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  • If you can hear what I'm saying right now and understand me, you can probably speak

    若是你能了解我現在說的話,你大概會說

  • English.

    英語

  • It's also very likely that you think in English as well, right?

    很有可能你也是用英語思考的,對吧?

  • For example, you might be saying to yourself, "when is this guy going to get to the point?”

    舉例來說,你現在大概在想,「這傢伙什麼時候才會切入主題?」

  • But, if I took all of those words out of the English language, would you still be able

    然而,要是我把那些詞都從英語中剔除了,你還能

  • to think that thought?

    如此這般想嗎?

  • After all, you probably think to yourself in language all of the time.

    畢竟,你大概隨時都在用語言思考

  • If you know less words, can you think less thoughts?

    如果你知道較少的詞彙,你也會思考得較少嗎?

  • More importantly, can you think complex thoughts?

    更重要的,你能夠有複雜的思考嗎?

  • George Orwell explores this theme in his classic

    喬治‧歐威爾在他的經典小說《1984》中

  • novel "1984".

    探討了這個議題

  • Winston Smith - the protagonist - lives in the superstate of Oceania, in the province

    主角 Winston Smith 住在大國 Oceania 中的 Airstrip One 省

  • Airstrip One, in the city of London.

    位於倫敦市

  • The state is governed by a totalitarian party led by a figure known as Big Brother.

    這個國家由一個極權主義政黨所管控,政黨領導人名叫 Big Brother

  • The Party seeks complete and total control over the entire state and its citizens.

    這個政黨力求對於整個國家和所有公民的全然掌控

  • They use tactics typical of totalitarian governments such as constant surveillance, strict disapproval

    他們採用極權政府慣用的手法,比如持續監控、

  • of independent thought, and controlling access to information.

    斥責獨立思想,和控制資訊的流通管道

  • But, I want to focus on one tactic in particular.

    但我想集中探討其中一項手法

  • The Party has invented a new language called

    此政黨發明了一種新語言

  • "Newspeak" which is meant to replace "Oldspeak".

    稱為「新話」,用意是要取代「舊話」

  • Oldspeak is the English we all currently use.

    舊話就是我們當今所使用的英語

  • Newspeak is a heavily modified version of English with a much smaller vocabulary.

    新話則是經過大幅修改、詞彙少了許多的英語

  • Over several decades, the Party hopes to pare down the language to take out any words that

    在幾十年間,政黨企圖修剪語言,將任何不符合他們意識形態

  • don't serve their ideological mission.

    的字詞剔除

  • Borrowing a direct example from Orwell, words like warm would not exist.

    直接舉個歐威爾的例子,「暖」 (warm) 這類的詞彙根本不繼存在

  • Instead, it would be referred to as "uncold".

    它會被「不冷」 (uncold) 所取代

  • The root word "cold" would still exist.

    詞根「冷」 (cold) 會留存

  • "Pluscold" would mean very cold, and "doubleplus-cold" would be very very cold.

    「加倍冷」 (pluscold) 就代表很冷,而「雙倍加倍冷」 (doubleplus-cold) 則是非常非常冷

  • In essence, one could revolve any discussion about temperature around one word: cold.

    總的來說,人們光用「冷」 (cold) 一個字就可以回答任何有關溫度的話題

  • In Orwell's own words,

    歐威爾的原話如下

  • "Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of thought."

    「之所以設計出新話,不是為了延伸思考的範疇,而是為了減少範疇。」

  • The Party believed that by limiting the language available to the citizens, they could limit

    政黨相信藉由限制公民可用的詞彙,就能限制

  • their ability to think.

    他們思考的能力

  • More importantly, they believed that they could limit a persons ability to think thoughts

    更重要的是,他們相信如此一來他們就能限制一個人

  • that were in opposition to the Party's ideology: concepts like political or intellectual freedom

    產生反對政黨意識形態的想法。有關於政治或是思想自由的概念

  • would be non-existent.

    將不會存在

  • But, does this hypothesis hold any weight?

    但是,這項假設能夠成真嗎?

  • Could a totalitarian government actually limit our ability to think of the concept of freedom

    一個極權政府真能夠藉由移除大家共有的詞彙

  • by removing the word from our collective vocabulary?

    來限制我們思考自由這個概念嗎?

  • According to the theory of linguistic determinism,

    根據語言決定論的說法

  • the answer would be yes.

    答案是肯定的

  • Linguistic determinism is one-half of a greater theory referred to as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

    語言決定論是稱為 Sapir-Whorf 假說的重大理論的其中一支

  • The other half is linguistic relativity which we may touch on in a separate video.

    另外一支是語言相對論,我們在影片後半段會提到

  • Edward Sapir wrote that

    Edward Sapir 寫道

  • "Human beings do not live in the objective world alone, nor alone in the world of social

    「人類並非單獨存在於客觀世界中,也並非單獨存在於大眾認知的社會常規裡,

  • activity as ordinarily understood, but are very much at the mercy of the particular language

    而是很大程度地受制於他們社會中,

  • which has become the medium of expression for their society. "

    作為傳播媒介的特定語言。」

  • He also wrote that

    他也寫道:

  • "The world in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world

    「不同社會所存在的世界是不一樣的世界,並非只是

  • with different labels attached. "

    同一個世界裡有著不同標籤。」

  • Sapir believed that language did, indeed, have an effect on our thinking.

    Sapir 認為,語言的確會影響我們思考的方式

  • Benjamin Lee Whorf - Sapir's student - developed

    Sapir 的學生 Benjamin Lee Whorf

  • this line of reasoning further.

    延伸了這條思考套路

  • He claimed that upon studying the Hopi language, he found that they had no words that referred

    他聲稱透過研究赫必族的語言,他發現他們沒有任何有關時間的

  • to time.

    詞彙

  • This discovery led Whorf to believe that, because they did not have any way to refer

    這項發現使得 Whorf 相信,因為他們沒有任何能夠指涉時間的方式

  • to it, Hopi speakers experienced time differently.

    赫必族語言的使用者體驗時間的方式也會不同

  • In this Hopi view, "time disappears and space is altered, so that it is no longer the homogenous

    在赫必族的觀點來看,「時間消失且空間改變了,所以不再是我們直覺所認定以及

  • and instantaneous timeless space of our supposed intuitions or of classical Newtonian mechanics.

    古典牛頓力學中所謂的均質、即時的永恆空間。

  • At the same time, new concepts and abstractions flow into the picture, taking up the task

    與此同時,新概念和抽象進入畫面,擔起責任

  • of describing the universe without reference to such time or space - abstractions for which

    不涉及時間或空間來形容宇宙。這些抽象概念是

  • our language lacks adequate terms. "

    我們的語言中缺少確切術語的。」

  • In English, our verbs contain tenses that explain the time during which an action occurred.

    英語中的動詞會包含時態,解釋動作發生的時間

  • For example, if I said that it snowed, you know that I'm referring to the past.

    舉個例子,要是我說「下過雪了」 (it snowed) ,你知道我是在指過去

  • If I say that it is snowing, then you know that it's happening in the present.

    要是我說「在下雪了」 (it is snowing) ,那你知道現在正在發生

  • In English, we divide time and split it up into past, present, future, minutes, hours,

    在英語裡,我們將時間切割為過去、現在、未來、分鐘、小時、

  • days, weeks and experience it as such.

    日、週,並且依此經歷時間

  • Is it true?

    是真的嗎?

  • Do the Hopi experience time in a fundamentally different way than we do because they lack

    因為少了分割時間的詞彙,赫必族經歷時間的感受真的就和我們

  • the words for dividing it?

    全然不同嗎?

  • Well, no.

    並不是

  • It turns out that Whorf's analysis of the Hopi language simply turned out to be inadequate

    事實是, Whorf 對於赫必族語言的分析結果根本就不足

  • and that they do in fact have ways of referring to time.

    且他們事實上有指涉時間的方式

  • So, they don't actually experience time any differently than we do.

    所以,他們對時間的感受其實和我們並非不同

  • But, the theory is not dead yet.

    但是,這項理論還沒完

  • The Dani people of New Guinea have only two

    新幾內亞的達尼族人只有

  • words for describing color: "mili" and "mola".

    兩個形容顏色的詞:「米利」 (mili) 和「莫拉」 (mola)

  • "Mili" is representative of cold or dark colors and "mola" represents warm or light colors.

    「米利」代表冷色或是暗色,「莫拉」則代表暖色和亮色

  • If linguistic determinism holds true, then it's reasonable to think that the Dani people

    如果語言決定論是正確的,那麼可以合理推測達尼族人

  • will not be able to make detailed distinctions between colors like we do.

    沒辦法像我們一樣分辨顏色間的細節差異

  • They should only be able to distinguish them as dark or light, right?

    他們應該只能辨別暗和亮,是吧?

  • Well, the studies show that the Dani people can make distinctions between different colors

    研究顯示,達尼族人依然能夠辨別不同的顏色

  • just fine, despite not having terms for them.

    縱使沒有對應的詞彙

  • So, what's going on here?

    所以究竟是怎麼一回事?

  • If they can make distinctions between these colors just fine, why do they not have different

    如果他們也是能夠辨別顏色,為什麼沒有各顏色

  • words for them?

    的詞彙?

  • It seems that there is a complex and interdependent

    看來語言、思想和文化三者之間

  • relationship between language, thought, and culture.

    有一個複雜且環環相扣的關係

  • Let me put forth a simplified thought experiment that may help clarify our dilemma.

    讓我再舉個簡單的思想實驗,或許能幫助釐清我們的兩難

  • Consider two hypothetical cultures: Culture A and Culture B. Culture A's flag is made

    設想兩個假想的文化:文化 A 和文化 B。文化 A 的旗子

  • up of various shades of green and they live in a forest.

    是由不同色調的綠色所組成的,因為他們住在森林裡

  • Culture B's flag is made up of various shades of blue and they live near the ocean.

    文化 B 的旗子是由不同色調的藍所組成,因為他們住在海邊

  • Now, let's say that I show both cultures a lighter green and a darker green.

    現在,假設我給兩個文化看亮綠色和暗綠色

  • Culture A is far more likely to make a distinction between the two colours because they value

    文化 A 較可能分辨兩種顏色之間的區別,因為他們重視

  • making that distinction.

    這種差異

  • Since they live in a forest, they see a lot of green and value making a distinction between

    由於他們住在森林裡,他們看得見很多綠色,因此語言中

  • lighter shades and darker shades in their language.

    重視辨別亮色調和暗色調的差異

  • They need to make that distinction to communicate with one another.

    他們必須有這種辨別才能和彼此溝通

  • On the other hand, when Culture B is asked what colors they see, they may just refer

    對另一者來說,文化 B 被問及看到什麼顏色時,他們大概

  • to them in the singular: green.

    只會說一個詞:綠色

  • They don't value making that distinction because they don't need to.

    他們不在乎辨別其中的差異,因為他們不需要

  • So, to the extent that we see different languages lacking words for things it's more likely

    所以,就我們發現不同語言缺少有些詞彙這點而言

  • a reflection of their culture; they don't necessarily see the world differently, but

    那較有可能是反映了他們的文化。他們看世界的方式不見得不同

  • they value different things.

    但他們重視不同的事

  • So, what does all of this mean in the context of "1984"?

    所以,這能解釋《1984》中的什麼?

  • Would Newspeak be effective in limiting thought?

    新話能夠限制人們的思考嗎?

  • The complex relationship between language,

    語言、思想和文化之間複雜的關係

  • thought, and culture is not fully understood: scientists are still doing lots of hard work

    還有待釐清。科學家們還在努力

  • to figure it out.

    找出真相

  • But, the language of Newspeak is a reflection of linguistic determinism or the strong version

    不過,新話語言是應證了語言決定論,也就是 Sapir-Whorf 假說中

  • of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

    強硬的那個版本

  • As we have seen, this theory seems very unlikely.

    就我們目前看來,這項理論不太可能成立

  • Just because a language may lack words for time or colours it doesn't mean its speakers

    就因為一個語言缺少指涉時間和顏色的詞彙

  • can't experience that phenomenon or create a new word for it.

    並不代表這語言的使用者無法體驗這種現象或是為之創造新詞彙

  • In his book "The Language Instinct", psychologist, linguist, and author Steven Pinker puts forth

    身為一個心理學家、語言學家和作家, Steven Pinker 在他的著作《語言直覺》中

  • an interesting concept: he believes that all humans have an innate "language of thought"

    提出一個有趣的概念。他相信所有人類都有一個天生的「思考語言」 (language of thought)

  • or "mentalese".

    或稱為「心語」 (mentalese,mental加上字根 -ese )

  • He states that,

    他聲言

  • "knowing a language, then is knowing how to translate mentalese into strings of words,

    「知道一個語言,就是知道如何將心語翻譯為一串詞彙,

  • and vice versa. "

    反之亦然。」

  • According to this theory, you and I are not thinking in English.

    根據這項理論,你和我都不是在用英語思考

  • Rather, we are thinking in the language of thought and translating that into our respective languages so that

    相反地,我們是透過思考語言 (心語) 思考,然後把想法轉換為

  • we can communicate with others.

    我們和彼此溝通的語言

  • So, if a totalitarian government came to power and started cutting out words like "freedom"

    所以,要是一個極權政府掌權了,並且開始剔除像是「自由」和「民主」這類詞彙

  • and "democracy", would we lose our ability to think about those concepts?

    我們也會喪失思考這些概念的能力嗎?

  • It's unlikely.

    不太可能

  • To the extent that me or you could still feel oppression, we would be able to think about

    因著你和我依然可以感到受壓迫,我們還是可以用思考語言 (心語)

  • oppression in our language of thought.

    思考「壓迫」這個概念

  • Thus, a new word would likely emerge so that we could communicate this abstract thought

    然後,一個新詞或許會誕生,我們就能夠和彼此溝通這個

  • that we are both thinking and feeling; thought comes first and language comes after.

    你我都在思想、感受的抽象想法;先有思想,才有語言

  • When you look at language from this perspective, I think there's something beautiful about

    當你從這個角度來審視語言時,我想所有語言中

  • all of them.

    都存在著美

  • In some sense, we can look at one language and see a reflection of the values and thoughts

    換句話說,我們看到一個語言,就是看到屬於那個文化的人們

  • that people in that culture share and based on the words

    所共有的價值觀和思想,藉由他們選擇創造的詞彙

  • that they have chosen to create.

    映證出來

If you can hear what I'm saying right now and understand me, you can probably speak

若是你能了解我現在說的話,你大概會說

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 語言 詞彙 思考 政黨 文化 思想

你能夠不用語言思考複雜的事情嗎?(Can You Think Complex Thoughts Without Language? | 1984 - George Orwell)

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    Samuel 發佈於 2018 年 06 月 14 日
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