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  • Wanna speak real English from your first lesson?

    想要在第一堂英文課後,就能說出一口流利的英文嗎?

  • Sign up for your free lifetime account at EnglishClass101.com.

    可以到 EnglishClass101.com 註冊終身免費會員。

  • Hi, everybody! My name is Alisha.

    嗨,大家好!我是 Alisha。

  • Welcome back to our EnglishClass Channel. Today we're gonna be talking about the

    歡迎回到 YouTube 的 EnglishClass101.com 頻道。今天我們要來討論

  • difference between "by" and "until." So let's get started!

    「by」和「until」的不同。我們一起來看看吧!

  • Okay, so first we're gonna talk about "by." "By" marks a deadline for an action to finish.

    首先我們要來討論的是「by」。「By」指的是一個動作該完成的期限。

  • "By" marks the point where an action completes or is replaced by another

    「By」指的是一個時間點,一個該完成的動作,或是被另一個動作

  • action, so really think about using "by" to express a deadline; something is going to

    取代的,所以就只要想「by」是用來表示一個期限;某件事情該

  • stop, or you must finish an action at this point in time. So we can think about

    結束,或是你們必須在這時刻完成這一個行動。我們也可以想

  • "by" as marking some point in the future. So "by" mark some point in the future

    「by」是在未來的一個時間期限。所以用「by」表示未來的

  • where an action is going to finish, an action is going to be completed.

    一個動作將結束,一個動作將被完成。

  • So in an example sentence I have, I'll be at the office by 7 pm.

    我這邊有一個例句:我下午七點 (by) 的時候會在辦公室。

  • So in this sentence, the

    在這個句子中,這個

  • speaker is not at the office, but 7 pm is the deadline, this is the point in

    說話者現在不在辦公室,但下午七點是期限,這個時間點是

  • time at which the speaker will be at the office. The speaker is not at the office now,

    說話者會在辦公室的時候。所以說話者現在不在辦公室,

  • but by 7 pm, by the 7 pm deadline, the speaker will be at the office.

    但在下午七點前是最後期限,說話者將會在下午七點的時候在辦公室。

  • This "will" shows us this is a future tense expression, and "by" shows us the deadline,

    這個「will」讓我們知道是未來式,而「by」讓我們知道時間期限,

  • the point at which that expression or the point at which that action is going

    這個時間點指出那個情況或是動作將

  • to be completed. So this is how we use "by," to think about it like a deadline at

    會被完成。所以這就是如何用「by」的方式,它的意思就像是某個

  • some point in time at which an action will be completed or finished.

    時間點的期限,而在那期限裡有個動作將被完成或是結束。

  • Okay, so let's continue on to the other grammar point for today, which is "until."

    我們再來看看今天的下一個文法:「until」。

  • "Until" also has a more casual form, we can use "till" or " 'til". You might

    「Util」也有另一個較隨性的用法,可以用「till」或是「till」來表示。你們可能

  • see both spellings used for "until," till or 'til. In most cases, it's good to use "until."

    都有看過「till」或是「til」用來表示「until」這個字。在許多情況下,用「until」還是比較好。

  • In casual speaking and maybe in casual writing, you can use the casual form, but

    在隨興的談話或是平常的書信中,你們可以用較隨性的字,但

  • "until" is always polite and is always correct. Okay, so when we use "until," let's

    「until」還是較為禮貌又正確的字。但我們哪時候可以用「until」呢?我們

  • talk about when to use "until." We use "until" to talk about a continuing

    來看看哪時候要用「until」。我們會用「until」來表示一個持續的

  • situation or a continuing state now in the present or in the future, but it's

    情形、一個現在持續的狀態、或是持續到未來情形,但這件事

  • going to change or stop, so the key difference, one key difference here,

    可能會有所改變或是結束,所以這邊有一個主要不同的地方:

  • perhaps, is a continuing situation, a continuing state. With "by," the nuance is a

    就是一個持續的情況、狀態。用「by」時,指的就是

  • deadline something is going to finish at a deadline; here, however, "until" gives us

    某件事情即將要完成的期限;不過「until」給我們的感覺是

  • the nuance of something that's continuing, something true now, for

    一件事情持續地一直存在著,

  • example, but that may not be true in the future. "Until" marks the point where that

    不過可能在未來會有所變化。「Until」指的是一個

  • action or that state is going to finish or change.

    動作或是狀況將會結束或是變化。

  • Okay, so we can think of it rather than as a deadline, as a key point in the

    所以我們知道 until 指的不是期限,它主要指的是在

  • future, somewhere where action A continues until a point where we use

    未來的某一個動作,持續到某個時間點,我們就可以用

  • "until," and then a second action begins. Something is going to change at the

    「until」,然後接上另一個動作。某件事情將會在「until」之後的時間

  • "until" point. With "by," however, we don't have the nuance of an action changing, we

    點改變。而對「by」而言,我們不會有一個動作的改變,我們

  • only have the nuance of a deadline, so here "until" is used to show that

    就只能用它代表一個時間期限,所以這邊的「until」就是用來表來

  • something different is going to happen, or something will finish but

    某件不同的事情將要發生、或是完成,但

  • there's going to be a change after the the "until" point. So, for example, this sentence,

    在「until」這個字後面,將會有個改變。就像是這個例句,

  • very similar to the "by" example sentence, is: I'll be at the office until 7 pm.

    非常類似「by」的例句:我會在辦公室一直待到 (until) 下午七點。

  • So here we have the future tense, I'll, I will, I'll be at the office until 7 pm.

    這邊我們有個未來式:I will。我會在辦公室一直待到 (until) 下午七點

  • This sentence shows us the speaker is at the office right now,

    這個句子指出這個說話者現在就在辦公室中,

  • however, at 7 pm, "until" shows us that 7 pm is the point at which the

    不過在下午七點,「until」讓我們知道,下午七點是一個時間點,

  • situation or this state is going to change, so at 7 pm, the speaker is

    情況或是狀況將會改變。所以在下午七點之後,說話者將

  • probably going to leave the office. "Until" shows us that right here, the action or

    可能會離開辦公室。「Until」指出在下午七點的時候,這個動作或是

  • the state is going to change, so please keep that in mind.

    情況將會有所改變,所以請記得這件事情。

  • "Until" shows you a change in something; "by" shows more of a deadline for an action that is continuing.

    「Until」指出某件事將會有所改變;「by」指的則是一個持續動作的期限。

  • So I hope that we can practice this in a few example sentences now. Okay!

    我希望我們現在可以來練習幾個例句。

  • So let's try to choose the correct word to use in these example sentences.

    在這幾個例句中,我們試著來選出一個正確的字。

  • Should we use "by" or should we use "until" in these cases? So the first one I have is:

    在這些例句中,我們應該要用「by」還是「until」呢?我的第一個例句是:

  • He has to find a new job ____ March.

    他必須要找到一個新工作 ______ 三月。

  • So in this case, we see a point in time, we can think about it, should we use "by" or "until" here? If we use "by,"

    這例句中,我們看到一個時間點,我們可以自己推測一下,這邊應該要用「by」還是「until」呢?如果我們用「by」,

  • we see that the deadline, the deadline nuance, matches here.

    我們知道這是一個期限,期限的不同,就是要用這個 by 。

  • He has to find a new job by March.

    他要在三月之前 (by) 找到一個新工作。

  • If we use "until," he has to find a new job until March, there's no

    如果我們用「until」,他必須要持續找一份新工作一直 (until) 到三月,這

  • information in this sentence that shows us a hint or that gives us a hint about

    個句子沒有給我們任何該選擇 until 的線索,或是讓我們可以推測

  • how the action is going to change. "Until" does not make sense for this question, so

    這個動作將會有什麼樣的變化。放「Until」在這句中並不構成句意,所以

  • we should use "by" in this case. He has to find a new job by March is the correct

    我們這例句用「by」。這才是正確的句子:他要在三月之前 (by) 找

  • answer for this sentence. In the second sentence,

    到一個新工作。第二個例句:

  • I'm not going to go to bed ____ I finish this movie.

    我還沒要去睡覺 _____ 我看完這部電影。

  • So in this sentence, we have, at the end, I finish this movie,

    這句的最後我們有:我看完這部電影,

  • so there's some action, maybe that's continuing here, and we have

    所以這裡有一個動作,可能是一個持續的動作,而這邊我們

  • another action. I'm not going to go to bed, in this case, it's a negative, so

    還有另一個動作。我還沒要去睡覺,這是一個否定句。所以

  • there are two actions here, this is a pretty good hint that there's an action

    這邊有兩個動作,這是一個很好的線索,有一個動作

  • that's going to change at some point instead of the nuance of a deadline. So

    將在某個時間點改變,而不是一個時間的期限。所以

  • for the sentence, "until" is the best answer.

    這句用「until」才是最好的答案。

  • I'm not going to go to bed until I finish this movie.

    我會看完 (until) 電影之後才會上床睡覺。

  • This shows us that at this point, the point where I finish the movie, I'm

    這讓我們知道看完電影的這個時間點後,我

  • going to go to bed. This marks the change in the continuing

    將會去睡覺。指出一個持續

  • state or the continuing situation. So the next sentence is:

    狀態或是情況之後的一個改變。下一個例句是:

  • They need to write their reports _____ tomorrow.

    他們需要寫報告 _______ 明天。

  • So this sentence, there's no change in the

    這個例句裡,沒有一個將會改變的

  • sentence, we don't have any hints about some kind of different action that's

    動作,我們不知道下一個將會有什麼樣的

  • going to happen, instead we have maybe what seems to be a deadline, some

    動作發生,而在這邊我們反而看到一個類似時間的期限,一個

  • requirement here, too. So if we try to use "until" it doesn't make sense, there's no

    要求。如果我們試著用「until」,也不合理,這句子中沒有

  • changing action, we can't guess about what might happen in the future or a

    下一個將會有所改變的動作,我們也無法猜測未來可能會發生什麼事情或是

  • change that might happen. So "by" is the best answer here.

    可能會發生的變化。所以「by」才是正確答案。

  • They need to write their reports by tomorrow.

    他們要在明天之前 (by) 完成他們的報告。

  • Tomorrow is the deadline.

    Tomorrow 明天就是一個時間的期限。

  • So we can guess that tomorrow is the deadline here, "by" shows us that it's the deadline in this case

    我們就可以猜測明天就是一個期限,「by」讓我們知道這個任務

  • for this task. Alright! Let's take a look at something a little bit different. Here we have,

    的期限。好!我們再看看其它有點不同的例句:

  • We can't leave the house ____ your mother calls.

    我們不可以出門 _______ 你媽媽打電話。

  • So again there are two situations, there are two actions involved in this sentence.

    這個句子中有兩個情況以及兩個動作:

  • We have "leave the house" and "your mother calls" (makes a phone call). So because there are two

    「出門」和「你媽媽來電 (打電話)」。因為這邊有

  • actions here, we can guess that there's some change that's going to happen, so

    兩個動作,我們可以推測事情將會有些改變,所以

  • because we learned that "until" marks a change in actions, we know that "until" is

    我們學到「until」指的就是動作的改變,這邊我們知道「until」就是

  • the better answer here. Okay.

    正確的答案。

  • We can't leave the house until your mother calls

    在你媽媽打來之前 (until) ,我們都不行出門,

  • would be the correct sentence here. Alright! So let's look at the next

    就是正確的句子。好!我們再來看下一個

  • sentence though, this one is a tricky sentence, this one is a little bit difficult, we have:

    例句,這一句有點難搞複雜:

  • I'm not going to be there ____ 8 pm.

    我還沒到那裡 _____ 下午八點。

  • So here we have 8 pm at the end of a sentence, which looks like a deadline, right?

    句子的最後我們有下午八點,看起來有點像是期限,對吧?

  • We have going to be there.

    我們將要到那邊。

  • So should we use "by" or "until" for this sentence?

    所以這句子我們應該要用「by」還是「until」呢?

  • It's difficult because, actually, both are okay for this sentence.

    這有點難,因為兩個 by 和 until 其實都可以。

  • I'm not going to be there by 8 pm is correct, and

    我下午八點 (by) 的時候不會在那邊是正確的句子,以及

  • I'm not going to be there until 8 pm is also correct.

    我不會在那邊一直 (until) 待到下午八點也是正確的句子。

  • However, the meanings are very different. Just as we practiced in these two

    不過兩個句子的意思非常不一樣。就像我們之前練習過的這兩個

  • sentences, I'll be at the office until, I'll be at the office by 7 pm,

    句子:我會一直在辦公室,我下午七點的時候會在辦公室,

  • the same is true here.

    就像是這邊這兩句一樣。

  • I'm not going to be there by 8 pm

    我下午八點 (by) 的時候不會在那邊,

  • means I'm not going to be there at 8 pm, it's not possible for me, I can't go.

    意思就是在下午八點的時候,我還不會在那邊,那是不可能的,我不會去。

  • However, I'm not going to be there until 8 pm, this sentence means,

    另一個,我不會在這邊一直 (until) 待到下午八點,這句指的是

  • after 8 pm, or beginning at 8 pm and after, I'm going to be there. So please, be careful.

    在下午八點後或是在下午八點時或之後,我會到那邊。所以請記得,要小心這種情況。

  • In some cases, both "by" and "until" are correct but they change the meaning

    在某些情況下,「by」和「until」都會是正確的用法,但句子會因而有

  • of the sentence. Okay, let's continue to another example.

    不同的意思。讓我們再繼續看下一個例句。

  • So the next example sentence is also a little bit difficult, it's:

    下一個例句也是有點難:

  • If my date doesn't arrive ____ 7 pm, I'm leaving.

    如果我的約會對象沒到 _____ 下午七點,我會離開。

  • Okay, so here, we have, we do have two actions, "doesn't arrive," my date doesn't arrive, a

    這句我們有兩著動作:「沒到」,我的約會對象未到,一

  • negative point, and "I'm leaving." So it seems like there are two actions here.

    個否定字,另一個動作「我將離開」。所以這一句有兩個動作。

  • However, we have this 7 pm, this marks a deadline, right? So if my date doesn't

    不過這邊我們有下午七點,一個時間期限,對吧?所以如果我的約會對象還沒

  • arrive, there's some deadline here, if this is not completed, something is going

    到,下午七點是一個期限,如果我的約會對象還沒到的話,某件事情將

  • to happen, the person is going to leave. So in this case, 7 pm is showing a

    會發生,這個人將會離開。所以在這個例句,下午七點就是一個

  • deadline, so we have to use "by."

    時間期限,所以我們可以用「by」。

  • If my date doesn't arrive until 7 pm.

    如果我的約會對象一直 (until) 到下午七點都沒還到。

  • We could use that, but it doesn't sound so natural, so the nuance, again,

    我們也是可以用 until 這個字,但只是聽起來會有點不口語,

  • here is of a deadline, there's something that is going to happen at 7 pm.

    這邊有個期限,而有件事情將會在下午七點發生。

  • 7 pm marks the endpoint in this situation, so we use "by" here.

    在這個情況下,下午七點指的是一個最後的時間點,所以我們用「by」。

  • Okay, let's go to the next pair, again, these are very interesting points.

    我們來看看下面兩個字都可以用的例句,這也是很有趣的點。

  • We have to leave the beach ____ 10 am. And, we have to stay at the beach ____ 10 am.

    我們必須要離開沙灘 ______ 早上十點。另一個:我們必須待在沙灘 _____ 早上十點。

  • Okay, so these two sentences, I included because I

    我選擇這兩個例句,是因為我

  • wanted to show the emphasis of changing actions and continuing actions, so we can

    想要讓你們看到動作的改變以及持續性的動作,我們

  • see the verbs are different here. In the first sentence, we have "leave" so this is

    可以看到這邊有兩個不同的動詞。第一個例句,我們有「離開」所以這是

  • a change, leaving a location; in the second sentence, I have "stay" which shows

    一個改變,離開一個場合;而第二個例句,我必須「待」指的是

  • a continuing action, stay in one place. So here, as you can guess then,

    一個持續性的動作,待在一個地方。所以說到這邊,你們就可以猜測:

  • We have to leave the beach ____ 10 am.

    我們必須離開沙灘 _____ 早上十點。

  • Some change, some deadline, so we'll use "by" to show our deadline.

    一些改變,一個期限,我們會用「by」來表示一個時間的期限。

  • In the second sentence, we have to stay at the beach, stay shows a continuing action,

    第二個例句,我們必須待在沙灘, stay 待指的是一個持續的動作,

  • and then it's going to finish here, so we'll use "until."

    而這個動作將會這結束,所以我們用「until」。

  • We have to stay at the beach until 10 am.

    我們必須一直待在沙灘直到 (until) 早上十點。

  • This shows us a continuing action, and maybe at 10 am we'll leave the beach.

    這句讓我們看到一個持續的動作,並且或許我們會在早上十點離開沙灘。

  • Alright! Let's go on to the next sentence.

    好!讓我們繼續看到下一個例句:

  • I'm not going to travel abroad ____ I learn English.

    我沒有要到國外旅遊 _______ 我學習英文。

  • Okay, so here there's no time point, there's no 10 am, 8 pm, tomorrow, and so on, so this is a

    這一句沒有時間點,沒有早上十點、下午八點、明天之類的時間點,所以這可能是一

  • little more complex, maybe. We have "travel abroad" and "learn English," so it seems

    個更加複雜的句子。我們看到「國外旅遊」和「學習英文」,所以這邊看起來似乎

  • there's no real deadline here, but we have, maybe, a change, maybe this shows us

    沒有期限,但我們可能可以猜測

  • some kind of change. Learning English marks a change.

    這是一種改變。學習英文可以是一個改變。

  • So, I'm not going to travel abroad until I learn English.

    在我學好 (until) 英文之後,我才會到國外旅遊。

  • This shows us that something different is going to happen in the future, so we should use "until" to

    這句指出有一件不一樣的事情將會在未來發生,所以我們要用「until」

  • mark that change. Okay, our last example sentence for today is,

    來強調一個改變。好了,今天的最後一個例句:

  • We told him to wake up ____ 6 am.

    我們已經叫他起床 _____ 早上六點。

  • So, once more, our last sentence may be a little bit simple, but 6 am shows us an action, sort of this

    最後的這個例句好像有點簡單,但早上六點指出一個動作,一個

  • deadline, you can see a lot of these use a time to mark a deadline for an action.

    期限,你們可以發現有很多的句子都會用到一個動作的期限。

  • So here, we told him to wake up by 6 am.

    所以這句會是:我們在早上六點 (by) 的時候就叫他起床了。

  • This is the point at which something

    這個時間點時,某事情

  • must happen, so we should use "by" here.

    一定會發生,所以我們就該用「by」。

  • Ok! Great! So those are a few examples sentences that you can have a look at and think about

    很好!所以這邊幾個例句,你們可以看一下並且思考一下

  • when you're trying to decide whether to use "by" or "until." Keep in mind, however, there are some cases

    你們應該要用「by」還是「until」。記得這些用法。不過還是有些狀況,

  • where both "by" or "until" are correct, but the meaning is going to change

    就是有時用「by」和「until」都會是正確的,但句子的意思會因此大大

  • significantly depending on the one you use. So I hope this lesson was useful for

    的有所不同。所以我希望這堂課對你們是

  • you, if you have any questions or if you want to try to make an example sentence

    有益的,如果你們有任何問題,或是你們想要試著造幾個「by」和「until」

  • using"by" or "until," please be sure to leave us a comment.

    的例句,請記得在下方留言處留言給我們!

  • If you liked this video, too, please be sure to hit the thumbs up and subscribe to our channel if you haven't already.

    如果你們也喜歡這個影片,請記得點個讚,而且如果你們還沒訂閱我們的頻道的話,請記得訂閱哦。

  • Thanks very much for watching this episode, and we will see you again soon. Bye!

    非常謝謝你們收看這一集,我們很快地下次再與你們見面,拜!

Wanna speak real English from your first lesson?

想要在第一堂英文課後,就能說出一口流利的英文嗎?

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 美國腔 期限 例句 動作 句子 改變 辦公室

by 和 until 之間的用法差異 (Difference between “By” and “Until” - Learn English Grammar)

  • 199 28
    Samuel 發佈於 2018 年 04 月 10 日
影片單字