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  • As a child growing up in Nigeria,

    譯者: Helen Chang 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

  • books sparked my earliest imagination,

    我在奈及利亞長大,

  • but films, films transported me

    書籍引發了我最早的想像;

  • to magical places with flying cars,

    但是電影,電影將我

  • to infinite space with whole universes of worlds to discover.

    帶到了有飛行汽車的神奇地方,

  • And my journey of discovery has led to many places and possibilities,

    去到能夠發現整個宇宙 無限空間的世界。

  • all linked with ideas and imagination.

    而我的發現之旅 帶來許多地方和可能性,

  • A decade and a half ago,

    都與想法和想像力相關。

  • I moved from working in law and technology in New York

    十年半前,

  • to financing, producing and distributing films

    我從紐約的法律和技術工作

  • in Nairobi, Lagos and Johannesburg.

    轉為籌資、製作和發行電影,

  • I've been privileged to see firsthand how in Africa,

    地點在奈洛比、拉哥斯和約翰尼斯堡。

  • film powerfully explores the marvelous and the mundane,

    我很榮幸能夠親眼目睹非洲的情況,

  • how it conveys infinite possibilities and fundamental truths.

    目睹電影有力地探索了 奇妙而平凡的世界,

  • Afrofuturist films like "Pumzi,"

    和它如何傳達 無限的可能和基本的真理。

  • Wanuri Kahiu's superb sci-fi flick,

    非洲的科幻電影,像 《Pumzi》,

  • paint brilliant pictures of Africa's future,

    是萬努里·卡希 (Wanuri Kahiu) 執導的精湛科幻電影,

  • while Rungano Nyoni's "I Am Not A Witch"

    描繪非洲未來的精彩畫面;

  • and Akin Omotoso's "Vaya"

    而倫加諾·尼奧尼(Rungano Nyoni) 執導的《你才女巫,你全家都女巫》,

  • show us and catalogue our present.

    和阿金-奧莫托索 (Akin Omotoso) 的《Vaya》,

  • These filmmakers offer nuanced snapshots of Africa's imagined and lived reality,

    向我們展示、編列了現在。

  • in contrast to some of the images of Africa that come from outside,

    這些電影製作者提供了非洲的 想像和生活現實的微妙快照,

  • and the perspectives that accompany all of these images,

    與來自外部的一些非洲圖像 形成鮮明的對比;

  • whether sympathetic or dismissive, shape or distort

    伴隨著所有圖像的觀點,

  • how people see Africa.

    無論是同情或是不屑,

  • And the truth is,

    形塑或扭曲了人們如何看待非洲。

  • many people think Africa is screwed up.

    事實是

  • Images play a big part of the reason why.

    很多人認為非洲被搞砸了。

  • Many tropes about Africa persist from pictures,

    很大的原因是非洲的圖像。

  • pictures of famine in Ethiopia 30 years ago,

    許多老圖片依然表達著 對非洲的觀點,

  • pictures of the Biafran war half a century ago.

    像是 30 年前伊索比亞的 一些飢荒照片,

  • But on a continent where the average age is 17,

    半個世紀前比亞夫蘭戰爭的圖片。

  • these tragic events seem almost prehistoric.

    但在平均年齡為 17 歲的 非洲大陸上,

  • Their images are far removed

    這些悲慘事件幾乎像是史前時期。

  • from how people in Africa's many countries see themselves and their neighbors.

    那些圖像與非洲許多國家的人們

  • For them, these images do not represent their reality.

    看待自己和鄰居的方式天差地遠。

  • So what is Africa's reality,

    對他們來說,這些圖像 不代表他們的現實。

  • or rather, which of Africa's many realities do we choose to focus on?

    那麼非洲的現實是什麼?

  • Do we accept Emmanuel Macron's imagination of Africa in 2017

    或者說,在那麼多的非洲現實中, 我們要選擇關注哪一個?

  • as a place in which all women have seven or eight children?

    我們是否接受(法國總統)馬克宏 對 2017 年非洲的想像──

  • Or do we instead rely on the UN's account

    非洲是個所有女人 都生七八個孩子的地方?

  • that only one of Africa's 54 countries has a fertility rate as high as seven?

    或者,我們信賴聯合國的報告,

  • Do we focus on the fact

    說非洲 54 個國家中 只有一個的生育率高達七個?

  • that infant mortality and life expectancy in Africa today

    我們是否專注於

  • is roughly comparable to the US a hundred years ago,

    今天非洲的嬰兒死亡率和預期壽命

  • or do we focus on progress,

    與一百年前的美國大致相當的事實;

  • the fact that Africa has cut infant mortality in half

    還是我們關注於進步,

  • in the last four decades

    在過去的四十年中,

  • and has raised life expectancy by 10 years since the year 2000?

    非洲已經將嬰兒的死亡率砍半,

  • These dueling perspectives

    相較於 2000 年, 還把平均餘命提高了 10 年?

  • are all accurate.

    這些互相比鬥的觀點都正確,

  • Well, aside from Macron's. He's just wrong.

    除了馬克宏的。他錯了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But one version makes it easy to dismiss Africa as hopeless,

    但一個版本容易視非洲為毫無希望,

  • while the other fuels hope that a billion people

    而另一個版本則賦予希望,

  • can continue to make progress towards prosperity.

    十億人能夠繼續繁榮發展。

  • The fact that Africans

    事實上非洲人

  • do not have the luxury of turning their gaze elsewhere,

    沒有把注意力轉向別處的奢望。

  • the fact that we must make progress

    我們必須取得進展,

  • or live with the consequence of failure,

    要不然就得接受失敗,

  • are the reason we must continue to tell our own stories

    這是我們必須繼續講述自己的故事

  • and show our own images,

    並展示自己的形象的原因,

  • with honesty and primarily to an African audience,

    誠實展示,主要針對非洲的觀眾,

  • because the image that matters most

    因為最重要的形象

  • is the image of Africa in African imaginations.

    是非洲在非洲人心目中的形象。

  • Now, honesty requires that we acknowledge

    現在,誠實要求我們承認

  • that Africa is behind the rest of the world

    非洲落後於世界其他地區,

  • and needs to move swiftly to catch up.

    需要迅速趕上。

  • But thinking of a way forward,

    但想著前進的方向,

  • I'd like us to engage in a thought exercise.

    我希望我們參與思考的過程。

  • What if we could go back a hundred years,

    假如我們可以回溯一百年,

  • say to the US in 1917,

    在 1917 年對美國說,

  • but we could take with us all the modern ideas,

    但是我們能帶著

  • innovations, inventions that we have today?

    我們今天所有的現代觀念、 創新和發明,會如何呢?

  • What could we achieve with this knowledge?

    我們能用這些知識做些什麼?

  • How richly could we improve quality of life and living conditions for people?

    我們能把人們的生活質量、 生活條件提到多高、多豐富呢?

  • How widely could we spread prosperity?

    我們可以在多大程度上推廣繁榮?

  • Imagine if a hundred years ago,

    想像如果一百年前,

  • the education system had all the knowledge we have today,

    教育系統有今天所有的知識,

  • including how best to teach.

    明白如何教得最好;

  • And doctors and scientists knew all we do

    醫生和科學家們

  • about public health measures, surgery techniques,

    知道所有現代的公共衛生措施、

  • DNA sequencing, cancer research and treatment?

    手術技巧、DNA 測序、

  • If we had access then to modern semiconductors,

    癌症的研究和治療,那會如何?

  • computers, mobile devices, the internet?

    如果當時我們能接觸到 現代的半導體、

  • Just imagine.

    電腦、移動設備、互聯網呢?

  • If we did, we could take a quantum leap forward, couldn't we.

    就只想像一下。

  • Well, Africa can take a leap of that magnitude today.

    如果那樣,我們能 向前邁進一大步,不是嗎?

  • There's enough untapped innovation

    今天的非洲可以大步地躍進,

  • to move Africa a century forward in living conditions

    有足夠多尚未開發的創新

  • if the will and commitment is there.

    可將非洲的生活條件 向前推進一個世紀,

  • This is not just a possibility; it's an imperative for Africa's future,

    如果我們下決心許諾,

  • a future that will see Africa's population double

    這不僅可能,且非洲未來勢在必行。

  • to two and a half billion people in just three decades,

    未來非洲人口將在短短三十年內

  • a future that will see Africa have the world's largest workforce,

    倍增至二十五億人;

  • just as the idea of work itself is being radically reconsidered.

    未來非洲將擁有世界最大的勞動力;

  • Now taking the leap forward isn't that far-fetched.

    就像工作理念本身 正被徹底重新思考一樣。

  • There are tons of examples that demonstrate the potential

    現在向前邁進並不是那麼遙不可及,

  • for change in Africa.

    有大量例子證明非洲變革的潛力。

  • Just 20 years ago,

    僅僅 20 年前,

  • Nigeria had fewer than half a million working phone lines.

    奈及利亞可用的電話線 不到五十萬條,

  • Today it has a hundred million mobile phone subscriptions,

    今天有一億名手機用戶。

  • and this mobile miracle is mirrored in every African country.

    而這個移動的奇蹟 反映在每個非洲國家,

  • There are over three quarters of a billion mobile phones in use in Africa today,

    今天在非洲使用的手機 超過七億五千萬支,

  • and this has spurred justified excitement about leapfrogging,

    對飛躍式發展振奮是合理的,

  • about bringing the sharing economy, artificial intelligence,

    把共享經濟、人工智能、

  • autonomous machines to Africa.

    自動化機器帶到非洲發展。

  • And this is all promising,

    這一切都很有希望,

  • but we need to think about sequencing.

    但我們需要考慮次序。

  • Forget putting the cart before the horse.

    不能把馬車放在馬的前面。

  • You can't put the self-driving car before the roads.

    你不能沒有道路 就要發展自動駕駛汽車。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • There's a whole infrastructural and logical layer to innovation

    整個基礎設施和邏輯層面的創新

  • that we take for granted,

    我們視為理所當然;

  • but we have to triage for Africa,

    但我們必須依照 對非洲的緊要程度來分配,

  • because some of the biggest infrastructure gaps

    因為有些大型基礎設施的欠缺

  • are for things that are so basic

    非常的基本,

  • that Westerners rarely have to think about them.

    以至西方人幾乎用不著考慮它們。

  • So let's explore this.

    讓我們來探討一下。

  • Imagine your internet access went off for a day,

    想像你的互聯網斷線了一天,

  • and when it came back,

    當它恢復時,

  • it only stayed on for three hours at a time,

    每回只能上線三個小時,

  • with random 15-hour outages?

    又隨機中斷 15 個小時,會怎樣?

  • How would your life change?

    你的生活將如何改變?

  • Now replace internet access with electricity.

    互聯網擱一邊,現在思考供電,

  • Think of your fridges, your TVs, your microwaves,

    想想你的冰箱、電視、微波爐

  • just sitting idly for days.

    幾天不能用;

  • Now extend this nightmare to government offices,

    再把這個噩夢延伸到政府辦公室、

  • to businesses, to schools,

    企業、學校、

  • to hospitals.

    醫院。

  • This, or worse,

    這種狀況或者更糟的情況,

  • is the type of access that hundreds of millions of Africans

    是數億的非洲人

  • have to electricity,

    沒電、

  • and to water,

    沒水、

  • and to healthcare,

    沒醫療保健、

  • and to sanitation,

    沒衛生設施、

  • and to education.

    沒教育。

  • We must fix this.

    我們必須解決此問題。

  • We must fix this because ensuring widespread and affordable access

    我們必須解決此問題,

  • to decent infrastructure and services

    因為確保能夠獲取廣泛、負擔得起、

  • isn't just low-hanging fruit:

    像樣的基礎設施和服務,

  • it's fundamental to achieving the hundred-year leap.

    不僅是低垂的果實, (註:可輕易實現的目標)

  • And when we fix it,

    而且是實現百年飛躍的基礎。

  • we might find some unexpected benefits.

    解決它時,

  • One unexpected benefit of the mobile miracle

    我們可能會發現 一些意想不到的好處。

  • was that it led to what is perhaps the greatest cultural resurgence

    一個移動奇蹟意想不到的好處

  • that Africa has seen in a generation:

    是它導致非洲這一代人

  • the rebirth of African popular music.

    看到最偉大的文化復興:

  • For musicians like P-Square,

    非洲流行音樂的重生。

  • Bongo Maffin

    對於像 P-Square、

  • and Wizkid,

    邦戈馬芬 (Bongo Maffin)

  • mobile phones paved the path to local dominance

    和 Wizkid 這樣的音樂人來說,

  • and global stardom.

    手機為他們鋪平了稱霸當地

  • And the impact isn't limited just to music.

    和全球出名的道路。

  • It extends to film, too.

    影響不僅限於音樂,

  • Beautiful, engaging films

    也延伸到電影。

  • like these stills of "Pumzi,"

    美麗、迷人的電影,

  • "Vaya," and "I Am Not A Witch" show.

    像《Pumzi》、

  • For while its external image might be dated,

    《Vaya》和《你才女巫,你全家都女巫》。

  • Africa continues to evolve, as does African film.

    儘管非洲的外部形象可能過時,

  • Now, every now and again, the rest of the world catches on,

    但非洲仍在繼續演變, 非洲的電影也是。

  • perhaps with Djo Munga's hard-hitting "Viva Riva!"

    每隔一段時間, 世界其他各地追趕上來,

  • with Newton Aduaka's intense "Ezra,"

    也許是道·格蒙加 (Djo Munga) 的強片 《Viva Riva!》,

  • or with Abderrahmane Sissako's poetic "Timbuktu."

    牛頓·阿杜卡 (Newton Aduaka) 的 戰爭片 《Ezra》,

  • With mobile, Africans are discovering more and more of these films,

    或阿伯德拉馬納·希薩柯 (Abderrahmane Sissako) 詩意的《Timbuktu》。

  • and what that means is that it really matters less in Kinshasa or Cotonou

    有了手機,非洲人越來越看得到 這些電影,也就意味著

  • what Cannes thinks of African film,

    對於住在金夏沙或柯多努的人而言, (註:剛果的首都和貝南的大城)

  • or if those opinions are informed or fair.

    坎城影展對非洲電影的看法,