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  • You might not want to think about this, but over 3,500 species of cockroaches live on this planet.

    你可能想都不敢想,但有超過 3,500 種蟑螂在這個星球上生活 。

  • The good news?

    好消息是?

  • Only about 30 of those species have adapted to live around humans.

    其中僅有 30 種能適應與人類為居 。

  • The bad news?

    壞消息呢?

  • Thirty species of cockroaches can live around us!

    有 30 種蟑螂能和我們為居!

  • Roaches are one of the most common pests in the US.

    蟑螂是美國最普遍的害蟲之一。

  • So it's no surprise that humans are always trying to kill them.

    所以難怪人們總想殺死它們。

  • But no matter how many times we stomp them, squash them, and bomb them with toxic chemicals, these pesky pests always seem to pop up time and time again.

    但不論我們如何用力踩扁牠們,壓扁牠們,或是用有毒的化學物質轟炸牠們,這些煩人的昆蟲似乎永遠能一而再、再而三地冒出來。

  • So what's going on?

    所以到底是怎麼回事?

  • Let's take a closer look at the roach you probably know better than you'd like.

    我們來更近一步看看蟑螂吧,你可能比你想知道的了解更多。

  • Periplaneta Americana, aka, the American Cockroach.

    美洲家蠊,也被稱作美洲蟑螂。

  • But this name is misleading, this guy is actually from Africa, not America.

    不過這名稱會造成誤會,因為這種小強其實是從非洲來的,而不是美洲。

  • It made its way to the US by infesting boats in the 16th century, and it's been spreading to almost every corner in the world ever since.

    16 世紀時,他們成群出沒於船上,跟著船隻沿路來到美國,從那時起,就在世界各個角落散播開來。

  • Turns out, it's one of the largest species of cockroach around.

    後來,美洲蟑螂變成了全球最大的蟑螂種類。

  • But that's not the only big thing about it.

    但是不止如此。

  • New research has revealed that it has a massive genome, one of the largest of any studied insect.

    新的研究顯示,美洲蟑螂有巨大的基因組,也是所有研究過的昆蟲中最大的。

  • And many of these genes are exactly what make this roach a master survivor.

    而正是這些基因讓蟑螂成為最強大的生存者。

  • Let's start with the genes associated with something called Chemoreception.

    我們從一種和「化學感受」有關的基因來開始看。

  • That's how roaches smell and taste their environment.

    那是蟑螂用來聞與嚐到環境的方式。

  • Turns out they're actually way better sniffing out and eating food than most other insects.

    而這確實讓蟑螂比其他大多的昆蟲有更好的嗅覺來找到食物進食。

  • The American roach has 154 olfactory receptors for smell, and 544 gustatory receptors for taste, more than any other insect on the planet.

    美洲蟑螂有 154 個嗅覺感官,以及 544 個味覺感官,遠比其他地球上的昆蟲都多。

  • As a result, these cockroaches are not picky eaters.

    因此,這些蟑螂不是吹毛求疵的挑食者。

  • Sure, they like cheese, meat and sugar like the rest of us, but they'll also go for things like cardboard, book bindings, human toenails, rotting meat, blood, excrement, and even each other.

    當然啦,牠們跟我們一樣愛起司、肉類跟糖類。不過,牠們也愛像是厚紙板、書的裝訂邊、人的腳指甲、腐爛的肉、血液、排泄物或甚至是自己的同類。

  • That's right, these roaches have been known to eat other dead or crippled cockroaches, all in the name of survival.

    沒錯,為了生存這些蟑螂會吃掉其他死掉或有殘缺的蟑螂。

  • It sounds gross, but this diverse diet makes it easy to find a meal just about anywhere, even if it's poisonous to most animals.

    聽起來很噁心,但是這樣多元的飲食讓蟑螂們無論在何處都能輕易地飽食一頓,就算那對其他動物來說是有毒的。

  • This roach has a bunch of genes called Cytochrome P450s, which help it withstand poisonous chemicals, like peppermint.

    這種蟑螂有許多叫做細胞色素P450的基因,幫助牠們承受有毒的化學物質,像是薄荷。

  • These genes code for detoxification enzymes, which keep the insect safe.

    這些基因碼能產生出解毒酶,讓蟑螂不會被毒死。

  • On top of that, this roach has a super-strong immune system that seeks out and kills harmful microbes and fungi, making the most unsanitary environment look like a five-star hotel to the American cockroach.

    更重要的是,這種蟑螂有超強大的免疫系統,會找出並殺光有害的微生物跟菌類,大多數不衛生的環境對美洲蟑螂而言就像間五星級飯店。

  • Not gross enough yet?

    還不夠噁心嗎?

  • Well... consider this.

    嗯…… 那來聽聽這個。

  • Cockroaches can live nearly a week without their heads.

    蟑螂在沒有頭部的情況下還能存活約一星期。

  • Yeah, that's not a myth.

    沒錯,這可不是唬你的。

  • They don't have a highly pressurized network of blood vessels like humans, so they don't bleed out.

    牠們沒有像人類一樣的加壓血管系統,所以牠們並不會流血。

  • Instead, their necks actually seal off the opening.

    取而代之,牠們的脖子會將傷口完全密封起來。

  • They can't regenerate a whole head, but roaches do have an impressive set of regenerative superpowers.

    牠們無法重新再生一個完整的頭部,但蟑螂卻有個令人印象深刻的重生超能力。

  • For up to the first two years of its life, the American roach goes through a series of regenerative molts as it matures into an adult.

    在牠們生命的前兩年,美洲蟑螂在成蟲的過程中,會經歷一系列的再生脫皮期。

  • During a single molt stage, it can replace lost limbs.

    每一階段的脫皮,失去的肢體都能重建。

  • And over a series of molts, it can regrow antennae and even its eyes.

    且在這一系列脫皮後,牠可以重新長出觸角,甚至眼睛。

  • Roaches may be hard to kill, but there's an easy way to keep them clear of your kitchen.

    蟑螂或許很難殺,但仍有個簡單的方法來阻止牠們靠近你的廚房。

  • Cleanliness.

    那就是清潔。

  • A roach won't just survive in unsanitary conditions, it actually enjoys it.

    蟑螂不僅會在不衛生的條件下生存,事實上牠超享受的。

  • Its heightened senses mean it actually relishes rotting food.

    牠強大的感官代表著牠確實很喜歡腐壞的食物。

  • So, store food in airtight containers.

    所以,在密閉容器儲存食物。

  • Cover trash bins, and keep your basement dry.

    蓋上垃圾桶蓋子,並保持地下室的乾燥。

  • It might also be smart to plug holes in your walls, unused electrical outlets, and especially drains, since get this, roaches can use your plumbing to climb up from sewers into your bathroom sink.

    將牆上的洞補起來或許也是個聰明的方法,像是用不到的插座,特別是排水溝,因為蟑螂能從下水道爬進你家水管,最後進到浴室的水槽。

  • It might not eliminate the risk entirely, but it can't hurt, and it will certainly make you feel better.

    這可能不能完全消除風險,但保持清潔對你不是壞事,也能使你過得更舒適。

  • However, we can't promise it will keep them out of your nightmares.

    然而,我們不能夠保證這樣做牠們就不會出現在你的夢魘裡。

You might not want to think about this, but over 3,500 species of cockroaches live on this planet.

你可能想都不敢想,但有超過 3,500 種蟑螂在這個星球上生活 。

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C1 高級 中文 美國腔 蟑螂 美洲 昆蟲 基因 有毒 感官

致永遠的小強,為何蟑螂殺也殺不死? (Why Cockroaches Are So Hard To Kill)

  • 18158 870
    Arissa Wang 發佈於 2022 年 07 月 31 日
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