 與藥物發展出不健康的關係?

  • and sell it at a greater profit.

    多項研究顯示,某些狀況會讓人 特別容易接觸藥物濫用和成癮

  • This is what happened during the prohibition of alcohol in the US,

    一段難受的童年經歷、早期創傷 低社會地位、憂鬱,或是遺傳基因

  • where hard liquor became the norm.

    他們會對於何種藥物成癮 大多時候只是機率問題

  • And the same is happening with marijuana now.

    成癮者藉由使用藥物來逃離問題 但藥物無法解決任何問體,反而成為了新的問題

  • Imagine a world where liquor is the only alcohol available.

    但因為人們的應對機制而懲罰他們 同樣也無法改變任何根本的原因

  • You have the choice of either not drinking at all,

    因此有些人認為,我們需要採取一種全新的路線

  • or getting much drunker than you would like to.

    2011 年,葡萄牙有著全歐洲最嚴重的藥物問題 因此在無計可施下,他們嘗試了一種激進的做法

  • This is the situation for many marijuana smokers today.

    所有非法藥物的持有與使用除罪化

  • People didn't stop drinking during prohibition,

    你不會再被逮補,取而代之的是 官方啟動了一項大型健康計畫

  • and the numbers show that laws don't deter people from using marijuana.

    持有或使用少量藥物的人,會被轉介給支援服務機構 並獲得治療和減害的幫助

  • We can't make marijuana go away,

    藥物使用被視為慢性疾病,而非犯罪

  • but we can make it safer.

    結果令人驚訝,嘗試並持續使用藥物的人數

  • If marijuana were legal,

    在 2012 年從 44% 下降到 28%

  • there would be more options for consumers,

    使用強烈藥物、HIV 和肝炎感染 以及藥物過量的人數也下降

  • and regulators could, for example, insist on a high level of CBD.

    讓藥物合法化可能整體上更能幫助社會 而非造成傷害

  • Just like most people don't drink an after-work bottle of vodka,

    論點三

  • many people would gladly consume the after-work beer version of marijuana.

    大麻會令人上癮而且是不健康的 它需要維持非法來降低傷害到最小

  • Argument 2: marijuana is a gateway drug.

    雖然大麻的成癮性更多是來自心理而非生理 它仍然是一個真實存在的問題

  • If it's legalized,

    在過去的十年間,大麻成癮治療的需求 上升了超過一倍

  • there will be a spike in the use of much more dangerous drugs.

    嘗試過大麻者中,有 10% 的人成癮

  • A 2015 study found that

    這也和高劑量的 THC 成分有關

  • about 45% of lifelong marijuana users

    一項在 2017 年發表的研究中,對大麻的強效程度 與荷蘭大麻咖啡館進行了長達 16 年的追蹤

  • took some other illegal drug at some point.

    THC 成分每提高 1%

  • Legalizing marijuana could reinforce this trend:

    全國就有超過 60 個人開始接受治療

  • as more young people try legal marijuana,

    在對健康的負面影響方面,有些研究認為 大麻的使用與血壓升高與肺部疾病有關

  • they might end up trying harder drugs.

    而一項 2016 年的研究發現 大麻的使用與身體的健康問題無關

  • But it turns out that the real gateway to drug use comes much earlier:

    除了可能會提高牙齦疾病的風險

  • cigarettes.

    有些研究顯示,使用大麻會改變青少年的腦部 並且造成智商下降

  • One study showed that

    但一項最近的研究將飲酒和抽煙納入考量後 發現其結果並不完整

  • teens who started smoking before the age of 15

    整體來說,研究顯示在腦部發展期間 使用任何藥物都會產生不良影響

  • were 80% more likely to use illegal drugs than those who didn't.

    但事實是,我們還不知道大麻究竟有多不健康 我們需要投入更多資源進行研究

  • And a 2007 study found that teenagers between 12 and 17 who smoked

    但這些資源很難取得 因為大麻持續被視為非法藥物

  • were three times more likely to binge drink,

    不過我們可以將已知的事實納入觀點

  • seven times more likely to have used drugs like heroin or cocaine,

    (成癮可能性) 16% 的飲酒者成為了酗酒者 32% 嘗試過香煙的人最後成為了吸菸者

  • and were also seven times more likely to resort to marijuana.

    我們能肯定酒精會引響你的腦部 毀滅你的肝臟,和導致癌症

  • But if that's the case,

    香菸會阻塞你的氣管、摧毀你的肺部 也同樣會導致癌症

  • how could making more drugs legal stop the use of hard drugs?

    每年有 330 萬人死於酒精濫用 而香菸每年殺死超過 600 萬人

  • At first, it's important to acknowledge that

    沒有人因為香菸和酒精是合法的 就認為它們是無害的

  • people don't use drugs because they're legal or not.

    也沒有人認真提議要查禁菸酒 雖然兩者都極具危險性

  • If you want to buy any drug,

    合法化是一種對兩者進行某種程度管制的方式 特別是在保護年輕人方面

  • you'll always find someone happy to sell.

    青少年通常很難買到合法的藥物 但購買非法藥物則相對容易

  • The real question is why do people develop

    官方的販賣者如果將藥物賣給青少年 將會被處以高額罰款且被吊銷執照

  • an unhealthy relationship with drugs at all?

    合法化將會帶來藥頭無法濫用的獎勵作用

  • Studies show that certain conditions

    因此讓大麻合法化不代表為其背書 而是代表對於其帶來的風險負責

  • make people especially vulnerable to drugs and addiction.

    同樣也可能帶來更多新的研究機會,能了解 大麻實際上會帶來什麼傷害?對什麼人會有傷害?

  • A difficult childhood,

    結論

  • early trauma,

    大麻是一種藥物,而就像其他的藥物一樣

  • low social status,

    它對於某一些使用的人會有負面的影響 它並不是完全無害的

  • depression, even genetic factors.

    保護社會不被其負面影響傷害的最好方式 現在看起來就是合法化並進行管制

  • Which drug they get addicted to is more often than not a matter of chance.

    因為我們與 FUNK 之間的合作計畫,本支影片 已提前兩週在我們的德語頻道上架

  • Addicts take drugs to escape their problems.

    去那裡看看,並訂閱它來練習你的德語技巧

  • But drugs don't solve any of those problems,

    如果你想支持這些花費數個月 進行研究和準備的影片創作

  • and instead become a new problem.

    同時又能得到一大堆很酷的東西做為回報 請造訪 pattern.com/Kurzgesat

  • But punishing people for their unhealthy coping mechanisms

  • doesn't change anything about the underlying causes either.

  • So some argue we need to take a completely different route.

  • In 2001,

  • Portugal had one of the worst drug problems in Europe.

  • So it was desperate enough to try something radical:

  • Possession and use of all illegal drugs was decriminalized.

  • You would no longer be arrested;

  • Instead, authorities launched a major health campaign.

  • People who were found with a small amount

  • were referred to support services,

  • and got help with treatment and harm reduction.

  • Drug use was seen as a chronic disease, not a crime.

  • The results were stunning:

  • the number of people who tried drugs and kept using them

  • fell from 44% to 28% by 2012.

  • The use of hard drugs decreased,

  • as well as HIV & hepatitis infections and overdoses.

  • Making drugs legal might overall help society much more than it harms it.

  • Argument number 3:

  • Marijuana is addictive and unhealthy.

  • It needs to remain illegal to keep harm at a minimum.

  • While marijuana addiction is more psychological than physical,

  • it is still a real problem.

  • The demand for treatment for marijuana addiction

  • has more than doubled in the past decade alone.

  • In total, about 10% of people who try marijuana will become addicted.

  • This is also related to higher THC levels.

  • A study released in 2017

  • tracked the potency of marijuana and Dutch coffee shops

  • over a period of 16 years.

  • For every 1% increase in THC,

  • 60 more people enter treatment nationwide.

  • In terms of negative health effects,

  • some studies linked marijuana use to increased blood pressure and lung problems,

  • while a 2016 study found that marijuana use was unrelated to

  • physical health problems, except for a higher risk of gum disease.

  • Some studies showed that marijuana use alters teenagers brains,

  • and decreases their intelligence;

  • but when more recent studies took drinking and smoking into account,

  • the results were inconclusive.

  • Overall, research shows that

  • taking any drugs while the brain is still in development is bad for you.

  • But the truth is, we don't know yet how unhealthy marijuana is.

  • We need more funding for research,

  • which is hard to get while marijuana remains illegal.

  • We can put what we know into perspective though.

  • 16% of people who consume alcohol become alcoholics,

  • and 32% of people who try cigarettes become smokers.

  • We know for sure alcohol affects your brain,

  • destroys your liver and causes cancer;

  • while tobacco clogs your arteries,

  • destroys your lungs and also causes cancer.

  • 3.3 million people die from alcohol abuse each year,

  • while smoking kills more than 6 million people.

  • Nobody is suggesting tobacco and alcohol are harmless just because they're legal.

  • Also, nobody is seriously proposing to prohibit them even though they are extremely dangerous.

  • Legality is a way to exercise some control over them,

  • especially when it comes to protecting young people.

  • It's often much harder to buy legal drugs for teenagers than to buy illegal ones.

  • Official sellers can get hefty fines

  • and lose their license if they sell to underage kids.

  • Legality creates incentives here that drug dealers can't exploit.

  • So making marijuana legal doesn't mean endorsing it.